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Full text of "The National geographic magazine"

Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries 




Given in memory of 

Elisha Hanson 

by 

Letitia Armistead Hanson 



/ 

/TJ17 



THE 



NATIONAL 



GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



VOLUME II, 1890 




WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



1891 



NOV 5 1981 

LIBRARIES. 



OFFICERS OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



GARDINER G. HUBBARD. President 

HERBERT G. OGDEN 

EVERETT HAYDEN 

A. W. GREELY [ Vice-Presidents 

C. HART MERRIAM 

A. H. THOMPSON J 

CHARLES J. BELL, Treasurer 

HENRY GANNETT \ 8ecretaries 

O. H. TITTMANN i 

CLEVELAND ABBE 1 

MARCUS BAKER 

ROGERS BIRNIE, Je. 

G. BROWN GOODE 

WILLARD D. JOHNSON {Managers 

C. A. KENASTON 

W. B. POWELL 

JAMES C. WELLING 



PRINTERS 
TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE & TAYLOR, 

New Haven, Conn. (ii) 



CONTENTS. 



Vol. I. No. 1. 

Page 

Announcement, ........ i 

Introductory address by the President. Gardiner G. Hubbard, 3 

Geographic Methods in Geologic Investigation. Wm. M. Davis, . 11 

Classification of Geographic Forms by Genesis. W J McGee, . 27 

The Great Storm of March 11 to 14, 1888. A. W. Greely, . . 37 

Everett Hayden, . ..... 40 

The Survey of the Coast. Herbert G. Ogden, . . . • 59 

The Survey and Map of Massachusetts. Henry Gannett, . 78 

Proceedings of the National Geographic Society, . . .87 
National Geographic Society : 

Certificate of Incorporation, . . . .89 

By-laws, ....... 90 

List of Officers, 1888, . . ... .93 

List of Members, ...... 94 



Vol. I. No. 2. 

Annual Address by the President : 

Africa, its Past and Future. Gardiner G. Hubbard, . 99 
Reports of the Vice-Presidents : 

Geography of the Land. Herbert G. Ogden, . . 125 

Geography of the Sea. George L. Dyer, Hydrographer, 

U. S. N., 136 

Geography of the Air. A. W. Greely, Chief Signal Offi- 
cer, U.S.A., 151 

Geography of Life. C. Hart Merriam, . . .160 

Annual Report of the Treasurer, . . . . . 163 

Report of Auditing Committee, ..... 163 

Annual Report of the Secretaries, ..... 164 

Certificate of Incorporation, ...... 167 

Officers for 1889, . . . . . . . 168 

By-Laws, 169 

Members of the Society, . . . . . 172 
April 1889. 



iv National Geographic Magazine. 



Vol. I. No. 3. 

The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania. William Morris Davis, 183 

(Illustrated by one map and twenty-five cuts.) 
Topographic Models. Cosmos Mindeleff, . . • . 254 

(Illustrated by two plates.) 
National Geographic Society— Abstract of Minutes, . . 269 

International Literary Contest to be held at Madrid, Spain, . 273 

July 1889. 



Vol. I. No. 4 

Irrigation in California. Wm. Hammond Hall, State Engineer of 

California. ........ 277 

Round about Asheville. Bailey Willis, .... 291 

(Illustrated by one Map and Profile.) 
A Trip to Panama and Darien. Richard U. Goode, . . . 301 

(Illustrated by one Map and Profile.) 
Across Nicaragua with Transit and Machete. R. E. Peary, Civil 

Engineer, U. S. N., . . . . . . .315 

(Illustrated by one Map and three Views.) 
October 1889. 

(Volume I comprises pp. i-ii, 3-181, 183-335, with sixteen plates.) 



Contents. 



Vol. II. No. 1. 

On the Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude by the Bureau of 

Navigation. Lieut. J. A. Norris, U. S. N., . . • 1 
Reports of the Vice-Presidents : 

Geography of the Land. Herbert G. Ogden, . . 31 
Geography of the Air. A. W. Greely, Chief Signal Offi- 
cer, U. S. A., 49 

Annual Report of the Treasurer. ..... 64 

Report of Auditing Committee, . . . . • .65 

Annual Report of the Secretary, ..... 66 

National Geographic Society : 

Abstract of Minutes, ...... 67 

Officers for 1890, 69 

Members of the Society, . . . • .70 

April 1890. 



Vol. II. No. 2. 

The Rivers of Northern New Jersey, with notes on the classifica- 
tion of rivers in general. William Morris Davis, . . 81 
(With seven illustrations.) 
A Critical Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30, together 
with a translation of his original Report upon it. Dr. Win. H. 

Doll, Ill 

(Illustrated by one Map.) 
Supplementary note on the alleged observation of a Lunar Eclipse 

by Bering in 1728-9. Marcus Baker, . . . .167 

May 1890. 



Vol. II. No. 3. 

The Arctic Cruise of the U. S. S. Thetis in the Summer and Autumn 

of 1889. Lieut. Comdr. Chas. H. Stockton, U. S. N., . . 171 

(Illustrated with view of Herald Island and one map.) 
The Law of Storms, considered with special reference to the North 

Atlantic. Everett Hayden, Marine Meteorologist, Navy Dept., 199 
(One View and seven Illustrations.) 
The Irrigation Problem in Montana. H. M. Wilson, . . 212 



vi National Geographic Magazine. 



Vol. II.- No. 4. 

Korea and the Koreans. Ensign J. B. Bernadou, U. S. N., . 231 

(Illustrated with three maps.) 
The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain — its history and object. 

Josiah Pierce, Jr., .... . . 243 

Geographic Nomenclature. Herbert G. Ogden, Gustave Herrle, 

Marcus Baker and A. H. Thompson, .... 261 

Appendix : Rules for the Orthography of Geographic Names : 
Contributed by G. Herrle. 

British System, . . . . . .279 

French System, ...... 281 

German System, ...... 282 

Alphabets : Russian-English, .... 284 

English-Russian, .... 285 

August 1890. 



Vol. II. No. 5. 

Announcement, . . . . . . 287 

Proceedings of the National Geographic Society, . . . 290 

National Geographic Society : 

Report of the Secretaries, ... . . 296 

Report of the Treasurer, ..... 299 

Report of the Auditing Committee, . . . 301 

Summary of Reports on the Mt. St. Elias Expedition, . 302 

By-Laws, . . . . . . 305 

Standing Rules of the Board of Managers, . . 308 

Rules relating to Publication, . . . . 311 

Officers of the Society, ..... 315 

Members of the Society, . . . . . 316 

Index to Volumes I and II, . . . . . . 335 

Title-page for Volume I, . . . . . . i 

Title-page for Volume II, ...... i 

List of Contents of Volumes I and II, . . . . iii 

List of Illustrations in Volumes I and II, . . . . vii 

April 1891. 

{Volume II comprises pp. i-viii, 1-169, 171-229, 231-285, 287-339, with ten 
plates, and pp. i-ii for Volume I. ) . 



Illustrations. ^ vii 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 
VOLUME I. 

PLATES. 

Weather Chart— March 11 58 

Weather Chart— March 12 58 

Weather Chart— March 13 58 

Weather Chart— March 14 58 

Track Chart— March 11-14 58 

Barometer Diagram — March 11-14 58 

Appropriation of Africa by Europeans 124 

Hachured and Contoured Maps 268 

Relief Map of North America 268 

Topographic Map and Section 300 

Profile of the Panama Canal 314 

Panama Railroad, Panama Canal, etc. 314 

Entrance to Highlands — River San Juan 315 

Leon Cathedral . . 318 

Upper Castillo — River San Juan 326 

The Nicaragua Canal 336 

FIGURES. 

Figure 1 — Part of Topographic Map of Pennsly vania. - 188 

Figure 2 196 

Figure 3 196 

Figure 4 . 199 

Figure 5 200 

Figure 6 201 

Figure 7 201 

Figure 8 202 

Figure 9 208 

Figure 10 208 

Figure 11 209 

Figure 12 209 

Figure 13 209 

Figure 14 .... 210 

Figure 15.. 210 

Figure 16 : 211 

Figure 17 211 

Figure 18 211 

Figure 19 215 

Figure 20 215 

Figure 21 . 223 

Figure 22 228 

Figure 23 228 

Figure 24 228 

Figure 25 233 

Figure 26 249 



viii National Geographic Magazine. 

VOLUME II. 

PLATES. 

Bering's Chart of his First Voyage 111 

The Arctic Cruise of the U. S. S. "Thetis"..-- , 171 

Heraldlsland 194 

West Indian Hurricanes 210 

The Hurricane of November 25, 1888 210 

The St. Thomas-Hatteras Hurricane of September 3-12, 1889 210 

Hurricanes in the North Atlantic '. 210 

Korea > 

Province of Kyong-Sang-Do \ 

Sketch-Map of Korea 242 

FIGURES. 

Figure 1 87 

Figure 2 93 

Figure 3 94 

Figure 4 - . 95 

Figure 5 .. - - - 95 

Figure 6 96 

Figure 7 - - - . - - 96 

A Ship in the heart of a Cyclone 202 

The Cuban Hurricane of September, 1888 208 

Sketch of a Hurricane 210 

Sketch of a Hurricane . . 1 210 



Vol. II. 



No. 1. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE. 




PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Price 50 cents. 



CONTENTS 



Page 
On the Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude by the Bureau 

of Navigation : Lieut. J. A. Norris, U. S. N 1 

Reports of the Vice-Presidents : 

Geography of the Land : Herbert G. Ogden . . . .31 

Geography of the Air : A. W. Greely, Chief Signal Officer, 

U. S. A 49 

Annual Report of the Treasurer 64 

Report of Auditing Committee 65 

Annual Report of the Secretary 66 

National Geographic Society: 

Abstracts of Minutes . . . 67 

Officers for 1890, 69 

Members of the Society 

Published April, 1890. 



PRESS OF TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE & TAYLOR, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



Vol. II. 1890. No. 1 



ON THE TELEGRAPHIC DETERMINATIONS OF LON- 
GITUDE BY THE BUREAU OF NAVIGATION. 

By Lieut. J. A. Norms, U. S. N. 

The following definitions are given by Chauvenet in Lis Spher- 
ical and Pi'actical Astronomy. 

" The longitude of a point on the earth's surface is the angle at 
the Pole included between the meridian of that point and some 
assumed first meridian. The difference of longitude between any 
two points is the angle included between their meridians." To 
describe the practical methods of obtaining this difference or 
angle, by means of the electric telegraph both overland and sub- 
marine, and especially those employed by the expeditions sent out 
by the Navy department, is the object of this paper. 

Before the invention of the telegraph various methods more or 
less accurate in their results were employed, and are still in use 
where the telegraph is not available. The one most used and 
giving the best results was that in which a number of chronom- 
eters were transported back and forth between two places the 
difference of whose longitudes was required. "For," as the 
author quoted above says, "the determination of an absolute 
longitude from the first meridian or of a difference of longitude 
in general, resolves itself into the determination of the difference 
vol. ii. 1; 



2 National Geographic Magazine. 

of the time reckoned at the two meridians at the same absolute 
instant." If a chronometer he regulated to the time at any place 
A, and then transported to a second place B, and the local time 
at B, he determined at any instant, and at that instant the time 
at A, as shown by the chronometer is noted, the difference of the 
times is at once known, and that is the difference of longitude 
required. The principal objection to this plan is that the best 
chronometers vary. If the variations were constant and regular, 
and the chronometer always gained or lost a fixed amount for the 
same interval of time, this objection would disappear. But the 
variation is not constant, the rate of gain or loss, even in the 
best instruments, changes from time to time from various causes. 
Some of these causes may be discovered and allowed for in a 
measure, others are accidental and unknown. Of the former 
class are variations due to changes of temperature. At the Naval 
Observatory, chronometers are rated at different temperatures, 
and the changes due thereto are noted, and serve to a great extent 
as a guide in their use. But the transportation of a chronometer, 
even when done with great care is liable to cause sudden changes 
in its indications, and of course in carrying it long distances, 
numerous shocks of greater or less violence are unavoidable. 
Still, chronometric measurements, when well carried out with a 
number of chronometers and skilled observers have been very 
successful. Among notable expeditions of this sort was that 
undertaken in 1843, by Struve between Pulkova and Altona, in 
which eighty-one chronometers were employed and nine voyages 
made from Pulkova to Altona and eight the other, way. The 
results from thirteen of the chronometers were rejected as being 
discordant, and the deduced longitude was made to depend on 
the remaining 68. The result thus obtained differs from the latest 
determination by s . 2. 

The U. S. Coast Survey instituted chronometric expeditions 
between Cambridge, Mass., and Liverpool, England, in the years 
1849, '50, '51 and '55. The probable error of the results of six 
voyages, three in each direction, in 1855 was s . 19, fifty chro- 
nometers being carried. 

Among other methods of determining differences of time may 
be mentioned the observation of certain celestial phenomena, 
which are visible at the same absolute instant by observers in 
various parts of the globe, such as the instant of the beginning 
or end of an eclipse of the moon, the eclipses of Jupiter's satel- 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 3 

lites by the shadow of the planet, the bursting of a meteor, and 
the appearance or disappearance of a shooting star. The diffi- 
culty of identifying these last mentioned objects and the impos- 
sibility of foretelling their occurrence prevents the extended use of 
this method. 

Terrestrial signals may be used and among these can be 
included those sent by the electric telegraph. But when two 
stations are near together a signal may be made at either or at an 
intermediate station, which can be observed at both, the time 
may be noted at each of the stations and the difference found 
directly. These signals may be made by flashes of gunpowder, 
or the appearance and disappearance of a strong light, or a pre- 
concerted movement of any object easily seen. The heliotrope 
reflecting the image of the sun from one station to the other with 
an arrangement for suddenly eclipsing it, is a useful and efficient 
apparatus. 

Various truly astronomical methods have been employed with 
good results, of these may be mentioned moon-culminations, 
azimuths of the moon, lunar distances, etc. 

Coming now to the use of the electric telegraph for this pur- 
pose the following is a rough outline of the methods employed. 
Suppose two stations A and B connected by wire, and provided 
with clocks, chronographs and transit instruments. A list of 
suitable fixed stars is compiled and each observer furnished with 
a copy. The observer at A the eastern station, selects a star 
from his list and sets his transit instrument upon it. He is fur- 
nished with a key by which he can send telegraphic signals over 
the line and also mark the time on his own chronograph. The 
instant he observes the star crossing the spider line which repre- 
sents the meridian, he taps his key, thus registering the time on 
his own chronograph and on that at station B and this operation 
he repeats with as many stars as necessary. B has his instrument 
set for the first star, and when it crosses his meridian, he taps his 
key marking the time on his own chronograph and also on A's. 
Then, disregarding instrumental and personal errors and the rate 
of the clock, A has a record of the times at which the star passed 
both meridians. The difference of these times is the difference 
of longitude sought, except for an error due to the time occupied 
in the transmission of the signal over the wire between the sta- 
tions. B also has a record of the same difference of time with 
the same error affecting it in the opposite way. A mean of these 



4 National Geographic Magazine. 

two cliff erences, will be the true difference with the error of trans- 
mission eliminated. This method has the advantage of not 
depending upon the computed position of the star. The instru- 
mental errors may be allowed for, as well as the rate of the 
clocks, and the personal error may be eliminated by the exchange 
of stations. 

There are disadvantages inseparable from this method, how- 
ever, especially when the meridian distance is great. A star 
observed at the first station, may be obscured by clouds at the 
time of its meridian passage at the second. And the weather 
generally, at the two stations may be cloudy, so that while stars 
can be observed at intervals, yet it may be impossible to note the 
meridian passage of the same star at both places on the same 
night. Then the telegraph lines are usually the property of some 
commercial company and while their use for a short time might 
be freely granted, yet a protracted occupation of them as neces- 
sary when the meridians are distant from each other, would prove 
a serious hindrance to their regular business. 

The method at this time most generally employed, is to observe 
at each station a number of stars entirely independently of the 
other. From these stars are deduced the clock errors and rates 
upon the respective local times. Then at some prearranged 
period, communication is opened between the stations, and a com- 
parison of the clocks made which shows their exact difference at 
a given instant. By applying the error to the time as shown by 
the clock at this instant, the exact local time at each station is the 
result, and applying the difference between the clocks as shown 
by the comparison, the required difference of longitude is readily 
obtained. 

These methods originated, as did the electiic telegraph, in the 
United States, and soon after Morse's invention came into prac- 
tical use, they were extensively employed by the Coast Survey, in 
accurately determining points in every part of the country that 
could be reached, no pains being spared to make the determina- 
tions as accurate as possible. Upon the completion of the first 
successful Atlantic cable in 1866, an expedition was organized 
and placed in charge of Dr. B. A. Gould, for the purpose of 
measuring the meridian distance between Greenwich and the 
Naval Observatory at Washington. This was successfully car- 
ried out in spite of numerous difficulties, and the result proved 
that the determinations already made upon which the most 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 5 

reliance was placed were decidedly in error. The result from the 
chronometric expedition in 1855 previously referred to differing 
over a second of time. 

In constructing charts for use at sea, the accurate determination 
of latitude and longitude is of the utmost importance. The 
navigator starting on a voyage must know the exact position of 
his destination as well as the location of dangers to be avoided. 
He must know the error and rate of his chronometer when he 
sets out, but as the rate is not constant he should have some 
means of re-rating it at any place where he may stop. If the 
longitude of this place is well determined, the operation of 
obtaining the error and rate is an easy one, and may save his 
vessel from loss. 

Surveys, of coasts or countries must have well established 
starting points, and while the latitude of a place is comparatively 
easy to determine, the longitude, except when the telegraphic 
method is used, is attended with more or less uncertainty. 

In 1873, Commodore R. H. Wyman, U. S. N. Hydrographer to 
the Bureau of Navigation, organized by permission of the Navy 
Department, an expedition for the telegraphic determination of 
longitude in the West Indies and Central America. The sub- 
marine cables of the West India and Panama Telegraph Co. had 
just been completed, extending from Key West through Havana 
and Santiago de Cuba, south to Jamaica and Aspinwall, and east 
through the Virgin and Windward Islands to the northeast coast 
of South America, thus affording admirable facilities for the accu- 
rate determination of many points. It had long been known that 
the longitudes of various points in the West Indies and in Central 
and South America, did not harmonize, there having been no 
systematic attempt to determine them with relation to each other 
or to a common base. Longitudes in. the western part of the 
Caribbean Sea depended upon the position of the Morro light- 
house at Havana, which had been determined by occultations. 
Further to the eastward, positions depended upon that of Fort 
Christian at St. Thomas. This in its turn depended upon the 
observatory of Major Lang in the Island of Santa Cruz about 
forty miles distant. This position depended upon numerous 
observations of moon culminations and occultations. Martinique 
and Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands had been surveyed by 
French officers who based their positions upon longitudes derived 
from moon culminations. The absolute determination of these 
starting points would of course fix all points derived from them. 



6 National Geographic Magazine. 

The U. S. Steamer Fortune was designated by the Navy 
Department for the conveyance of the expedition, and Lieut. 
Commander (now Commander), F. M. Green, U. S. ST. was placed 
in charge. This officer had given great attention to the subject, 
was a practiced observer, and exceptionally well qualified for the 
position. The services of Mr. Miles Rock, a skillful astronomer 
and computer who is now chief of the boundary survey of 
Guatemala, were obtained as principal astronomical assistant. 
The breaking out in the autumn of 1873, of the trouble with 
Spain and Cuba, over the Virginius affair, delayed the expedition 
until the next year, but in November 1874, a start was made from 
Washington, and after a short stay in Kingston, Jamacia, 
Aspinwall was reached early in December. Mr. Rock with one set 
of instruments proceeded immediately to Panama, while Lieut. 
Commander Green remained in Aspinwall with the other. The 
outfit for each party consisted of : — first, a portable observatory. 
This was made of wood in sections, framework of ash, covered 
with tongued and grooved pine boards. The sections were con- 
nected when set up by iron knees and bolts. When packed it 
was not difficult to transport, and it could be put up, or taken 
down in an hour. When set up it was about eight feet square, 
with doors in all sides, and a shed roof. The roof was made in 
three sections, the middle one being hinged so that it could be 
raised for observing. These observatories proved to be very 
strong and serviceable. They remained in use for a number of 
years with occasional slight repairs, were transported many thou- 
sand miles and set up in a great number of places in Europe, Asia, 
North and South America. They were designed by Mr. J. A. 
Rogers, and constructed at the Washington Navy Yard. Upon 
arriving at a point where observations were to be made, after 
obtaining the necessary permits from the local authorities, a suit- 
able location for the observatory was the first consideration. The 
essential requirements were, a clear view of the heavens in the 
meridian, firm ground, a spot secluded enough not to attract 
attention from inquisitive idlers, and proximity to the telegraph 
office, or end of the telegraph line. Such a spot being found and 
permission being obtained from the owner for its use, an approxi- 
mate meridian line was laid out by compass, and the house set up 
with reference to it. Experience soon showed the advisability of 
making certain additions to the observatory not contemplated by 
the designer, but which added much to convenience and comfort. 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 7 

A foundation was made, of timbers about six inches square, mor- 
tised together at the ends which could be placed in position and 
leveled bef ore the observatory was set up, rendering this operation 
much easier and giving greater stability. A floor was laid upon 
joists supported by this foundation. Shelves were put up at 
various points, affording resting places for tools and small instru- 
ments, while a table in one corner, supported the chronometer, 
and offered a convenient place for an assistant to record observa- 
tions, etc. 

The principal instrument used was the transit. Those furnished 
for the use of the expedition were designed by Mr. J. A. Rogers, 
and constructed under his supervision in the repair shop of the 
Hydrographic office. The object glasses, made by the Clarks at 
Cambridge, were of 2£ inches clear aperature with a focal length 
of thirty inches. The instruments were of the prismatic or 
"broken" form in which the eye piece is at one end of the axis, 
and the light is reflected from the object glass to the eye by a 
prism placed at the junction of the telescope tube with the axis. 
The observer does, not have to change the position of his eye, no 
matter what the zenith distance of the star may be. This renders 
observation much less fatiguing and conduces to accuracy. The 
eye-piece was furnished with the usual spider line reticle and also 
with a filar micrometer for the measurement of zenith distances 
for latitude. A vertical finding circle was on the eye-piece end 
of the axis, and the instrument was provided also with a horizontal 
circle, fourteen inches in diameter, graduated to ten seconds. 
Other necessary parts were the striding and zenith telescope 
levels, and the illuminating lamps. The ends of the axis were 
supported by Ys at the ends of a transverse arm which in its 
centre was screwed to the top of a vertical axis supported in a 
socket surmounting the tripod. This vertical axis was slightly 
conical in shape and accurately fitted into its socket. A screw 
was so placed underneath, that the axis, and with it the instru- 
ment, could be raised slightly, when it was easily revolved hori- 
zontally into any desired position, a reverse movement of the 
screw then lowered the axis into its seat, when the instrument 
was held firmly by the friction. For supporting the instrument 
there was used at first, a portable pier made in the shape of the 
frustrum of a cone, of strong oak staves, firmly bound with iron 
hoops, and when set up, filled with sand or earth. Subsequently 
a brick pier was found to be more stable and the wooden ones 
were discarded. 



8 National Geographic Magazine. 

Of equal importance with the transit was the Chronometer. 
The expedition was supplied with four of these made by Negus 
of New York. They were regulated to sidereal time, and 
provided with a break circuit arrangement. This consists of a 
toothed wheel acting on a jewel pallet attached to a light steel 
spring. In this spring is a platinum point, which touches another 
platinum point, except when the spring is acted upon by the 
toothed wheel. These points are connected respectively with 
terminals on the outside of the chronometer, and are insulated 
from each other except at their point of contact. The electric 
circuit is complete through the chronometer except when the 
teeth of the wheel acting on the jewel pallet separate the points. 
The circuit is opened for about one-fortieth of a second and closed 
during the rest of the time. One tooth in the wheel is omitted 
and the circuit remains unbroken at that point which is the 
beginning of each minute. Each chronometer is provided with 
a condenser to take up the extra current, and avoid burning the 
contact points. These chronometers were most excellent instru- 
ments, the rate was generally small and very regular, and did not 
seem to be influenced in any way by the passage of the current. 
They are still in use, and are as efficient as ever. 

The expedition was at first provided with a substitute for the 
chronograph in the shape of the old fashioned Morse telegraph 
register. In this a steel point or stylet was pressed by the action 
of an electro-magnet against a long fillet of paper, unwound by 
clock-work at a rate more or less regular. This magnet was in 
circuit with the chronometer and with a break circuit key in the 
observer's hand. As long as the electric circuit was closed the 
stylet made a continuous indented straight line on the paper ; but 
as soon as it was broken, either by the chronometer or the 
observer's key, the stylet flew back and left the paper unmarked 
until the circuit was again closed. The effect of the action of the 
chronometer was to graduate the fillet of paper into a series of 
straight indentations, from one to two inches in length, separated 
by unmarked spaces from ^ to \ inch in length. When the key 
was pressed an independent clear space was left on the paper, 
and by the relation in distance between the beginning of this 
space and the beginning of the second spaces immediately preced- 
ing and following, the time of pressing the key was determined. 
The omission of the break at the sixtieth second, made the mark 
of double length, and hence the beginning of the minute was 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 9 

easily recognized. These instruments served their purpose very 
well, but had several disadvantages. The rate of movement of 
the paper was not regular ; when the clock-work was first wound 
uj) the motion was rapid and the second spaces long, and as the 
spring ran down the marks became shorter and shorter. Another 
drawback was the great length of the fillet ; with spaces only an 
inch in length, it required five feet of paper to record a minute 
in time, and after a night's observation, there would be several 
hundred feet to examine, measure and record, occupying the 
greater part of the following day. By stopping the instrument 
between the observations something was gained in this respect, 
but this tended somewhat to confusion and error in keeping the 
record. They were only used for one season's work, and in their 
stead were procured two cylinder chronographs, made by Bond 
of Boston. These were fine instruments, but somewhat too 
delicate to stand the necessary transportation. In these instru- 
ments as in most other chronographs, a cylinder about six inches 
in diameter is made to revolve by clock-work once in a minute. 
An electro-magnet mounted on a carriage actuated by the same 
clock-work moves alongside the cylinder, in a direction parallel 
with its axis, at the rate of about an eighth of an inch in a minute. 
The armature of the magnet carries attached to it a pen, the point 
of which rests upon a sheet of the paper wrapped around the 
cylinder. While the circuit through the coils of the magnet is 
complete, the pen makes a continuous spiral line upon the paper, 
but when the circuit is broken by the chronometer, or key, it flies 
to one side making an offset, and immediately returns to its 
position, as soon as the circuit is again closed. The result is to 
graduate the whole surface of the paper into second spaces, from 
which the observations can be read off with the greatest ease. 

For supplying the electric current, there was used at first, a 
modification of the Smee battery, but this proving very uncertain 
in strength, a gravity battery was substituted, and afterwards a 
number of LeClanche cells were procured. 

Upon the first expedition, no telegraph instruments were car- 
ried, but the use of such as were needed was easily obtained from 
the telegraph companies. The line between Aspinwall and 
Panama was in good condition and no trouble was experienced in 
exchanging the time signals by which was effected the compari- 
son of the chronometers. Wires were stretched from the observa- 
tories in each place to the respective telegraph offices, and for 



10 National Geographic Magazine. 

the exchange of signals were connected directly to the ends of 
the line. 

Everything being ready, the routine of the work was as fol- 
lows : — The transit being carefully leveled was placed in the 
meridian by observation of zenith and circumpolar stars. From 
six to ten time stars, and two or three circumpolars were then 
observed, the instrument was reversed in the Ys and nearly the 
same number of stars observed in the new position. At some 
time agreed upon, generally when the regular work of the tele- 
graph line was over for the day, the wires were connected up and 
one of the operators came to the observatory to assist in holding 
communication. By a simple arrangement of relays, in the line 
and chronograph circuits the chronometer at one station was 
made to register its second beats on the chronograph at the other, 
which was all the time being graduated into second spaces by its 
own chronometer. This was done for about five minutes and the 
times of beginning and ending noted. Then the connections 
were reversed and both chronometers allowed to beat for five 
minutes on the chronograph at the first station. 

This method of exchanging signals was only practicable on 
land lines or very short cables. ' The ordinary relay used on a 
land line requires a strong current to work it, and would not be 
affected in the least by the delicate impulse sent over a long cable, 
consequently when the expedition came to compare chronometers 
over the 600 miles of cable between Aspinwall and Kingston, it 
was necessary to use another method. At that time the instru- 
ment in general use on submarine cable lines was what is known 
as Thompson's mirror galvanometer. It consists of a coil of very 
fine insulated wire wound with great care on a spool or bobbin of 
vulcanite, about three inches in diameter and \\ inches thick. 
In a hole in the centre of the spool is made to slide a small tube, 
so that the end of the tube will be in the centre of the coil. In. 
the end of the tube is mounted a small mirror, swung in a vertical 
position on a single upright fibre of silk. Horizontally across the 
back of this mirror is secured a small permanent magnet, in length 
about the diameter of the mirror or about one-eighth to one- 
quarter of an inch. The mirror and magnet together weigh only 
one or two grains. When an electric current is sent through this 
coil it deflects the magnet and with it the mirror to the right or 
left. The apparatus is exceedingly sensitive so that it is influ- 
enced by very feeble currents. Communication has been main- 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 11 

tained with an instrument of this kind over the Atlantic cables, 
by the current proceeding from a battery composed of a single 
copper percussion cap with a small scrap of zinc and a drop of 
acidulated water. The use of the mirror is to make visible the 
movements of the magnet. The coil is mounted upon a standard 
so as to be about eight inches above the table. At the distance of 
eighteen inches or two feet is placed a lamp. This is surrounded 
by a screen which cuts off all the light, except that which passes 
through a tube directed towards the mirror. Lenses in the tube 
focus the light on the mirror and thence it is reflected to a vertical 
white surface, a sheet of paper for instance, at a suitable distance 
and appears as a small and brilliant spot. A movement of the 
magnet causes a horizontal deflection of this spot to the right or 
left depending upon the direction of the current passing through 
the coil. As these movements can be produced at will by means 
of the key at the sending station, it is only necessary to apply to 
them the dots and dashes of the Morse alphabet, to have a very 
ready and perfect means of communication. To the uninitiated 
spectator the facility with which the practiced operator translates 
these apparently meaningless movements is remarkable. If the 
cable is long and not in good condition the signals are sometimes 
almost imperceptible, while any slight jar of the table or appa- 
ratus will produce a large and irregular effect. Earth currents 
also will cause vibrations hard to distinguish from the signals, and 
if, as sometimes happens, the battery is connected in the wrong 
way, the signals will be reversed. In spite of these drawbacks 
the skillful operator reads off the message and rarely makes an 
error. This instrument is still in use on some of the cable lines, 
but on most of them it has been replaced by a recording instru- 
ment, also the invention of Sir Wm. Thompson, which is almost 
as sensitive, and of which I will speak later on. The key used in 
connection with these instruments, both the mirror and recorder, 
is arranged with two levers, so connected that pressing one of 
them causes a current to be sent over the line in one direction, 
while the other sends it in the opposite. 

The method adopted for comparing chronometers by means of 
these instruments was as follows : — Everything being ready for 
the exchange of signals, the observer at one station seated him- 
self, where he could see the face of the chronometer, with his 
hand on the cable key. At ten seconds before the beginning of 
a minute as shown by the second hand, he pressed his key several 



12 National Geographic Magazine. 

times in quick succession, thus sending a series of impulses 
through the line, which appeared at the other end as a rapid 
movement of the light to and fro. This was a warning signal, 
and the observer at the second station with his eye on the light, 
tapped his chronograph key in the same way making a series of 
marks, which indicated the beginning of the comparison. The 
first observer exactly at the sixtieth second by his chronometer 
pressed his key quickly and firmly and repeated this operation at 
every fifth second for one minute. The second observer tapped 
his key promptly as soon as he saw the light move, thus register- 
ing the time on his chronograph. The minute at which the first 
signal was sent, was then telegraphed, and repeated back, to 
insure against error, and the operation was repeated until sixty- 
five signals had been sent from one station and received at the 
other. Then the second observer sent the same number of sig- 
nals to the first in precisely the same manner, thus giving sixty- 
five comparisons of the chronometers in each direction. The 
results derived from this method are affected by errors from two 
causes. One is the personal error of the observers in sending 
and receiving signals and the other the time consumed by the 
electric impulse in traveling over the line and through the instru- 
ments. If the same strength of battery is used at each station, 
and the resistance of the instruments is the same, the errors aris- 
ing from this latter source will be eliminated by the double 
exchange. The observer sending the signals kept his eye on the 
chronometer and counted the second beats by both eye and ear, 
moving the hand which he had on the key slightly in unison with 
the beats, and could thus be sure of pressing the key at the proper 
time within a very small fraction of a second. At the other end 
of the line, considerable time is lost after the actual movement of 
the light before the observer can press his chronograph key, and 
the principal error affecting the result is the difference of this 
time in the two observers, which was found to be very small. 

As I have said, the cable was first used in the measurement 
between Kingston and Aspinwall, Lieut. Commander Green 
occupying the former station, and Mr. Rock the latter. After 
the successful completion of this link, measurements were made 
from Santiago de Cuba to Kingston, and to Havana. It was the 
intention to measure from this last point to Key West, but about 
this time yellow fever broke out there and the expedition was 
ordered by the Secretary of the Navy to return. The Fortune 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 13 

arrived at Washington in April, 1875, and the time until 
November was spent in working up the winter's observations. 
Speaking in a general way this work is as follows : — From obser- 
vations extending over many years, the exact positions in the 
heavens of a large number of fixed stars have been found, so that 
their times of passing any meridian can be computed with great 
accuracy. The transit instrument is furnished with an eye-piece 
containing a number of parallel lines usually made of spider silk. 
These are placed in the focus of the instrument, and it is set in 
position, so that the middle line of the group is in the plane of 
the meridian. The observer provides himself with a list of 
desirable stars, and setting his instrument on those he may choose, 
records the time at which they pass each of the spider lines, by 
tapping his chronograph key. If there were no instrumental 
errors to be discovered and allowed for, if the star's place were 
known absolutely, and the observer had no personal equation, 
then it would be only necessary in order to find the error of the 
clock, to observe one star upon the middle line of the reticle. 
The difference of the clock time of transit and the real time as 
already known, would be the clock error and no further trouble 
would be required. But as none of these conditions are fulfilled, 
it is necessary to multiply observations in order to eliminate acci- 
dental errors, and to obtain instrumental corrections which may 
be applied so as to get the most probable result. Accidental 
errors of eyesight and perception are nearly eliminated by taking 
the star's transit over several lines instead of one and using the 
mean. Some of the instrumental errors are from the following 
causes. If the pivots which support the telescope are unequal in 
size the axis of the tube will be thrown to one side or the other 
of the meridian, and the star will be observed either before or 
after it crosses. The weight of all transit instruments causes a 
flexure of the horizontal axis and this effect is at its maximum in 
those of the prismatic pattern. The spider lines must be adjusted 
so that the middle one is exactly in the axis of the tube, or as this 
can seldom be done the resulting error, called the collimation, must 
be found. The horizontal axis of the instrument must be as 
nearly level as possible, and the error in this respect must be 
found by frequent applications of a delicate spirit level. Finally 
the instrument must be directed as nearly as possible to the north 
and south points of the horizon, and a correction must be made for 
any error in this respect. The result of each of these errors is to 



14 National Geographic Magazine. 

cause the star's transit to be recorded too early or too late, and to 
get the true result they must all be found and applied with their 
proper signs. The inequality of pivots and the flexure correction 
are found by delicate measurement and observations, when the 
instrument is first used, and are recorded as constants to be applied 
in all subsequent work. The level tubes are graduated and the 
value of their divisions obtained in angular measure. The collima- 
tion error is found by observing stars near the zenith in one 
position of the instrument and then reversing and observing 
others, or by taking the transit of a slow moving star over a 
portion of the spider lines then reversing and observing the same 
intervals in the opposite order. The error of azimuth, or devia- 
tion from the north and south line, is found by comparing the 
observations of stars whose zenith distances differ considerably. 
These corrections all being found and applied to the observation 
of each star, the result is the correct time of transit as shown by the 
chronometer, and the difference between that time and the true 
time, is the error of the chronometer. A mean of the observations 
of several stars on the same night, gives a very accurate value for 
this clock error, and by comparing the results of several nights' 
work, the rate is found. By applying the rate to the clock error 
it is reduced to any required epoch, as for instance, the mean 
time of the exchange of time signals, and the difference of longi- 
tude is easily found. As may be imagined the computation and 
application of all these errors, exercising the greatest care to 
insure accuracy is a long and tedious process. The operations 
described give a very close result, but in order to arrive at the 
greatest accuracy obtainable the computations are made again by 
the method of least squares. 

In the Autumn of 1875, the expedition again took the field, 
this time in the side wheel steamer Gettysburg, which was much 
better adapted to the work than the Fortune. The first link 
measured was between Key West and Havana. Key West had 
already been telegraphically determined by the Coast Survey, and 
now afforded a base for the system of measurements completed 
and for those to follow. The next measurement was between 
Kingston and St. Thomas. Then from the latter place to Anti- 
gua and to Port Spain, Trinidad. From Port Spain, measure- 
ments were made to Barbadoes and Martinique. The position at 
St. Thomas was then re-occupied, and measurements made thence 
to San Juan, Porto Rico, and to Santa Cruz. This ended the 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 15 

work in the West Indies, differences of longitude having been 
measured between nearly all the important points connected by- 
telegraph. The Latitude of all the stations, was also determined 
by the zenith telescope method, and the position of the stations 
was referred either to the observation spot previously used, when 
that could be identified, or to some prominent landmark. 

Between St. Thomas and Santa Cruz, the measurement was made 
twice, the observers exchanging stations at the completion of the 
first series of observations. This was to eliminate the effect of 
their personal errors, and to obtain a value of these, which might- 
be applied to the other measurements. It has long been known 
that different people perceive the same phenomenon at different 
times, varying with different individuals, but reasonably constant 
with the same individual. In the particular case of observing the 
transit of a star, most people will record it on a chronograph from 
one to three tenths of a second after it happens. In the method 
of observing by eye and ear the error is generally much greater. 
The whole question of personal equation, however, is a mixed one 
and I. will not attempt to discuss it, but will only give some of 
the results obtained in this particular work. In longitude meas- 
urements the error from this cause is half the difference of the 
personal equation of the two observers. If this difference 
remained constant, then it would be easy to find it once for all, 
and apply it to all measurements made by the same observers. 
In the West India work, it was assumed that it did remain con- 
stant, and half the difference between the two measurements 
made from St. Thomas to Santa Cruz, was applied to all the other 
links. The correction was quite small, being only S .025. In 
subsequent work by the same and other observers it was deemed 
wiser not to apply any corrections at all, rather than one that 
was probably not exact, and might be much in error. To show 
the fluctuations to which this elusive quantity is subject, I will cite 
the results of some observations made to determine it, by observers 
engaged in this same work at a subsequent period. In April and 
May, 1883, at Galveston, Texas, two observers D. and N. having 
just completed a telegraphic measurement between that place and 
Vera Cruz, Mexico, made some observations for the determination 
of their relative personal equation, by observing transits of alter- 
nate stars under the same conditions as near as possible. Both 
used the same instruments, transit, chronometer and chrono- 
graph. On April 30, two sets of observations were made, show- 



16 National Geographic Magazine. 

ing the difference of the equations to be s . 26. On May 1, one 
set gave S .32, and another S .29. On May 2, only one set was 
made giving s . 36, a variation of S .07 in two days. In June 1884, 
one year later, another series of observations of the same character 
was made at the Naval Observatory in Washington, and on the 
same nights the personal equation machine invented by Prof. 
Eastman, Avas used as a comparison. This is an instrument in 
which an artificial star is made to record its own transit over the 
wires of a reticle, while the observer records the same with a chro- 
nograph key. The difference is manifestly the personal error of 
the observer. This gives the absolute equation of the observers, 
and their difference is the relative equation, and should accord with 
that found by the method of alternate stars. Some of the results 
were, as follows : — On June 4, the difference by machine of their 
personal errors was s . 16 and by star observations s . 24, on the 15th 
of June the machine gave s . 10 and the stars s . 24, on the 16th, 
machine 0M4, stars, 0M3, a very close agreement, on the 17th, ma- 
chine gave S .07 and stars s . 18. The observer 1ST. combined with 
another, O, who had not had as much experience in observing, 
gave still more discordant results. On June 20, the machine gave 
as their relative equation, S .08, while star observations gave O s .27, 
on June 23, machine S .13, stars S .51, and on June 28, machine, 
s . 20, stars s . 35. In the case of the first two observers a mean 
of the determinations amounting to about s . 20 might have been 
applied to the measurements made by them, but as these were 
made under all conditions of climate, in latitudes varying from 
30° N. to 36° S. and in different states of health and bodily com- 
fort, it was concluded not to introduce any correction at all rather 
than one that might be considerably in error. In all of the work 
it has been the custom as far as possible to place the observers 
alternately east and west of each other, so that the result of 
personal error in one measui'ement is neutralized to a greater or 
less extent in the next. Of course the method of exchanging 
stations and making two measurements of each meridian distance 
would afford the best solution of this problem, but except in 
certain favorable conditions, this is precluded by considerations 
of time and expense. In the measurement between Galveston 
and Vera Cruz mentioned above, it had been the intention to 
exchange stations, but by the time the first measurement was 
finished the season was rather far advanced, there was danger of 
yellow fever in Vera Cruz and an observer going there at that 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 17 

time, if he escaped disease would have had the certainty of being 
quarantined from entering the United States for three weeks or 
a month after leaving Mexico. 

Upon the completion of the West Indian work, and the publi- 
cation in 1877, of the results, it was determined hj the Bureau of 
Navigation to send an Expedition for the same purpose to the 
east coast of South America. Cables were in use extending from 
Para in northern Brazil to Buenos Ayres in the Argentine Re- 
public. A cable had at one time connected this system with the 
West Indies, through British Guiana and Trinidad, but one of 
the links was broken and there was no prospect of its repair, 
otherwise the Station established at Trinidad in 1874 might have 
been taken as the starting point. There was direct communica- 
tion however between England and Brazil, by the way of Portu- 
gal, and the Madeira and Cape de Verde Islands. Lisbon seemed 
to afford the most convenient place to start from, but its longi- 
tude had never been determined by telegraph and it was decided to 
request the French Bureau of Longitudes to cooperate by making 
this measurement from Paris. This request was readily granted, 
but for some reason the agreement was not kept. For the use of 
the Expedition the old fashioned sailing ship Guard was furn- 
ished and Lieut. Com. Green was given command. Mr. Rock 
being otherwise employed his place was taken by Lieut. Com. 
(now Commander) C. H. Davis, U. S. N. The instruments hav- 
ing been placed in good order, and new supplies furnished where 
necessary, the expedition sailed from New York for Lisbon in the 
latter part of October, 1877. The Guard was a slow sailer, 
the weather was rough and the wind generally ahead, conse- 
quently a month was consumed in making the passage. It was 
the intention to make the first measurement between Lisbon and 
Funchal, Madeira. Lieut. Com. Davis with party and instru- 
ments occupied the latter station, proceeding by mail steamer at 
the first opportunity. The cable from England does not land 
directly at Lisbon, but at a small town called Carcavellos on the 
coast about twelve miles from the city. As it was not practicable 
to connect the land line from Lisbon direct to the cable, it was 
necessary in making the exchange of signals to adopt another 
method, or rather combination of methods. An officer of the 
ship was sent to Carcavellos, furnished with a chronometer and 
chronograph. When the time came for exchanging signals, he 
first compared his chronometer with that at Lisbon, by the auto- 

VOL. II. 2 



18 National Geographic Magazine. 

matic method, in use on land lines, then with the Funchal chro- 
nometer over the cable using the mirror galvanometer. Finally a 
second automatic comparison was made with Lisbon. From the 
data furnished by these comparisons it was an easy matter to com- 
pute the difference between the chronometers at Lisbon and 
Funchal. The Lisbon party had been received with great 
courtesy by the director of the Royal Observatory, Capt. Oom of 
the Portuguese Navy, and had been given the use of a small 
detached observatory near the main building. The party at 
Funchal selected a site on the ramparts of an old fort, which 
afforded a clear view and was near the landing place of the cable. 
Here occurred an accident to the transit instrument, which fortu- 
nately was easily remedied. Near the beginning of the observa- 
tions on the first night the wind, which was blowing almost a 
gale, lifted a part of the roof off the observatory, and dropped 
one section of it inside. The transit was knocked off the pier, 
and was at first thought to be much injured. Fortunately the 
precaution had been taken to bring along a couple of spare instru- 
ments, borrowed from the Transit of Venus Commission for use 
in case of such an accident. The Funchal party was provided 
with one of these, which was set up for use by the next night,, 
and the injured one was sent to Lisbon for repairs. The injury 
proved to be less than supposed and the repairing was an easy 
matter. Upon the completion of this measurement the Lisbon 
party proceeded to St. Vincent one of the Cape de Verde 
Islands. This is a barren and desolate spot of volcanic forma- 
tion, but being on the route of steamers from Europe to Africa 
and South America is of much importance as a coaling station. 
Measurements were made from this point to Funchal and to Per- 
nambuco in Brazil, and the Guard then sailed for Rio Janeiro. 
Upon arriving at that point after a long passage, it was found 
that the cable between Rio and Pernambuco was broken, and 
there being no immediate prospect of its being repaired, the Per- 
nambuco party was ordered by mail steamer to Rio, and thence 
to Montevideo. A measurement was made between Rio and 
Montevideo and then between the latter place and Buenos Ayres, 
Lieut. Com. Green occupying the Montevideo station for that pur- 
pose. The position of the observatory at Buenos Ayres was 
referred to that occupied by Dr. B. A. Gould, Director of the 
Argentine National Observatory, in a similar measurement a short 
time before between that place and Cordova. 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 19 

Both parties now returned to Rio, only to find that the cable 
was still broken. In order to be ready for work as soon as it 
should be repaired, Lieut. Com. Green proceeded to Bahia with 
the ship and established a station there, Lieut. Com. Davis with 
his party remaining in Rio. After waiting a month, and there 
still seeming to be no prospect of the repair of the cable, the 
expedition finally sailed for home, arriving at Norfolk, Va., after 
a pleasant and uneventful voyage of forty-five days. Repairs to 
the cable were not completed until several months afterward. In 
May of the next year, the party was again sent out, to complete 
the measurement on the Brazilian Coast, and also to measure from 
Greenwich to Lisbon, the French Bureau of Longitudes having 
failed to carry out its promise to measure from Paris. There 
being no ship available for the purpose the traveling was done by 
mail steamer. Upon arrival in England, an interview was had 
with the Astronomer Royal, who readily agreed to assist in the 
work. Lieut. Com. Green accordingly established his observatory 
at the landing place of the cable at Porthcurnow in Cornwall, 
and Lieut. Com. Davis proceeded to Lisbon and occupied the 
station used there the year before. Owing to the foggy and 
rainy weather prevalent in England at that season, it was found 
impossible to make any astronomical observations at the Porth- 
curnow observatory. The work was therefore done in this way : — 
Observations were made at Greenwich and at Lisbon, and Porth- 
curnow and Carcavellos were used as transmitting stations. The 
chronometer at Porthcurnow was compared automaticallv with 
the clock at Greenwich, and by cable with the chronometer at 
Carcavellos. The latter was compared automatically with that at 
Lisbon, before and after the cable exchange. At this time there 
were made at Carcavellos, some experiments with a view to mak- 
ing the receipt of the time signals over the cable automatic, thus 
doing away with the personal equation of the receiver. The 
instrument in use for the regular business of the cable was what 
is known as the siphon recorder, also the invention of Sir Wm. 
Thompson. In this a small coil of fine wire is suspended by a 
fibre of silk, between the poles of a powerful permanent magnet. 
The currents from the cable pass through this coil and the action 
is to deflect it to the right or left, just as the mirror is deflected 
in the instrument already described. Attached to this coil is a 
siphon made of a capillary glass tube. One end of the siphon 
dips into a reservoir of aniline ink, and the other hangs immedi- 



20 National Geographic Magazine. 

ately over the centre of a fillet of paper, which is unwound by 
clock-work. If the siphon touched the paper, the feeble currents 
sent through the cable would be powerless to move it, on account 
of the friction, and in order to produce a mark some means must 
be found of forcing the ink through the capillary tube. This is 
accomplished by electrifying the ink positively and the paper 
negatively, by means of a small inductive machine, driven by an 
electric motor. The effort of the tAvo electricities to unite, forces 
the ink through the tube and it appears on the paper as a succes- 
sion of small dots. When the paper is in motion and the coil at 
rest, a straight line is formed along the middle of the fillet by 
these dots, but as soon as a current is sent through the coil the 
siphon moves to the right or left making an offset to this line. 
These offsets on one side or the other are used as the dots and 
dashes of the Morse alphabet. A time signal sent over the cable 
while this instrument was in circuit, appeared as a single offset on 
the paper, and it was only necessary to graduate the paper into 
seconds spaces by the local chronometer, in order to have the 
automatic record required. The ordinary chronometer circuit 
could not be put through the coil directly, as it would then 
charge the cable and interfere with the signals, and besides, the cur- 
rent, unless by the introduction of a high resistance it was reduced 
in strength, would infallibly give such a violent motion to the 
coil as to break the siphon, if it did no other damage. The result 
was obtained in this way ; an ordinary telegraph relay was put in 
the chronometer circuit and the armature of course moved with 
the beats. To this armature was fastened one end of a fine 
thread. The other end was attached to a slender piece of elastic 
brass which was fixed at one end to the framework supporting 
the paper, in such a way that the other end touched the metallic 
vessel holding the ink, except when the thread was drawn tight 
enough to pull it away. This the armature of the relay did 
while the circuit through the chronometer was complete, but as 
soon as it was broken at the beginning of a second, the tension of 
the thread was relaxed and the brass sprung back against the 
ink well, allowing the positive and negative electricities to unite 
independently of the siphon. The ink then ceased to flow, until 
the spring was drawn away, thus leaving a small blank space in 
the line of dots and forming a very good chronographic record. 
This was liable to a small error due to the length of time that 
elapsed between the release of the spring by the armature and its 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 21 

impact on the ink well. Had there been time for more extensive 
experiment this difficulty might have been overcome. Or if the 
same method had been adopted at both stations, the result would 
have been affected by only the difference between the times of 
movement of the brass spring which would have been minute. 
Lack of time for experiment, and the fact that the observers were 
averse to introducing untested methods into a chain of measure- 
ments most of the links of which were already completed, 
prevented any use being made of this achievement. The meas- 
urement between Greenwich and Lisbon being satisfactorily 
completed. Lieut. Com. Green by order of the Navy Depart- 
ment returned to the United States, and the links between Rio 
and Pernambuco and between the latter place and Para, were 
measured by Lieut. Com. Davis and the writer, completing the 
work of the expedition, after which the party returned to 
Washington. 

The computation of this work, showed the somewhat surprising- 
fact that the heretofore accepted position in longitude of Lisbon, 
differed from the true one by about two miles. The longitude of 
Rio Janeiro had always been more or less in doubt, various deter- 
minations had differed by as much as nine miles, but the position 
finally decided upon by the best authorities agreed very closely 
with that obtained by telegraph. 

The next expedition was sent out by the Bureau of Navigation 
to China, Japan and the East Indies, Lieut. Com. Green being 
still in charge. The officers composing the party sailed from San 
Francisco by mail steamer in April, 1881, for Yokohama, where 
they joined the U. S. Steamer Palos. From Hong Kong north to 
Vladivostok in Eastern Siberia the cables were owned by a 
Danish company. From Hong Kong to the south and west they 
were the property of English companies. Beginning at Vladi- 
vostok observations were made at all stations on the Asiatic 
coast except Penang, as far as Madras, India. It was intended to 
try and make some use of the automatic method of receiving 
time signals, on this work, but on arriving in Japan it was found 
that the recording instrument used by the Danish company was 
entirely different from that used by the English lines. It con- 
sisted of a series of electro-magnets acting on a single armature, 
which carried a siphon made of silver. The signals consisted of 
long and short movements, to one side of the middle line, instead 
of equal deflections on both sides as in the Thompson recorder. 



22 National Geographic Magazine. 

An attempt was made to convert this instrument into a relay, by 
causing the siphon to make and break a circuit, but it was not 
successful. The movements of the siphon were not regular 
enough, and the contact was not firm. Consequently the mirror 
method of exchanging signals was still adhered to. 

The longitude of the position occupied in Vladivostok, had 
been determined telegraphically from Pulkova, by the Russians, 
using the land lines across Siberia. The English had also deter- 
mined the position at Madras, using the cables through the Medi- 
terranean and Red Seas. The work of the United States 
Expedition joined these two positions, completing a chain of 
measurements extending over many thousand miles, made by 
observers of different nationalities in various climates. It was to 
be expected that considerable discrepancy would be found in the 
final result, but taking the longitude of Vladivostok as brought 
from Madras, and comparing it with that determined by the 
Russians, the difference was only s . 3 9. Taking everything into 
consideration, this result was gratifyingly close. Upon the con- 
clusion of this series of determinations, the connection of Lieut. 
Commander Green with the work was severed, he receiving his 
promotion to the rank of Commander. 

The next work was under the charge of Lieut. Com. Davis, and 
consisted in the determination in 1883-84, of positions in Mexico, 
Central America and the west coast of South America. Cables 
had just been completed, extending from Galveston, Texas, to 
Vera Cruz, thence across Mexico to the Pacific and down that 
coast to Lima, Peru, where connection was made with another 
system extending to Valparaiso. Galveston was a point deter- 
mined by the Coast Survey, and the measurement thence to Vera 
Cruz was the first one made. It was completed in May '83, and 
in the Autumn of the same year the party proceeded to the South 
American coast, and stations were established and observations 
made at various points from Valparaiso to Panama, and at one 
point, La Libertad, in Central America. It was at first the inten- 
tion to extend the series across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and 
connect with Vera Cruz, but lack of time prevented this, and as 
the station at Panama determined nearly ten years before, afforded 
a convenient starting point, the idea was abandoned. From Val- 
paraiso, a measurement was made with the cooperation of Dr. 
Gould to his observatory at Cordova, using the line across the 
Andes, and exchanging signals automatically. These measure- 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 23 

ments constituted the final links in a long chain, extending from 
the prime meridian Greenwich across the Atlantic to the United 
States, thence via the West Indies to Panama, down the west 
coast of South America to Valparaiso, across the Andes to Cordova 
and Buenos Ayres, up the east coast to Pernambuco, across the 
Atlantic to Lisbon, and thence to Greenwich, altogether a distance 
of eighteen to twenty thousand miles. The two longitudes of 
Cordova, as brought from Greenwich by the two routes, differed 
from each other by only s . 04 8, a result which speaks well for the 
accuracy of the methods employed. When preparations were 
being made for this expedition, it was determined to accomplish 
if possible something in the way of getting rid of the personal 
equation in exchanging signals. An idea which had been sug- 
gested by work done by Major Campbell, R. E. in the measure- 
ment between Bombay and Aden, seemed to promise well. It 
was to be used with the siphon or other form of recorder. The 
ordinary double current cable key with two levers, was arranged 
with an additional lever in such a manner that while in ordinary 
use in the telegraph office, it could also be put in circuit with the 
chronometer and chronograph in the observatory, and a signal 
sent through the cable would have its time of sending registered 
on the chronograph. Ordinarily in speaking over a cable line, 
connection is made in such a way that the current sent does not 
pass through the recorder at the sending station, as a violent 
movement of the siphon would result. By means of a shunt, how- 
ever, it is possible to control this movement somewhat. Suppose 
now, that the connections at each station are made in such a way, 
by means of this key and the shunt, that a signal sent from one, 
is registered on both recorders and on the sender's chronograph. 
The observers leaving their assistants to take care of the chrono- 
graphs, go to the respective telegraph offices, and all being ready, 
the observer A taps his key. This sends an impulse through the 
cable, which appears on A's recorder, as a violent jump or kick of 
the siphon. On B's recorder it is registered as a deflection like 
the ordinary dot or dash, at the same instant is recorded on A's 
chronograph the time of sending. As soon as B sees the signal 
on his recorder, he taps his key also registering the signals on 
both recorders and on his chronograph. A, seeing B's signal again 
taps his key, and so on, as long as desired. The result is that 
each observer has a record on his siphon fillet of all signals sent 
and received, while the times of those he sent are recorded on 



24 National Geographic Magazine. 

his chronograph. By the use of the diagonal scale and the Rule 
of Three, he can without difficulty find the times of the signals 
received. The siphon recorders are well made, and the paper 
moves with great regularity. This system was used in the meas- 
urement between Galveston and Vera Cruz with great success. 
It was intended to employ the same method throughout the 
measurement on the west coast of America, but on arriving at 
Lima, it was found that the company owning the lines south of 
that point still used the mirror galvanometer, and it was of course 
necessary to return to the old method. The improved key was 
used however, which eliminated the error in sending signals. 

After this work was completed and the results published in 
1885, nothing was done in this line by the Bureau of Navigation 
for some years. Upon the return of the writer in the spring of 
1888, from a cruise in the South Pacific, he found that the subject 
of sending an expedition to complete the measurements in Mexico 
and Central America was under consideration in the Bureau of 
Navigation and the Hydrographic office. It was finally decided 
that the work should be done, and the writer was placed in charge. 
The instruments were brought out of their retirement, and by 
the aid of the Hydrographic Office a very complete outfit was 
furnished, and in November of last year a start was made from 
New York, the expedition proceeding by mail steamer to Vera 
Cruz. Here the spot occupied by Lieut. Com. Davis in '83 was 
found, his transit pier, which was still standing was repaired, and 
instruments mounted. Lieut. Charles Laird, U. S. N, who had 
been identified with the longitude work since the China expedi- 
tion in 1881, was left in charge of the observatory at Vera Cruz, 
and the writer proceeded with his party to the small town of 
Coatzacoalcos, at the mouth of the river of the same name. This 
point is about one hundred and twenty miles southeast of Vera 
Cruz, and is the landing place of the cable. A land line extends 
from this point to Salina Cruz on the Pacific coast, a distance of 
about two hundred miles. In exchanging time signals between 
Vera Cruz and Coatzacoalcos, the automatic method was employed, 
the cable being short. The old Wooden observatories were used 
at these points, but as they were too heavy for transportation 
across the Isthmus, tents made especially for astronomical pur- 
poses were substituted for them in the observations made on the 
Pacific coast. The journey across the Isthmus was slow, about 
two weeks being employed in traveling two hundred miles, though 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 25 

as the route was devious, the actual distance was nearer three 
hundred. Some of the instruments were heavy, and after being 
taken in canoes a hundred miles up the Coatzacoalcos river, against 
a rapid current, they were loaded on a train of pack mules, and 
carried the rest of the way by land. While the first party was 
crossing the Isthmus, the other was on its way from Vera Cruz, 
and being ready at about the same time, a successful measurement 
was made between Coatzacoalcos and Salina Cruz, exchanging 
signals automatically. The Coatzacoalcos party then crossed to 
Salina Cruz, while the other proceeded to La Libertad in Salvador, 
where the station established in the Spring of '84, was again 
occupied. The measurement between these places being com- 
pleted, the Libertad party went on to San Juan del Sur, in Nica- 
ragua, near the terminus of the proposed interoceanic canal. In 
the measurement between this point and Salina Cruz, as well as 
in the one preceding, the exchange was effected by mirror signals. 
This completed the season's work, and the two parties made the 
best of their way home via. Panama, arriving in Washington in 
April and May respectively. The computation of the observations 
is not yet complete though well advanced ; it was the intention to 
publish preliminary results this Fall, but owing to lack of time 
that can not be done. 

Another piece of work is laid out for the same party for the 
coming winter, which is the measurement from Santiago de Cuba, 
through Hayti and San Domingo to La Guayra in Venezuela, 
over the cables of a French company, which have just been com- 
pleted. This work will consume about six months, and the expe- 
dition which is to start almost immediately will probably return 
in April or May next. The determination of the longitude of La 
Guayra will give a point from which many other measurements 
may be made along the north coast of South America, furnishing 
material for extensive corrections of the charts of that region. 

Having presented an outline of the work done so far, as well 
as that proposed for the near future, I will now mention some of 
the trials and tribulations, as well as the pleasures experienced in 
carrying out the object desired in an expedition of this kind. 
The greatest politeness and kindness have always been expe- 
rienced from the officials and employees of the various telegraph 
companies over whose lines work has been carried on. The 
government officials of the foreign countries visited, have also 



26 National Geographic Magazine. 

invariably shown the utmost politeness, but sometimes this polite- 
ness has been visibly tinged with suspicion. The measurements 
in Peru and Chili were made amid the closing scenes of the war 
between the countries. Upon the arrival of the expedition in 
Lima, an interview was had with the Chilian Commander-in- 
Chief who had possession of the city, and permission was 
requested and readily granted to occupy a station in Arica. 
Upon arriving at the latter place some days after, the Chilian 
governor in charge was found to have instructions to facilitate 
the work, and readily granted permission to establish the observa- 
tory in a convenient locality, but flatly refused to allow a wire to 
be extended to the telegraph office, and also refused to forward 
to his immediate superior, a request that it might be allowed. 
He evidently supposed the party were emissaries of the United 
States, sent to treat secretly with conquered Peru, but how he 
expected this was to be done remains a secret. By a vigorous 
use of the telegraph in communicating with the U. S. Ministers 
to both Chili and Peru, his objections were silenced, and the wire 
was put up. The observatory at Arica was erected on the side of 
a hill to the windward of the town, because it afforded a clear 
view, and was less dirty than other eligible sites. It also was a 
safe position in case of a possible earthquake or tidal wave, by 
which Arica had already been twice visited with disastrous effect. 
In digging for a foundation for the transit pier, several mummies 
of the ancient Peruvians were unearthed at a depth of a foot. 
They had evidently belonged to the poorer class of people, as 
their wrappings were composed of coarse mats, instead of the 
fine cloth with which the wealthier people were usually interred. 
One was the body of a female with long hair, which had been 
turned to a reddish yellow color by the alkali in the soil. The 
whole coast of Peru is barren and desolate, except in the river 
valleys, it being seldom visited by rain, while it is nearly always 
overhung with heavy clouds and fog banks, which render astro- 
nomical work exceedingly difficult. Even when partially clear in 
the day time, it generally becomes cloudy at night. Many times 
the observer would be at his place before sunset ready to seize the 
first suitable star revealed by the darkness, only to be baffled by 
thick banks of cloud which would cover the entire sky in from 
five to ten minutes. 

In northern Peru, with a latitude of about five degrees south, 
is the town of Paita. It is an assemblage of mud-colored houses, 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude. 27 

at the foot of high, mud colored bluffs. On top of these bluffs 
is a perfectly barren table land extending inland and up and 
down the coast for many miles. Before visiting it the observers 
were informed that its one good point was the perfect astronom- 
ical weather which always prevailed. Clouds were unknown, and 
such a thing as rain had never been heard of. The extreme dry- 
ness of the atmosphere was so favorable to health that no one 
ever died, and when a consumptive invalid was imported by the 
inhabitants in the hope of starting a cemetery, he blasted their 
expectations by recovering. Judge then of their feeling, when 
upon arriving at this delightful place, they were met with the 
information that while it was true that the sky was, in general, 
perfectly clear both by night and day, yet about once in seven 
years, rain could be expected, and that the year then present was 
the rainy one. And sure enough it did rain. The usually dusty 
streets became rivers and quagmires, the rocky valleys in the 
vicinity were transformed into roaring torrents, and the table 
land usually an arid desert became a swamp with a rank growth 
of vegetation. However by using every opportunity and snatch- 
ing stars between clouds and showers the work was finally 
completed. 

Upon arriving in Panama shortly after this experience, the 
party was met with the pleasant intelligence that yellow fever 
was prevalent, and that the foreigners were dying like sheep. 
Nearly every day of the party's stay, some one died of sufficient 
importance to have the church bells tolled for his funeral, while 
of the ordinary people little notice was taken. Every morning, 
the writer remembers passing a carpenter's shop where nothing 
was made but coffins, and the supply was evidently not equal to 
the demand, for finally the proprietor began to import them, 
apparently by the ship load. The weather however was delight- 
ful, and the nights were the most perfect, astronomically speak- 
ing, that could be desired. 

The observers who went from Japan to Vladivostok were 
obliged to wait several weeks at Nagasaki, before an opportunity 
offered for proceeding to their destination, and when they finally 
arrived, the getting away again was a problem. Communication 
with the outside world by water was only open during the sum- 
mer months, and even then it was more accidental than otherwise. 
The party established the observatory however, and settled down 
to work, letting the future take care of itself. In the early part 



28 National Geographic Magazine. 

of the work, rather an amusing incident occurred. As the com- 
munity was full of all sorts and conditions of men, Koreans, 
Chinamen and Russian exiles, the last not political but criminal 
offenders ; it was thought wise to have a sentry stationed at the 
observatory to guard against any possible harm to the instru- 
ments. So the Governor of the town was asked to furnish a 
soldier for that purpose, which request was readily granted, and 
one night the sentry was posted with orders to let no one touch 
the observatory. These orders he construed literally, and when 
the observers appeared to commence their night's work, he kept 
them off at the point of the bayonet. His only language being 
Russian with which the observers were not familiar, it was impos- 
sible to explain the true state of affairs, and it was only after 
hunting up an interpreter and communicating with his command- 
ing officer that an entry was finally effected. A good deal of bad 
weather was experienced at this place, but at the end of six 
weeks enough observations had been made for the required pur- 
pose, and the party was fortunate enough to secure passage to 
Nagasaki, in a small steamer that had brought a load of coal out 
from Germany. 

In the expedition to the Asiatic coast one of the most interesting 
experiences was the trip to Manila in the Philippine Islands. This 
is quite a large town, when intact, but a great portion of it is usu- 
ally in the condition of being shaken down by an earthquake or 
blown over by a typhoon. The inhabitants are full of energy, 
however, and find time between downfalls to build up again. The 
cable from Hong Kong lands at a point about one hundred and 
twenty miles from Manila, and the writer was directed to proceed 
thither, with a chronometer and chronograph for the purpose of 
transmitting time signals. The first part of the journey was 
made in a small coasting steamer uncommonly dirty, and occu- 
pied about thirty-six hours. At the end of that time the village 
of Sual in the Gulf of Lingayen was reached. This was distant 
from the cable station about thrrty miles, and the remainder of 
the journey was made in a native boat, with mat sails, and bam- 
boo outriggers, part of the time through channels between nume- 
rous small islands and for some distance in the open sea. The 
progress was slow, but it was a pleasant way of traveling, except 
for the sleeping accommodations which were primitive ; consist- 
ing of a palm leaf mat thrown over a platform made of split 
bamboo, in which all the knots had been carefully preserved. 



Telegraphic Determinations of Longitticle. 29 

About three days, including stoppages, were consumed in this 
thirty mile voyage, and the traveler finally reached his destina- 
tion to be received with the greatest hospitality by the staff at 
the telegraph station, and just in time to allay the fears of the 
observers at Hong Kong and Manila who had begun to think 
him lost. About three weeks were spent here, and as the work 
only occupied a short time at night, the days were pleasantly 
passed in exploring the surrounding country, making friends with 
the natives, shooting and photographing the scenery. The return 
to Manila was by the same route and occupied nearly the same 
length of time. 

The measurement from Singapore to Madras was oyer one of 
the longest lines of cable ever used for this purpose, the distance 
being about 1600 nautical miles. The Atlantic cables used by 
Dr. Gould in 1866 were a little more than 1,850 miles in length. 
There was an intermediate station at Penang about 400 miles 
from Singapore, where all the work of the line was repeated. For 
the longitude measurement however the cables were connected 
through to form an unbroken line. The mirror was the only 
instrument that could be used and even with this the signals were 
feeble and much affected by earth currents. 

The observing parties have never been troubled by wild beasts, 
but while at Saigon in Cochin, China, a rifle was always kept- 
handy for use in case of the appearance of a tiger. The observa- 
tory here was located near the edge of a jungle, and alongside 
the telegraph station, on the veranda of which a large tiger had 
been shot by one of the operators only a short time before. 

In the expedition of last winter to Mexico and Central 
America, the principal annoyance was caused by insects which 
were numerous and malignant. At Coatzacoalcos they were 
found in the greatest abundance, though the whole isthmus 
of Tehuantepec is alive with them. Fleas and mosquitoes were 
expected of course, but added to this were numerous others much 
worse. Of the family of " ticks " four varieties were seen and 
felt, ranging in size from almost microscopic to a length of a 
third of an inch. The most numerous were about as large as a 
grain of mustard seed, and one who walked or rode through the 
bushes or high grass would find himself literally covered. One 
of the worst insects encountered was the " nigua " which is in 
appearance something like a small flea. It burrows into the toes 
and soles of the feet, lays a number of eggs, which hatch and 



30 National Geographic Magazine. 

produce painful sores. A gruesome story is current in that region, 
about an enthusiastic English naturalist, who found specimens of 
these encamped in his feet, and concluded to take them home in that 
way, in order to observe the effect, but died of them before reach- 
ing England. All the party were afflicted with these pests, but were 
always fortunate enough to discover them and dig them out with 
the point of a knife before any bad results were experienced. The 
village of Coatzacoalcos is prettily situated, the climate, especially 
in winter, is very agreeable and the river offers a commodious 
harbor, but as long as the insects are so unpleasant, few people 
will care to live there if they can avoid it. 

There have been directly determined by these various expedi- 
tions, about forty secondary meridians. Many more positions 
depend upon these, so they may be said to have made a large 
addition to our accurate knowledge of the earth's surface. Tele- 
graphic facilities are being constantly extended, and as the Bureau 
of Navigation has now a very complete outfit for this work, 
which only needs occasional repairs, it is hoped that it may be 
kept up for some time in the future. 



Geography of the Land. 31 



REPORT— GEOGRAPHY OF THE LAND. 

By Herbert G. Ogden. 

In my annual report a year ago, I presented to you briefly our 
knowledge of the great geographic divisions of the world. It 
might be instructive to continue the subject this evening by relat- 
ing the additional information we have acquired during the year ; 
but as the items are not of great value and the most important 
are more in the form of rumors than of facts, I have restricted 
myself more to the interests of the western hemisphere, and 
particularly to those affecting the United States. 

In Europe we have still the visions of war that have agitated 
her peoples for years past ; the decapitation of the Turk, and 
division of his European empire to appease the ambition of 
"friendly powers." It is not until we pass by this civilized sec- 
tion and reach the far east, that we recognize the dawn of prog- 
ress in the year ; the birth of events that may in time increase 
the happiness and welfare of many people. 

The influence of the United States in extending the principle 
so early enunciated, " that all men are born free and equal " has 
been most marked. The western hemisphere is virtually under 
the rule of men chosen by the people, and though we cannot claim 
that in all instances the result has been satisfactory, there has, 
nevei-theless, been a steady advance ; political disturbances have 
become less frequent and with prolonged tranquillity the arts of 
peace, commercial enterprise and internal improvements, have re- 
ceived an impetus that will wed more strongly the advocates of 
personal liberty to their ideal God. 

Educated men in both hemispheres predict ultimate success or 
failure for our form of government and advance cogent argu- 
ments in support of the views they express. The complications 
of the great economic questions that confront us afford texts for 
arguments that cause many to doubt the wisdom of entrusting 
the welfare of a great nation to the votes of the masses ; never- 
theless, the people are firm in the belief that they can conduct 
their own affairs ; and those whom they intrust with temporary 
power are seldom so short-sighted as not to realize that a violation 



32 National Geographic Magazine. 

of the trust will meet with certain retribution. Those appointed 
to govern must also be teachers, and if in the enthusiasm of a 
new creed it shall be shoAvn they have taught the people error in- 
stead of truth, a national uprising sweeps them from control, and 
for a time conservatism becomes the guide. To the people of the 
old world, the apparent prosperity that has followed our system 
doubtless receives the most earnest thought ; and the contrast to 
their own condition excites their desires to experiment themselves 
in more liberal forms, and reap the rewards they believe have fol- 
lowed such measures in America. 

While American methods may extend their influence in this 
manner to European nations, and even to the nations of Asia, we 
should not rest self-confident of the superiority of our institutions, 
and that they alone are the permeating influence that inspire so 
many with the thoughts of liberal' government that brings dis- 
quiet to crowned heads. The application of recent discoveries 
and inventions, to the affairs of every-day life, have raised the 
power of the individual and caused such a general increase of in- 
tellectual vigor, that independence of rulers by divine right is no 
longer a cause for wonder, but is considered by the intelligent as 
the natural state for the modern man. 

Since the expedition of Com. Perry our influence in Japan has 
been marked, and this most progressive of the Eastern nations has 
sought counsel and advice from new America and the men who 
constitute the nation. But the progressive people of these isles 
have been too earnest in their efforts to advance, to rely solely upon 
one set of men, or the example of one nation, and we find they 
have been gathering in that which is good from all sections of 
the civilized world. The record of their progress, however, bears 
the stamp of America, and we may justly claim that it was the 
influence of freedom that first led these interesting people into 
the paths they have followed with such gratifying results, and 
which many believe will culminate in the establishment of a pow- 
erful and enlightened nation. Recent advices announce the for- 
mation of a legislative body, organized on the principle of the 
Congress of the United States — a step that indicates Japan may 
yet find a place in the category of states that are destined to 
exert a marked influence in the control of human affairs. 

How different is the neighboring empire of China. Within a 
stone's throw, almost, of the advancing civilization of Japan, in- 
habited by a people of marked ability but restricted by race tra- 



Geography of the Land. 33 

ditions to a condition of inactive conservatism, that seems almost 
to preclude the possibility of material advance in centuries to 
come. The population of this empire is so great that the density 
has been averaged at two and three hundred persons per square 
mile, and in some districts that it is as great as seven hundred. 
We can readily conceive the poverty that must exist in such an 
average population for such an extended area. And we may 
realize the cries of distress that come from great calamities by 
the experiences in our own history, even modified as they have 
been by our superior facilities for affording relief, and the com- 
parative insignificance of the numbers who have required assist- 
ance. Recall for a moment one of the great floods of the Yellow 
river, where thousands have perished and tens of thousands have 
been rendered destitute within a few hours, and conceive the 
sufferings, hardships, and greater number that must yet succumb 
before those who survived the first great rush of the waters can 
be furnished relief ; remembering that the means of intercommu- 
nication are the most primitive, and that the immediate neighbors 
of the sufferers are in no condition to render more assistance than 
will relieve the most urgent necessities of a comparatively insig- 
nificant number. May we not, then, if only from a humanita- 
rian point of view, greet with pleasure the reception of the 
imperial decree authorizing the introduction in the empire of 
useful inventions of civilized man, and directing the construc- 
tion of a great railroad through the heart of the empire, with 
Pekin as one of the termini. This road will cross the Yellow 
river, affording relief to this populous district in time of disas- 
ter ; and it is understood will eventually be extended to traverse 
the empire, forming a means of rapid communication between 
distant provinces. We may believe, also, that in time it will be 
the medium of opening to us a new region for geographic 
research, not in the celestial empire alone, but also in the rich 
fields of central Asia that are now being occupied by Chinese 
emigration. 

Doubtless the greatest geographic discoveries of the age have 
been made in central Africa. It was but a few years ago that 
we were in doubt as to the true sources of the Nile, and the loca- 
tion of the mouths of great rivers that had been followed in the 
interior, was as much a mystery as though the rivers had flowed 
into a heated cauldron and the waters had been dissipated in mist, 
by the winds, to the four corners of the earth. It was then that 

VOL. II. 3 



34 JStational Geographic Magazine. 

grave fears were aroused for the safety of Livingstone, who had 
done so much, and whose efforts it was hoped would yet solve 
the great geographic problems his travels had evolved. A man, 
patient in suffering, and with a tenacity of purpose that over- 
comes the greatest obstacles, he had endeared himself to those 
who sought knowledge from his labors, and it was, therefore, 
with unfeigned regret that men spoke of the possibility that 
calamity had overtaken him, and that the work of the last years 
of his life would possibly be lost. The editor of an influential 
New York journal, sympathizing with the deep interest that was 
felt, and doubtless actuated to some extent by the notoriety suc- 
cess would bring to his journal, determined upon organizing an 
expedition to ascertain Livingstone's fate, and thus brought 
before the world the hitherto obscure correspondent Henry M. 
Stanley. The rare good judgment that selected Mr. Stanley for 
the command of such a hazardous expedition was more than 
demonstrated by subsequent events. The first reports that Liv- 
ingstone had been succored were received with incredulity, but 
as the facts became known incredulity gave way to unstinted 
praise, and Mr. Stanley was accorded a place among those who 
had justly earned a reward from the whole civilized world. 

A few years after his return from bis successful mission for 
the relief of Livingstone, he was commissioned in the joint 
interests of the New York Herald and London Daily Telegraph, 
to command an expedition for the exploration of central Africa. 
Traversing the continent from east to west, he added largely to 
our knowledge of the lake region and was the first to bring us 
facts of the course of the Congo. This expedition placed him 
before the world as one of the greatest of explorers, and it seems, 
therefore, to have been but natural that, when a great humanita- 
rian expedition was to be organized nearly ten years later to pen- 
etrate into the still unknown regions of the equatorial belt for 
the relief of Emin Pasha, that he should have been selected to 
command it. How faithfully he performed this task we are only 
just learning, and our admiration increases with every new chap- 
ter that is placed before us. That he was successful in the main 
object of the expedition is self-evident, having brought Emin 
Pasha and the remnant of his followers to the coast with him. 
The expedition has also been fruitful in geographic details, and 
though we have not as yet the data to change the maps to accord 
with all the newly discovered facts, we may feel assured of their 



Geography of the Land. 35 

value. Perhaps the best summary of the more important discov- 
eries can be given in the explorer's own words, which I have 
taken from one of his recent letters : 

" Over and above the happy ending of our appointed duties we have 
not been unfortunate in geographical discoveries. The Aruwimi is now 
known from its source to its bourne. The great Congo forest, covering 
as large an area as France and the Iberian peninsula, we can now cer- 
tify to be an absolute fact. The Mountains of the Moon, this time 
beyond the least doubt, have been located, and Ruwenzori, ' The Cloud 
King,' robed in eternal snow, has been seen and its flanks explored and 
some of its shoulders ascended, Mounts Gordon Bennett and MacKin- 
nan Cones being but great sentries warding off the approach to the 
inner area of 'The Cloud King.' 

" On the southeast of the range the connection between Albert 
Edward Nyanza and the Albert Nyanza has been discovered, and the 
extent of the former lake is now known for the first time. Range after 
range of mountains has been traversed, separated by such tracts of pas- 
ture lands as would make your cowboys out west mad with envy. 
And right under the burning equator we have fed on blackberries and 
bilberries and quenched our thirst with crystal water fresh from snow 
beds. We have also been able to add nearly six thousand square miles 
of water to Victoria Nyanza. 

" Our naturalist will expatiate upon the new species of animals, birds 
and plants he has discovered. Our surgeon will tell what he knows of 
the climate and its amenities. It will take us all we know how to say 
what new store of knowledge has been gathered from this unexpected 
field of discoveries. I always suspected that in the central regions, 
between the equatorial lakes, something worth seeing would be found, 
but I was not prepared for such a harvest of new facts." 

The exploration of Africa, however, has not been confined to 
the central belt. Expeditions have been developing the southern 
section of the continent ; the French have been active in the 
watershed of the Niger, and in the east there seems to have 
been a general advance of English, Germans, Portuguese and 
Italians. The latter, it is stated, have acquired several million 
square miles of territory in Mozambique, an acquisition that 
would indicate our maps have heretofore given this particular 
division of territory an area much too insignificant. 

We also learn that Capt, Trevier, a French traveler, has 
crossed the continent by ascending the Congo to Stanley Falls, 
thence southeasterly through the lake region to the coast at some 
point in Mozambique, in a journey of eighteen months ; a 
journey that must bring us a harvest of new facts. 



36 National Geographic Magazine. 

On the western hemisphere there has been considerable activity 
in a variety of interest, tending to develop the political, commer- 
cial and natural resources. 

Four new states have been admitted to the American Union, 
and measures have been introduced in the Congress looking to 
the admission of two more. These acts mark an era in the prog- 
ress of the great northwest significant of a national prosperity that 
a generation ago would have been deemed visionary. We have 
also to record a tentative union formed by the Central American 
states, that at the expiration of the term of ten years prescribed 
by the compact, we may hope will be solidified by a bond to 
make the union perpetual. In South America a bloodless revolu- 
tion presented to the family of nations a new republic in the 
United States of Brazil. All thoughtful men must at least feel a 
throb of sympathy for Dom Pedro, who in a night lost the alle- 
giance of his people and the rule of an empire. Sympathy, per- 
haps, that he does not crave, for history affords us no parallel of 
a monarch who taught his people liberalism, and knowing it could 
but lead to the downfall of his empire. It seems to be true, also, 
that although depriving him of power, the people whom he loved 
and ruled with such liberality, have not forgotten his many vir- 
tues, and that the Emperor Dom Pedro will be revered in republi- 
can Brazil as heartily as though his descendants had been per- 
mitted to inherit the empire. We cannot tell if the new order of 
affairs will prove permanent, but the education of the Brazilians 
in the belief that a republic was inevitable, gives strong grounds 
to hope the experiment of self-government will not be a failure. 
The influence the successful establishment of this republic is to 
exert in other parts of the world is a problem that has already 
brought new worries to the rulers of Europe, and not without a 
reason, for a republican America is an object lesson that the intel- 
ligence of the age will not be slow to learn. 

The assembly of the " Three Americas Congress" in Washing- 
ton, is also an event that may wield an influence in the future. 
Perhaps it may not be seen for years to come, but it lays the 
foundation for commercial and geographic developments that 
would redound to the credit of the western hemisphere. 

We have seen during the year the virtual failure of the Panama 
Canal company ; for it is unreasonable to believe that a corporation 
so heavily involved with such a small proportion of its allotted 
labor accomplished, can secure the large sum that would be 



Geography of the Land. 37 

requisite to continue operations to completion. The failure of 
this company has imparted a fresh impetus to the Nicaragua 
scheme and ground was broken on this route in October last. As 
the Nicaragua route presents many natural advantages and is free 
from such stupendous engineering works as were contemplated at 
Panama, we may hope for its completion. The surveys were con- 
ducted with deliberation and have evidenced great skill on the 
part of those who supervised them, so that we may reasonably 
expect the construction will proceed with the same care, and re- 
solve the question of success into the simple problem of cost. 

A partial account has been furnished by Dr. Nansen of his 
journey across Greenland a year ago. The result will be disap- 
pointing to those who anticipated the discovery of open country 
with green fields and the general reversal of the Arctic conditions. 
He describes the region as being covered with a great shield of 
ice, dome-like in shape, and which he estimates to have a maxi- 
mum thickness of six or seven thousand feet. For a great part 
of his journey he traveled at an elevation of about eight thousand 
feet, and the cold at times was so intense that he believes the tem- 
perature must have been at least 50° below zero on the Fahren- 
heit scale. No land was visible in the interior and he estimates 
the highest mountains must be covered with at least several hun- 
dred feet of snow ice. The expedition was one of great danger, 
and we may say was accomplished only through the good judg- 
ment of the explorer. The scientific i*esults have not yet been 
considered, but the explorer suggests it is an excellent region to 
study an existing ice field, and estimates that persistent observa- 
tions might prove productive of value in the science of meteor- 
ology. 

The Canadians have been active during the year in the explora- 
tion of the vast territory to the northward of their supposed hab- 
itable regions. In the report of Dr. Dawson relating the result of 
his labors in the northwest, up to the date of its compilation, we 
find much that is new and a great deal that is of interest. We 
cannot enter into the details of his itinerary, but we may note as 
one fact that surely will excite surprise, the conclusion he reaches 
that there is a territory of about 60,000 square miles, the most part 
to the northward of the sixtieth parallel, in which agricultural 
pursuits may be successfully followed in conjunction with the 
natural development of the other resources of the territory. This 
does not imply that it may become an agricultural region, and 



38 National Geographic Magazine. 

should hardly be construed as more than a prediction that the 
pioneers who attempt to develop the region need not die of star- 
vation. 

We have also to record as a matter of interest in the Arctic re- 
gion, the successful establishment of the two parties sent out by 
the United States to determine the location of the 141st meridian,, 
the boundary line between Alaska and the British Provinces 
north of Mt. St. Elias. The parties are located on the Yukon 
and Porcupine rivers above their confluence at Ft. Yukon. They 
are well equipped, and it is expected they will explore a consider- 
able territory and. bring back with them valuable information be- 
yond the special object of the expedition. Indeed, it may be said, 
this is but the beginning of a thorough examination of Alaskan 
territory, that will eventually form a basis for the demarkation 
of the international boundary. This country is full of surprises 
in its details, and whatever examinations are made must be thor- 
ough to be effective. Only recently, a small indentation, as it has 
been carried on the maps since Vancouver's time, and known as 
Holkham Bay, has been found to be a considerable body of water,, 
extending back from Stephen's passage in two arms, each nearly 
thirty miles in length and nearly reaching the assumed location of 
the Alaska boundary. So perfectly is the bifurcation and exten- 
sion of the arms hidden by islands, that it was only during the 
past summer when in the regular course of work the shores of the 
bay were to be traversed, that the extent of the bay became 
known. 

The determination of the boundaries of the land areas on the 
surface of the earth has ever been a matter of the greatest 
interest to the students of geography. It was the incentive that 
led the daring navigators of old to undertake the perilous voy- 
ages that in these days read like romances ; and in the light of 
the more perfect knowledge we now have of the hidden dangers 
to which they were exposed, we may pass by their shortcomings 
in the admiration we must feel for their heroism and endurance. 
To these men we owe our first conception of the probable dis- 
tribution of the areas of land and water, but the lines they gave 
us were only approximate ; and had not scientific effort followed 
in their tracks we may reasonably believe the progress of civiliza- 
tion would have been retarded by generations. True it is, also, 
that even to-day we have not that precise knowledge that is 
requisite for the safety of quick navigation, nor to calculate the 



Geography of the Land. 39 

possibility of the future improvement of undeveloped regions. 
The commerce of the world in coming years will demand the 
accuracy in the location of distant regions as great as we now 
have in civilized centres, for time will be too precious to lose a 
day of it in the precautions that the navigator must now follow 
in approaching undeveloped coasts. That these truths have 
guided those who seek to do their share for the future in the 
labor of the present, we have ample evidence in the activity of 
all civilized governments during the last century. It is a source 
of shame and infinite regret that our own government has done 
so little in this vast field : that the intelligence of our people 
has not been awakened to put forth their energy in so good a 
cause, that would eventually increase their own prosperity. But 
we have not been altogether inactive and complaint must be 
in the quantity, not the quality of our labors. The establish- 
ment of " definite locations," for the control of sections and 
regions, is the first step in eliminating errors that have been com- 
mitted and in providing greater accuracy in the future. At a 
recent meeting of the Society we had a paper presented on this 
subject, from which we can judge of the good work that has been 
done by our navy in these determinations, and gain an insight of 
the similar labor that has been prosecuted by other nations. The 
bands of elective cables that girdle the earth, afford the most 
approved means of ascertaining the longitudes of these posi- 
tions ; and if we but study a cable chart, it will be found the 
work yet to be accomplished before the facilities the cables now 
afford are exhausted, is not inconsiderable. We hope, therefore, 
this good work may be continued, and that surveying and chart- 
ing the regions thus approached, will shortly follow. There is 
much labor of this character still required on our own continent, 
and we will be delinquent in our duty as a progressive people if 
we do not follow the good beginning already made to its legiti- 
mate conclusion. 

The duties of government are manifold, and for the benefit of 
those governed must include legislation that will make manifest 
the natural resources of the State. The geographic development 
and political advancement of our own country in the century of 
our national existence, is a marked instance of the wisdom of pre- 
paring for the future by such acts as legitimately fall within the 
province of legislation. 



40 National Geographic Magazine. 

The new nation began her existence under extraordinary cir- 
cumstances. With only an experimental form of government, 
she was to develop a vast region of unknown resources ; but 
happily imbued with the belief that " knowledge is power," it 
was not long before systematic efforts were put forth to learn 
the wealth we had and how it might be utilized. The congress 
of the confederation provided the first act in 1785, for the 
organization of the land surveys and land parcelling system, that 
title to the unoccupied territories in the west might be securely 
vested in the individual. We have record of the stimulus this 
act gave to the settlement of a large territory, and raised the 
demand for surveys in the still further west, developing the 
geography of a vast region that has since become the home of 
millions of people. The original act was amended as early as 
1796, and since then has frequently been added to in the effort to 
meet the new conditions evolved in the rapid development of 
the country. Other great regions were explored by the army, 
sometimes under special acts, until finally we had learned with 
gome degree of reliability, the general adaptability of our whole 
territory. The discovery of the great mineral wealth of the 
west, and the improved means of communication afforded by 
the construction of continental railways, however, imposed new 
conditions and it was found more detailed information would be 
necessary to meet the demands of the increasing population. 
We thus reached another stage where expeditions equipped for 
scientific investigation were organized, and through their labors 
brought us knowledge of still greater value ; and to-day we see 
these merged into one body in the geological survey, whose 
special duty is the scientific exploration and study of our great 
territory. 

While this had been passing in the interior, bringing life to 
unoccupied regions, the districts on the coast that had long been 
settled, were also struggling with new problems. The material 
progress of the civilized world, and the pressure from the regions 
behind them that had been recently peopled, demanded greater 
commercial facilities. Early in the century, almost coincident 
with the establishment of the land surveys, provision had been 
made for the survey of the coasts, and although through various 
causes it was not vigorously prosecuted until a third of the cen- 
tury had passed, when the time came for its economic use in 
meeting the new conditions imposed by the general progress of 



Geography of the Land. 41 

the nation, the knowledge had been gained that was essential to 
advance and develop the great interests affected. The improve- 
ments required, however, could only be secured through active 
exertion, the actual work of man ; but so pressing has been the 
want and so persistent has been the labor, that should we chart 
the results it would be a surprise to those who believe the " local 
geography " has not been changed. 

The demands upon the older communities arising from the 
increase in commercial and industrial enterprise, have caused 
them too, to feel the want of more detailed information of their 
surroundings, and they have, in consequence, undertaken more 
precise surveys of their territories, generally availing themselves 
of the assistance offered by the general government. This work 
will doubtless extend in time to all the States, and be followed, 
when its value has been made manifest, by the detailed surveys of 
precision that have been found necessary as economic measures 
in the civilized States of the old world. 

It is rarely we can foresee the full results of great national 
enterprises ; the special object that calls forth the exertion may 
be readily comprehended, but the new conditions evolved from 
success, and sometimes from only the partial accomplishment of 
the original design, may be factors in governing the future be- 
yond our power to surmise. 

The work of improving the navigation of the Mississippi 
River, is an instance of this character so marked, and apparently 
destined to extend its influence through so many generations, 
that a brief record of the change it has effected in geographic 
environment will not be without interest, and, perchance, not 
without value. 

The area drained by the Mississippi river and tributaries, is 
forty-one per cent, of the area of the United States, exclusive of 
Alaska ; and by the census of 1880 the population of this great 
district was forty-three per cent, of the whole Union. It seems 
probable that a large proportion of this population is directly in- 
terested in the river system, and if we add to it the number of those 
who are indirectly benefited, we should doubtless find a majority 
of our people more or less dependent upon its maintenance. It is 
only to the alluvial valley, however, the great strip from Cairo to 
the Gulf, that I wish particularly to call your attention this even- 
ing. This is really the great highway for traffic ; the cause of the 
great work that has been prosecuted ; and the scene of the geo- 



42 National Geographic Magazine. 

graphic development that will mark an epoch in the history of the 
river. 

Ten years ago the importance of the improvement of this 
water-way was so forcibly impressed upon Congress, that an act 
was passed organizing a "Mississippi River Commission," to 
make an exhaustive study of the whole subject and submit plans 
for the improvement of the river and to prevent the destructive 
floods that are of almost annual occurrence. Or in the language 
of the act : " It shall be the duty of said Commission to take 
into consideration and mature such plan or plans, and estimates, 
as will correct, permanently locate, and deepen the channel and 
protect the banks of the Mississippi river ; improve and give 
safety and ease to the navigation thereof ; prevent destructive 
floods ; promote and facilitate commerce, trade, and the postal 
service." 

Large sums of money had already been expended" by the gen- 
eral government in local improvements, but no consistent plan 
had been developed that would be an acceptable guide in con- 
ducting operations along the whole river, when this act went into 
effect. It is not necessary to refer here to the various systems 
that were presented to the Commission for consideration ; nor to 
enter upon the details of the plan "finally adopted ; our record 
being more the effects and primary causes, than the intermediary 
processes through which the results have been produced. The 
general plan followed by the Commission has been the construc- 
tion of works in the bed of the river, to form new banks where 
a contraction of the river bed has been deemed necessary ; and 
the erection of levees, with grading, revetment, and other pro- 
tection of the banks, in localities where the natural banks seem 
particularly liable to give way under the pressure of a great 
flood. The object of such works being to control the river by 
confining the low water channels in fixed lines, causing the recur- 
rence of the scour in low water stages in the same channel in suc- 
cessive low waters ; and preventing the diversion of the stream 
into new channels during high water stages by overflow of the 
banks. A diversion of the stream would leave the works in the 
bed of the river below of no greater value than as monuments to 
the energy and skill displayed in the details of their construction, 
and preclude the ultimate benefit that may be derived from these 
works in permanently lowering the bed of the river. The proba- 
bility of such diversion of the water, however, seems to have 



Geography of the Land. 43 

been reduced to a minimum, through the conservative action of 
the Commission in cooperating with. the States having jurisdiction 
over the alluvial bottoms, in reorganizing their levee systems and 
thus securing the greatest control over the volume of water 
brought down in the flood seasons, that is possible by the con- 
struction of well planned and substantially built levees. It 
having been demonstrated that the levees subserve a double pur- 
pose, that they are essential in the general plan to improve the 
navigation of the river adopted by the Commission, and are like- 
wise needed to render the bottom lands habitable, it is not sur- 
prising that we find the State authorities and the Commission 
jointly engaged in their construction. 

It has thus been brought about that the effort to improve the 
navigation of the river for the general welfare, has resulted in 
such great changes in the geography of the locality, that a large 
district has been reclaimed for agricultural purposes. The allu- 
vial valley of the Mississippi river has an area of thirty thousand 
square miles, and is naturally divided into four great basins that 
have been designated the St. Francis, Yazoo, Tensas and Atcha- 
falaya. Two of these basins are now fairly protected from the 
overflows of the Mississippi, by the levees that have been con- 
structed, or repaired, incidental to the woi-k of the Commission, 
viz: the Yazoo basin extending from below Memphis to the 
mouth of the Yazoo river ; and the Tensas basin from the high 
land south of the Arkansas river to the mouth of the Red river ; 
and the Atchafalaya basin, from the Red river to the gulf, has 
been protected on the Mississippi fronts. These three basins 
have an aggregate area of nearly twenty thousand square miles 
that is now reasonably secure from inundation. Measures have 
also been instituted by the State authorities looking to the 
reclamation of the St. Francis basin ; and the work is half ac- 
complished on the White river section. 

Nearly the whole of this valley was under protection thirty 
years ago, but the disasters of the late civil war, and subsequent 
inability of the people to repair the damaged levees, resulted in 
the practical abandonment of many sections, and it was not until 
about ten or twelve years ago that the protective works again 
presented an appearance of continuity. The supposed security, 
however, was of short duration, as the great floods of 1882 over- 
topped the works in more than one hundred and forty jjlaces, 
causing such widespread destruction that cultivation of the soil 



4£ National Geographic Magazine. 

was rendered impossible over large districts. The floods of suc- 
ceeding years but added to the misfortunes of the valley, and 
land values became so depreciated that sales were impracticable, 
taxes could not be collected, and there was a general feeling that 
square miles of fertile land must be given over to the destructive 
agencies of the great river that had made it. 

It was while suffering under this distressing situation that the 
work of the Mississippi River Commission was brought forward 
as a possible means of salvation. With a recuperative power 
that seems almost marvelous, the people have contributed of their 
labor and their means, until now this great area of nearly twenty 
thousand square miles has been once more reclaimed, and seems 
to have entered upon an era of prosperity that will eclipse the 
prophecies of even the most sanguine. It is believed that the 
levees that have now been constructed will prove reasonably se- 
cure. They have been built for a double purpose ; and the pro- 
portion of the expense incurred by the general government, about 
one-third, under the direction of the Commission, has insured a 
supervision and inspection by competent engineers such as was 
not exercised in the earlier history of such works on the river. 

We cannot foretell the developments that will follow the im- 
provement of this water way and the reclamation of the alluvial 
bottoms on an enduring basis. That the works erected by the 
Commission will maintain an increased depth of water at the 
low stages of the river, seems to be demonstrated, as during the 
low water of November last a depth of nine feet was found on 
the Lake Providence and Plum Point bars, an increase of thirty- 
three and forty-four per cent, respectively. When the depths on 
the other bars have been increased in like proportion the free nav- 
igation of the river will be assured, and we may point to the re- 
sult as one of the greatest engineering achievements of modern 
times. 

The increased value of the land adjacent to the river redeemed 
from waste, more than doubled on the average, and in many 
instances quadrupled; the replenishing of the state and county 
treasuries by the collection of taxes on land that was before un- 
remunerative ; and the building of railroads through sections 
where it had been impracticable to maintain them before in con- 
sequence of their liability to destruction by the periodic floods ; 
are marked evidences of the material prosperity that has already 
followed the great work. During the last four years, forty thou- 



Geography of the Zand. 45 

sand settlers have taken up lands in the Yazos basin alone, and it 
was estimated that in the fall of 1889 twenty thousand more 
would seek homes in the same district. These settlers have been 
mostly negroes from the worn out high lands to the eastward. If 
the change in their environment proves beneficial to the individ- 
ual we may expect an increased migration, that may in turn be an 
aid in solving the political problem involved in the citizenship of 
the negro. 

The settlement of these bottom lands will also influence the 
prosperity of many commercial centers, as trade statistics indi- 
cate the general abandonment of the plantations that followed 
the great floods of 1882, caused a marked diminution in the ship- 
ments by the lower river, as well as in the receipts from that sec- 
tion ; and that the partial reclamation of the lands and restora- 
tion of agricultural pursuits has already influenced the receipt and 
distribution of commercial products. 

The project to reclaim by irrigation large districts of the arid 
region of the west, if successfully accomplished, may also exert an 
influence in the political and commercial relations of the future 
that cannot now be foretold. Two-fifths of the territory of the 
United States has been classed as arid ; not in the sense that 
there is no water, for the greatest rivers on the continent have 
their sources almost in the midst of the region ; but rather that 
the water is not available for enriching the ground. The rainfall 
is generally not in the season when the crops would require it, or 
is too small and uncertain for the husbandman to depend upon it. 
The whole region is not of this character ; many districts are sus- 
ceptible of the highest cultivation as nature has left them, and 
others have been redeemed by the application of the water supply 
through the simpler devices customary in irrigated countries ; 
until now nearly all the districts have been occupied that are suscep- 
tible of agricultural pursuits, either in the natural state or by irri- 
gation, unless water is secured by means generally beyond the 
reach of the individual or combination of individuals who may 
use it. And yet, it is believed there are millions of acres of rich 
land that may be redeemed and converted to the support of a 
large population, by the application of capital in the construction 
of works of irrigation. The progress of the surveys of the region, 
therefore, that have been instituted by the general government, 
are watched with absorbing interest. The districts susceptible of 
such extensive improvement are only approximately known, and 



4:6 National Geographic Magazine. 

as it is only through these surveys their availability will be made 
manifest, the importance of the work can hardly be overestimated. 
The prosperity of several states will be largely influenced by the 
success of operations of this kind within their borders, and in turn 
their greater development and increased wealth, must react upon 
the older communities and benefit them, on the principle that the 
healthful growth of a single member is strength to all. 

The science of geography, as taught in the present day, is more 
comprehensive than the brief descriptions and delineations of the 
areas of land and water that satisfied the early explorers. The 
great strides that have been made in scientific research during the 
past century have opened new fields, and men are no longer con- 
tent to picture that only which they can see. The varied fea- 
tures of the earth's surface, transformations now in progress and 
those which may be deduced from the facts we can observe, have 
led to many theories of the construction of the earth, ancient 
forms upon the surface and possibilities, if not probabilities, in 
the future. To ascertain the form of the earth has alone been the 
cause of heroic labor, and yet we have hardly passed the point 
that we can give it in probable terms with the general dimen- 
sions. Observations warrant the assumption that, discarding the 
accidents of nature — even the highest mountains — the sphere is 
far from being perfect. That it is flattened at the poles is now 
accepted as the true condition, but we have reason to believe, too, 
that this is not the only departure from the perfect sphere. The 
more thorough the research and precise the observations, the 
more certain does it appear that the crust has a form as though 
there had been great waves of matter that had been solidified. 
To locate the depressions of these great waves and measure their 
depths, to point to the crests and measure their extent, is a 
problem for the future to solve. Their study is claimed to be 
within the legitimate sphere of geography ; and not until they 
have been satisfactorily answered can we assert the geographer 
is even approaching the end of the facts his science has yet to 
utilize. 

In pre-historic geography we have had two papers presented 
to the Society during the past year, relating to the orographic 
features of the earth's surface in times past compared with the 
localities as we may see them to-day. In the first instance the 
comparison is evolved from an effort to trace the origin and 
growth of the rivers of Pennsylvania ; and the second, in a 



Geography of the Land. 47 

description of the famed district around Asheville, North Caro- 
lina. These have a substantial interest to us, treating as they do 
of localities so well known ; and they illustrate, too, the resources 
of induction in bringing to our view the probable wonders of 
ancient geographic forms. 

The constitution of the interior of the earth is a subject of 
great interest in the science of geography, as many of the visible 
forms upon the crust have been wrought by the power of the 
agencies within it. The discussion has been warm in the past, 
and doubtless will be resumed with unabated interest as we find 
new phenomena for the argument. The apparent lull that has 
followed the promulgation of the theory, three years ago, that 
under the ci'ust we should find a fluid, or semi-fluid, surrounding 
a solid nucleus, may not be of long duration. This hypothesis 
probably comes nearer to satisfying the conditions imposed by the 
physicist and geologist, than those which have preceded it, and 
may be accepted for the present ; unless the processes of nature 
by which it is conceived this state of the interior of the earth 
has been produced, shall be demonstrated to have continued for 
sufficient time to have caused a condition of equilibrium and possi- 
ble solidification of the whole sphere ; when we might expect it 
to be repudiated by those who oppose the theory of isostacy, but 
commended by the physicists as supporting their claim that the 
earth must be substantially a solid even now. If we accept Mr. 
Frederick Wright's suggestion, isostacy may have an important 
bearing on the cause of the ice sheets that covered such great 
areas ; a suggestion that opens to the vision of the imagination 
an orography beside which the grandest landscape we may see 
to-day would pale into insignificance. This is believed to be a 
new application of the isostatic theory, and may be a possible 
solution of a much vexed question when an initial cause for such 
great upheavals can be advanced that will not be inconsistent 
with other accepted conditions. 

Theories are modified by new facts, and in any attempt to 
demonstrate the constitution of the interior of the earth, the 
increase of temperature with the depth is an important factor. 
The recent measures, therefore, in Germany, that indicate the 
figures generally accepted are not reliable, may be received with 
interest. The shaft was sunk especially for the purpose of ob- 
serving temperatures at different depths, and every precaution 
that former experience had suggested seems to have been taken 



48 National Geographic Magazine. 

to secure accuracy. The greatest depth reached was about one 
mile. An elaborate discussion of the results fixes the increase of 
temperature at 1° F. for each 65 ft. increase of depth. This is 
about 15 ft. greater than the figures that have heretofore been 
given ; a difference so large that we may question if they will be 
generally accepted until verified by further observations made 
with equally great care. 

In conclusion permit me to note the fact that the United States 
was for the first time represented in the International Geodetic 
Association, at the meeting recently held in Paris ; and also to 
record the successful conclusion of the fourth International 
Geographical Congress that assembled in Paris in August last. 
The reports from the Congress indicate a wide range of subjects 
discussed, and lead us to believe the interest in our science is 
progressive, and must receive the hearty appreciation of all who 
are inspired by the nobler instincts to develope the great sphere 
on which we live ; that the riches, the beauties, and above all the 
grandeur of Nature, may be made manifest to ourselves and for 
our posterity. 



Geogra/phy of the Air. 49 



REPORT— GEOGRAPHY OF THE AIR. 

By Gen. A. W. Greely. 

It is with a feeling of increased responsibility, shared doubtless 
by the Presidents of other sections, that the Vice-President of 
the Geography of the Air brings before you his modest annual 
contribution in one branch of geographical science. 

We live in an age so imbued with earnest thought, and so 
characterized by patient investigation, that an eager gleaner in 
scientific fields finds at the very outset his mind filled with the 
garnered grain of golden facts. The more cautious searcher 
often follows with uncertain mind, and doubtless in his back- 
ward glances sees many fairer and heavier sheaves than those he 
bears with full arms, from the fruitful harvest. If, then, you do 
not find here dwelt on such geographical phases as you judge 
most important, attribute the fact I pray you, not to neglect, but 
to lack of observation, or to the exercise of an undiscriminating 
judgment. 

First let us turn to the higher class of investigations, wherein 
that handmaid of science, a true and noble imagination, comes to 
supplement exact knowledge, to round out and give full form 
and perfect outline, either shaping a number of disjointed and 
apparently heterogeneous facts into a harmonious series, or evolv- 
ing from a mass of confusing and seemingly inexplicable phe- 
nomena a theory or law consistent therewith. 

In this domain Professor Ferrel's book on Winds is probably 
the most important theoretical meteorological discussion of the 
past year. It owes its value to the fact that it puts into compar- 
atively simple and popular form the processes and results of his 
intricate mathematical investigations of the motions of the air, 
published by him years since, and later elaborated during his 
service with the Signal Office. 

In connection with the subject of winds, Professor William M. 
Davis has formulated an excellent classification, depending first, 
on the ultimate source of the energy causing the motion ; second, 
on temperature contrasts which produce and maintain winds ; 

VOL. II. 4 



50 National Geographic Magazine. 

and third, on their periodicity and the time of the first appear- 
ance of the motion. 

Professor Russell, appropriately it seems to me, remarks 
regarding the landslide winds, that avalanche would be a better 
term than landslide as applied to winds associated with fallen 
masses of earth or snow. 

With the enormous amounts of accumulated tabulated matter, 
and numerous studies bearing on isolated meteorological phe- 
nomena, it is a specially important consideration that some 
students pay constant attention to the investigations of the laws 
of storms. From such researches definite advances in theo- 
retical meteorology may be made and fixed laws determined, 
which may be of practical utility with reference to the better 
forecasting of the weather. In the United States Signal Office, 
Professor Abbe has brought together the results of his studies 
and investigations for the past thirty years, under the title, 
"Preparatory studies for Deductive Methods in Storm and 
Weather Predictions." This report will appear as an appendix 
to the annual report of the Chief Signal Officer of the army. 
Professor Abbe finds that the source and maintaining power of 
storms depend on the absorption by clouds of solar heat, and in 
the liberation of heat in the cloud during the subsequent precipi- 
tation, which, as he endeavors to show, principally influences the 
movement of the storm-centre. 

In this method one takes a chart showing current meteoro- 
logical conditions, and the permanent orographic features of the 
continent ; lines of equal density are also drawn for planes at 
several elevations above sea-level. On these latter, and on the 
lines of the orographic resistance, are based intermediate lines of 
flow, which show where conditions are favorable to cooling and 
condensation. The amount of condensation and its character, 
whether rain or snow, are estimated by the help of the graphic 
diagram. Numbers are thus furnished that can be entered on 
the chart and show at once the character of the new centre of 
buoyancy, or the directions and velocity of progress of the cen- 
tre of the indraft and the consequent low barometer. 

It is hoped that this work of Professor Abbe's may be, as he 
anticipates, of great practical as well as theoretical value. Steps 
are being taken to test the theoretical scheme by practical and 
exhaustive applications to current work. 



Geography of the Air. 51 

Tiesserenc de Bort has continued his work, of improving 
weather forecasts for France, hy studying the distribution of the 
great and important centres of high pressures, which prevail gen- 
erally over the middle Atlantic ocean, and, at certain periods of 
the year, over Asia, Europe, and North America. His studies 
have proceeded on the theory that the displacements of centres 
of high pressure, whether in Asia, over the Azores, near Ber- 
muda, in North America, or in the Polar regions, set up a series 
of secondary displacements, which necessarily cause storm cen- 
tres to follow certain routes. M. de Bort concludes that a daily 
knowledge of the relation of these centres and their areas of dis- 
placement will eventually enable skilled meteorologists to deduce 
the position of unknown and secondary centres. He has endeav- 
ored to reduce these various displacements to a series of types 
and has made very considerable progress in this classification. 
Daily charts covering many years of observations have been pre- 
pared, and these separated, whenever the characteristics are 
sufficiently pronounced, into corresponding types. This plan of 
forecasting necessitates extended meteorological information 
daily, which France obtains not only from Russia, Algeria, Italy 
and Great Britain, but, through the cooperation of United 
States, from North America. The daily information sent by the 
Signal Office shows, in addition to the general weather over the 
United States and Canada, the conditions on the western half of 
the North Atlantic ocean, as determined by observations made 
on the great steamships, and furnished voluntarily by their 
officers to the Signal Office through the Hydrographic Office and 
the New York Herald weather bureau. 

The study of thunder storms has received very elaborate and 
extensive consideration. M. Ciro Ferari in Italy finds that 
almost invariably the storms come from directions between north 
and northwest, the tendency in northern Italy being directly 
from the west, and in the more southern sections from the north- 
west. The velocities of storm movements are much greater 
from the west than from the east, considerably more so in the 
centre and south of Italy than in the north ; and in the months, 
largest in July. 

The velocity of propagation increases with greater velocities 
of the winds accompanying the storms, with also greater attend- 
ant electrical intensity. The front line of propagation while 
more often curved, is sometimes straight and sometimes zigzag, 



52 National Geographic Magazine. 

and appears to undergo a series of successive transformations, 
more or less affected by the topographical nature of the country 
passed over. 

Ferari thinks their principal cause is to be found in high tem- 
peratures coincident with high vapor pressures. Thunder storms, 
he considers, are essentially local phenomena, superposed on the 
general atmospheric phenomena. A principal general cause of 
thunder-storms in Italy is the existence of a deep depression in 
northwest Europe, with a secondary depression in Italy depend- 
ent on the first. This secondary feeble area remains for several 
days over upper Italy, and nearly always is followed by thunder 
storms. Minimum relative humidity precedes, and maximum 
follows a storm, while the vapor pressure conditions are exactly 
reversed. Ferari notes, as one matter of interest, the passage of 
fully developed thunder storms from France into Italy over 
mountains 4,000 metres (13,000 feet) in elevation. 

Dr. Meyer, at Gottingen, has investigated the annual periodic- 
ity of thunder storms, while Carl Prohaska has made a statistical 
study of similar storms in the German and Austrian Alps. The 
latter writer thinks they are most likely to occur when the 
barometer is beginning to rise after a fall, thus resembling heavy 
down-pours of rain. 

In connection with ' Schmucher's theory on the origin of thun- 
der storm electricity, Dr. Less has been able to satisfactorily 
answer in the affirmative an important point in the theory, as to 
whether the vertical decrement of temperature is especially 
rapid. Less finds evidences of very rapid decrement of tempera- 
ture during thunder storms, as shown by the examination of 
records of 120 stations for ten years. 

Mohn and Hildebrandsson have also published a work on the 
thunder storms of the Scandinavian peninsula. The rise in the 
barometer at the beginning of rain, they agree with Mascart in 
attributing largely to the formation of vapor and the evaporation 
of moisture from rain falling through relatively dry air. 

A. Croffins has discussed thunder storms at Hamberg from 
observations for ten years. He believes that all such storms are 
due to the mechanical interaction of at least two barometric 
depressions. 

As a matter of interest bearing on the much discussed phe- 
nomena of globular lightning, an incident is recounted by F. 
Roth, where a man feeding a horse was struck by lightning and 



Geography of the Air. 53 

lost consciousness. The man states that he felt no shock, but 
was suddenly enveloped in light and that a ball of fire the 
size of his fist, traveled along the horse's neck. This points to 
the fact that " ball " lightning is probably a physiological phe- 
nomenon. 

In view of the recent extended interest in the question as to 
whether the climate of the United States is permanently changing, 
it should be remarked that this question has lately been under con- 
sideration with regard to Europe. Messrs. Ferrel, Richter, Lang, 
Bruchen and others conclude, from an examination of all avail- 
able data, that there is no permanent climatic change in Europe. 
In connection with this discussion in Europe, long series of 
vintage records, going back to the year 1400, have been used. 
Apart from the ocean borders, extensive simultaneous climatic 
changes occur over extended areas, which changes — as might be 
expected — are more accentuated in the interior of the continents. 
These changes involve barometric pressure, rainfall and tempera- 
ture, which all recur to that indefinite and complex phenomenon — 
the variation in the amount of heat received by the earth. The idea 
is advanced that these oscillations have somewhat the semblance 
of cycles, the period of which is thirty-six years. It may easily 
be questioned, however, in view of the fragmentary and hetero- 
geneous character of the data on which this assumption is based, 
whether the, error in the observations is not greater than the 
range of variation. Blanford, in one of his discussions, has 
pointed out that the temperature or rainfall data in India can be 
so arranged as to give a cycle with a period of almost any num- 
ber of years, but, unfortunately, the possible error of observation 
is greater in value than the variations. 

As to the United States, it is pertinent to remark that the 
Signal Office is in possession of temperature observations in 
Philadelphia, covering a continuous • period of one hundred and 
thirty-two years. The mean annual temperature for the past ten 
years is exactly the same as for the entire period. 

There have been criticisms in years past that the climatological 
conditions of the United States have not received that care and 
attention which their importance demanded. Much has been 
done to remedy defects in this respect, although, as is well known 
here in Washington, the general law which forbids the printing 
of any works without the direct authority of Congress, has been 
an obvious bar to great activity on the part of the Signal Office. 



54 National Geographic Magazine. 

Within the year the rainfall conditions of twelve Western States 
and Territories have been published with elaborate tables of data 
and fifteen large charts, which set forth in considerable detail the 
rainfall conditions for that section of the country. In addition 
the climatic characteristics of Oregon and Washington have been 
graphically represented ; and rainfall maps, — unfortunately on 
a small scale, — have been prepared, showing for each month, the 
average precipitation of the entire United States, as determined 
from observations covering periods varying from fifteen to eigh- 
teen years. 

In Missouri, Professor Nipher has prepared normal rainfall 
charts for that State, unfortunately on rather a small scale. In 
New York, Professor Fuertes, and in Michigan, Sergeant 
Conger, of the Signal Service, have commenced maps showing, 
by months, the normal temperatures of their respective States on 
maps of fairly open scale. Work of a similar character has been 
carried on in Pennsylvania under the supervision of Professor 
Blodget, well known from his climatological work. In other 
directions and in other ways, work of a similar character is in 
progress. 

Without doubt too much is anticipated from pending or pro- 
jected irrigation enterprises in the very arid regions of the West. 
These unwarranted expectations must in part result from a failure 
on the part of the investors to consider the general question of 
these enterprises, in its varied aspects, with that scientific exact- 
ness so essential in dealing theoretically with extended subjects 
of such great importance. 

Everyone admits the correctness of the statement that the 
amount of water which flows through drainage channels to the 
sea, cannot exceed the amount which has evaporated from adjacent 
oceans and fallen as precipitation on the land. Further it is not 
to be denied that the quantity of water available in any way for 
irrigation must be only a very moderate percentage of the total 
rainfall which occurs at elevations above, and perhaps it may be 
stated considerably above, that of the land to be benefited. 

Elsewhere it might be appropriate to dwell in detail upon the 
importance of cultivated land in serving as a reservoir which 
parts slowly with the water fallen upon or diverted to it, and in 
avoiding the quick and wasteful drainage which obtains in sections 
devoid of extensive vegetation or cultivation ; and also that 
water thus taken up by cultivated lands must later evaj)orate and 



Geography of the Air. 55 

may again fall as rain on other land. But the pertinence of 
meteorological investigations in connection with irrigation and 
this annual address, relates much more directly to important 
questions of the manner by, and extent to which, precipitation 
over the catchment basins of the great central valleys fails to 
return in direct and visible form, through the water courses, to 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

The inter-relation of rainfall and river outflows is one of pecu- 
liar interest, in connection with the important matter of irriga- 
tion now under consideration in this country. 

Probably more attention has been paid to this subject in the 
valley of the Seine, by Belgrand and Chateaublanc, than in any 
other portion of the globe. One of the curious outcomes of Chat- 
eaublanc's observations, is one bearing on the maximum value of 
the floods in the Seine for the cold season, from October to May, 
by which he says that the reading of the river gauge at Port 
Royal is equal to 12.7 minus the number of decimetres of rain- 
fall which has fallen on an average throughout the catchment 
basin during the preceding year. This curiously shows that the 
intensity of the winter floods of the Seine is inversely propor- 
tional to the quantity of rain of the preceding year. 

Sometime since, John Murray, Esq., in. the Scottish Geographic 
Magazine, treated generally the question of rainfall and river 
outflows. The annual rainfall of the globe was estimated to be 
29,350 cubic miles, of which 2,343, falling on inland drainage 
areas, such as the Sahara desert, etc., evaporate. The total 
annual discharge of rivers was estimated at 7,270 cubic miles. 
In the case of European drainage areas between a third and a 
fourth of the rainfall reaches the sea through the rivers. The 
Nile delivers onty one thirty-seventh of the rainfall of its catch- 
ment basin, while tropical rivers in general deliver one-fifth. 

The Saale river of Germany, from late data based on 45 rain- 
fall stations in its catchment basin, during the years 1883 to 
1888, discharged 30 per cent, of its rainfall. 

During the past year Professor Russell, of the Signal Office, 
has determined carefully the rainfall and river outflow over the 
most important part of the United States, the entire catchment 
basin of the Mississippi river and its tributaries. This work was 
done as preliminary to formulating rules for forecasting the 
stage of the water several days in advance on the more import- 
ant of the western rivers in the United States. The river out- 



56 National Geographic Magazine. 

flows at various places on the Mississippi and Missouri and Ohio 
rivers, were tabulated from data given in the reports of the 
Mississippi and Missouri River Commissions. The tables were 
largely derived from the results of the measurement of current 
velocities. As gauge readings were taken at the time of dis- 
charge or outflow measurements, the discharges or outflows can 
be told approximately at other times when only the river gauge 
readings are known. The results for the outflow of rivers 
derived from measurements made under the supervision of these 
commissions, are of a high order of accuracy, and it is not prob- 
able that the results deduced from the gauge readings are much 
m error. Of 1881 and 1882, during which years measurements 
were made, 1881 was a year of great flood in the Missouri river, 
while the Mississippi river was not flooded. The year 1882, on 
the other hand, was marked by a great flood in the lower Missis- 
sippi river, with a stage in the Missouri much above the average. 
The rainfall in the six great valleys of the Mississippi, during the 
entire years 1881 and 1882, was charted from all observations, 
available, and its amount in cubic miles of water calculated with 
the aid of a planimeter. 

In connection with this investigation, and as a matter of value 
in showing the forces which are in operation to affect the river 
outflow, the fictitious or possible evaporation of the six great 
valleys referred to were calculated, in cubic miles of water, from 
July, 1887, to July, 1888, and also the average amounts of water 
in the air as vapor, and the amount required to saturate the air 
in the same valleys during the same period. 

During the year 1882, the year of great flood in the lower 
Mississippi valley, the outflow at Red River Landing, La., was 
202. V cubic miles, of which the upper Mississippi river above St. 
Louis furnished 16 per cent., the Ohio 43, and the whole Missouri 
above Omaha, 4 per cent. The upper Missouri valley (that is, 
from the mouth of the Yellowstone up to the sources), and the 
middle Missouri valley (from the mouth of the Platte to the 
Yellowstone), each furnished only about 2 per cent, of the entire 
amount of the water which passed Red River Landing. The 
lower Mississippi valley, including the Arkansas, etc., furnished 
32 per cent. 

During March, April and May, 1882, the time of highest stage 
of the water of the lower Mississippi, the outflow at Red River 
Landing and through the Atchafalya measured 82.7 cubic miles. 



Geography of the Air. 5T 

During this time there flowed through the upper Mississippi 
river above St. Louis, 14 per cent, of the amount ; through the 
Ohio, 38 per cent., and through the Missouri 6 per cent.; while 
the rivers of the lower Mississippi valley contributed 41 per 
cent. The water that passed Omaha was 1.92 cubic miles, or 2 
per cent, of the flow of the whole Mississippi during the same 
time. The water which flowed from the upper and middle Mis- 
souri valleys during March, April and May, 1882, was for each 
valley, probably only 1 per cent, of the water that flowed through 
the lower Mississippi river. The flood of the lower Mississippi 
was undoubtedly due to the great discharge of the Ohio, supple- 
mented by heavy river inflow below the mouth of the Ohio, and 
the unusually heavy rainfall in the lower Mississippi valley. 

The ratios of river outflow to rainfall over the catchment 
basins, as derived by Professor Russell from the two years' ob- 
servations, 1881 and 1882, were as follows : 

Upper and Middle Missouri valleys, about 335,000 square 
miles, 13 per cent. 

Lower Missouri valley, about 210,000 square miles, 12 per cent. 

Entire Missouri valley, about 545,000 square miles, nearly 13 
per cent. 

• The upper Mississippi valley, about 172,000 square miles, 33 
per cent. 

Ohio valley, about 212,000 square miles, 40 per cent. 

Lower Mississippi valley, about 343,000 square miles, about 21 
per cent. 

The above percentages, while showing the averages for two 
entire years, and so of decided value, are not to be depended 
upon for special years or months. For instance : in the Ohio 
valley in 1881, the outflow was 33 per cent., while in 1882 it was 
50 per cent., and as the rainfall in 1882 was 180 cubic miles 
against 151 cubic miles in 1881, it appears evident that a much 
greater proportional quantity of water reaches the rivers during 
seasons of heavy rainfalls than when the precipitation is moder- 
ate or scanty. 

Evaporation is also a very potent cause in diminishing river 
outflow, and as this depends largely on the temperature of the 
air and the velocity of the wind, any marked deviation of these 
meteorological elements from the normal, must exercise an im- 
portant influence on the ratio of outflow to rainfall. 



58 National Geographic Magazine. 

In connection with Professor Russell's work it is desirable to 
note that Professor F. E. Nipher has lately made a report on the 
Missouri rainfall based on observations for the ten years ending 
December, 1887, in which he points out as an interesting coinci- 
dence that the average annual discharge of the Missouri river 
closely corresponds in amount to the rainfall which falls over 
the State of Missouri. From Professor Nipher's figures it 
appears that the discharge of the Missouri river in the ten years 
ending 1887, was greatest in 1881 and next greatest in. 1882, so 
that the averages deduced from Professor Russell's report of the 
outflow of the Missouri are too large, and should be somewhat 
reduced to conform to the average conditions. In different years 
the average of the discharge in the outflow of the Missouri 
varies largely, as is evidenced by the fact reported by Professor 
Nipher, that the discharge in 1879 was only 56 per cent, of the 
outflow in 1881. 

In New South Wales, under the supervision of H. C. Russell, 
Esq., government astronomer, the question of rainfall and river 
discharge has also received careful attention, especially in con- 
nection with evaporation. The observations at Lake George are 
important, owing to the shallowness of the lake (particularly at 
the margin); its considerable surface area (eighty square miles) > 
its moderate elevation (2,200 feet), and the fact that it is quite 
surrounded by high lands. Observations of the fluctuations of 
this lake have been made from 1885 to 1888, inclusive. In the 
latter year the evaporation was enormous, being 47.7 inches 
against a rainfall of 23.9 and an in- drain age of 5.3 inches, so that 
the total loss in depth was 18.5 inches for the year. It appears 
that the evaporation in different years on this lake varies as 
much as 50 per centum of the minimum amount. According to 
Russell the amount of evaporation depends largely on the state 
of the soil, going on much faster from a wet surface of the 
ground than from water ; with dry ground the conditions are 
reversed. In 1887, the outflow from the basin of Lake George, 
the drainage from which is not subject to loss by long river 
channels, was only 3.12 per centum of the rainfall. 

In the Darling river, above Bourke, says Russell, the rainfall 
is measured by 219 gauges. The average river discharge, 
deduced from observations covering seven years, is only 1.45 per 
centum of the rainfall, and in the wettest year known the dis- 
charge amounted only to 2.33 per centum of the rainfall, and has 



Geography of the Air. 59 

been as low as 0.09 per centum in a very dry year. In the Mur- 
ray basin the average discharge relative to the rainfall is esti- 
mated to be about 27 per centum from a record of seven years, 
and has risen as high as 36 per centum in a flood year. 

In connection with the regimen of rivers, it appears a proper 
occasion to again refute the popular opinion that the spring and 
summer floods of the Missouri and Mississippi valleys result from 
the melting of the winter snows. This is an erroneous impres- 
sion which I have combatted since 1873, when my duties 
required a study of the floods of the entire Mississippi catchment 
basin. It is only within the last two years, however, that the 
meteorological data has been in such condition that the opinion 
put forth by me could be verified, namely : that the floods of the 
late spring and early summer owe their origin almost entirely to 
the heavy rains immediately before and during the flood period. 
Occasionally a very heavy fall of snow precedes extended gen- 
eral rains ; but in this case the snow is lately fallen and is not 
the winter precipitation. 

Referring to the Missouri valley, the section of the country 
where the winter snowfall has been thought to exercise a domin- 
ating influence in floods, it has elsewhere been shown by me that 
about one-third of the annual precipitation falls over that valley 
during the months of May and June. In either of the months 
named the average precipitation over the Missouri valley is 
greater than the entire average precipitation for the winter 
months of December, January and February. 

Woiekoff thinks that the anomalies of temperatures shown in 
forest regions, particularly in Brazil — with its abnormally low 
temperatures, are due to heavy forests promoting evaporation, 
and by causing the prevalence of accompanying fogs thus pre- 
vent more intense insolation. He considers this an argument for 
the maintenance of forests to sustain humidity and distribute 
rain over adjacent cultivated land, as well as to maintain the fer- 
tility of the soil, which diminishes rapidly by washing away of 
the soil after deforestation. 

W. Koppen has devised a formula for deriving the true daily 
temperature from 8 a. m., 2 p. m. and 8 p. m. observations in con- 
nection with the minimum temperature, in which the minimum 
has a variable weight dependent on place and month. The 
results of Koppen's formula tested on six stations in widely dif- 
ferent latitudes, indicate that it is of value. 



60 National Geographic Magazine. 

Paulsen's discussion of the warm winter winds of Greenland is 
interesting. These unusual storm conditions last three or four 
days, or even longer, the temperature being at times from 35° 
to 40° Fahr. above the normal, and they appear principally with 
winds from northeast to southeast, which Hoffmeyer believes to 
be foehn winds. Paulsen contends that the extensive region 
over which these winds occur make the foehn theory untenable, 
and that a more reasonable explanation of these winds is to be 
found in the course of low areas passing along the coast or over 
Greenland. This appears evident from the fact that not the 
easterly winds only but the southerly winds share this high tem- 
perature, and that as low areas approach from the west, at first 
the regions of the Greenland coast within its influence have 
south to southwest winds. 

The question of wind pressures and wind velocities is a most 
important one in these days of great engineering problems, par- 
ticularly in connection with the stability of bridges and other 
large structures. 

Experimental determination of the constants of anemometric 
formulae have recently been made both in England and this 
country. From results obtained in the English experiments it 
was concluded that the very widely used Robinson anemometer 
is not as satisfactory and reliable an instrument as a different 
form of anemometer devised by Mr. Dines. These conclusions, 
however, are not sustained by the American experiments, which 
were made by Professor C. F. Marvin, Signal Office, by means of a 
whirling apparatus, and under the most favorable circumstances, 
which yielded highly satisfactory results. Professor Marvin has 
lately made very careful open air comparisons of anemometers pre- 
viously tested on the whirling machine, which have shown that, 
owing in part to the irregular and gusty character of the wind 
movement in the open air, taken in connection with the effects 
arising from the moment of inertia of the cups, and the length 
of the arms of the anemometer, the constants determined by 
whirling machine methods need slight corrections and alterations 
to conform to the altered conditions of exposure of the instru- 
ments in the open air. This latter problem is now being experi- 
mentally studied at the Signal Office, and final results will soon 
be worked out. 

Professor Langley has also made very elaborate observations 
of pressures on plane and other surfaces inclined to the normal, 



Geography of the Air. 61 

which it is believed will prove important contributions to this 
question, but the results have not yet been published. It is im- 
portant in this connection to note experiments made by Cooper 
on the Frith of Forth Bridge, where a surface of 24 square 
metres, during a high wind, experienced a maximum pressure of 
132 kilogrammes per square metre, while a surface of 14 square 
decimeters showed, under similar conditions, 200 kilogrammes per 
square metre, by one instrument, and 170 by another. The opin- 
ion expressed by Cooper that in general the more surface ex- 
posed to the wind, the less the pressure per unit of surface, seems 
reasonable, and if verified by more elaborate experiments must 
have an important bearing. 

There are questions in connection with which even negative 
results are of an important character, particularly when such re- 
sults are quite definite, and tend to remove one of many unknown 
elements from physical problems of an intricate character. In 
this class may be placed atmospheric electricity, with particular 
reference to its value in connection with the forecast of coming 
weather. The Signal Office, through Professor T. C. Menden- 
hall, a distinguished scientist peculiarly fitted for work of this 
character, has been able to carry out a series of observations, 
which have received from him careful attention, both as to the 
conditions under which the observations were made and in the 
elaboration of methods to be followed. 

Professor Mendenhall also supervised the reduction of these ob- 
servations, and after careful study presented a full report of the 
work to the National Academy of Sciences, in whose proceedings 
this detailed report will appear. Professor Mendenhall says, 
" Taking all the facts into consideration, it seems to be proved 
that the electrical phenomena of the atmosphere are generally 
local in their character. They do not promise, therefore, to be 
useful in weather forecasts, although a close distribution of a 
large number of observers over a comparatively small area would 
be -useful in removing any doubt which may still exist as to this 
question." It may be added that Professor MendenhalPs conclu- 
sions bear out the opinions expressed to the speaker, in a discus- 
sion of this question, by Professor Mascart, the distinguished 
physicist. 

It has been generally admitted that the aqueous vapor in the 
atmosphere plays a most important part in bringing about the 
formation of storms and maintaining their energy. It has been 



62 National Geographic Magazine. 

frequently commented on by the forecast officials of the Signal 
Seiwice, that storms passing over the United States were in gene- 
ral preceded by an increase in moisture, but unfortunately little 
effort had been made on the part of previous investigators to de- 
termine any quantitative relation between the actual humidity 
and the amount of precipitation or its relation to the storm move- 
ment. It has long been regretted that the direct relations of this 
to other meteorological phenomena were not more fully defined. 
During the past year Captain James Allen, of the Signal Office, 
has endeavored to apply the results of his investigations and 
theories to the practical forecasts of storm conditions. Captain 
Allen has carefully studied the relations of the potential energy 
of the, surface air, as represented by the total quantity of heat it 
contained, to the movement of storm centres and the extent of 
accompanying rain areas. In his first investigations the potential 
energy per cubic foot was estimated as follows : Supposing the 
air to have been originally 32° and the moisture in it as water at 
32°, the total quantity of heat applied to reduce to the state of 

u 32} 

observation will be A= • + Q in which A is total heat per 

6 

unit volume ; t is the temperature of the air, Q the total heat of 
vapor, and the specific heat of air at constant volume being 
taken as one-sixth (.168). From Regnault's formula we have 
Q = 1091.7 + .305(2— 32). 

For the mechanical equivalent we have J = 772A. If we 
divide J by the pressure estimated in pounds per square foot, it 
will give the height through which the pressure can be lifted if 
all the heat is spent in work by expanding the air. 

An approximate expression for the upward velocity V may be 
obtained from Torrecelli's theorem from which we have V*=2gh, 
h in this case being being the height through which the pressure 
would be lifted if all the heat is spent in work. The theory has 
been that the storm centre will move over that section of the 
country where V is the greatest, and that the time of occurrence 
and amount of rain have a relation of conformity to the changes 
in Q and its actual amount. 

Auxiliary charts were also made showing for each station the 
following following values of Q: 

1st. Highest Q not followed by rain in 24 hours. 

2d. Greatest plus change in Q not followed by rain in 24 hours. 

3d. Lowest value for Q followed by rain in 12 hours. 



Geography of the Air. 63 

A tentative application of the theory during December, 1889, 
has given very encouraging results. The problem can be ap- 
proached in many different ways, but the basis of the solution is 
the determination of the actual energy of the air, both potential 
and kinetic, as well as differences of potential. 

Probably the most important event of the past year to gene- 
ral meteorological students has been the publication of Part I, 
Temperature, and Part II, Moisture, of the Bibliography of 
Meteorology, under the supervision of the Signal Office, and 
edited by Mr. O. L. Fassig. The two parts cover 8,500 titles out 
of a total of about 60,000. This publication renders it now possi- 
ble for any investigator to review the complete literature of 
these subjects, not only with a minimum loss of time, but with 
the advantage of supplementing his own work, without duplica- 
tion, by the investigations of his predecessors. The publication 
is a lithographic reproduction of a type-written copy, the only 
available method, which leaves much to be desired on the grounds 
of appearance, space and clearness. 

The experiments of Crova and Houdaille on Mount Venteux, 
elevation 1,907 'metres, and at Bedoin, 309 metres, are of more 
than transient interest since they fix the solar constant at a height 
of 1,907 metres, at about three calories ; agreeing with the value 
obtained by Langley on Mt. Whitney, Cal. 

With this brief allusion to the important phenomena of sun- 
heat, whereon depend not only the subordinate manifestations 
pertaining to this section, but those relating to all other depart- 
ments, this report may appropriately close. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 

YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 188 



C. J. Bell, Treasurer, in account with. National Geographic 

Society. 
Balance on hand as per last account. $626.70 

Receipts. 

To amount of annual dues for 1889 $865 

" " " " 1890 20 

To Life Members 50 

935.00 

Note for $1,000 with interest paid off, Nov. 16, 1869 1,032.08 

Sale of Maps 1.41 

Surplus from Field Meeting 25.35 



$2,620.54 
Investments on Hand, Dec. 31, 1889. 

Note dated March 27, 1889, for the sum of $750, with interest 
@ 6f , due March 27, 1890. Secured by real estate. 

Disbursements. 

By Cost of Magazine, No. 2... $174.46 

" " " No. 3 233.66 

" " " No. 4 197.28 

" Directory of Society 28.35 

" Rent of Hall at Cosmos Club 45.00 

" Printing, Stationery and Postage 108.72 

" Sundries 13.00 

1889. 800.47 

Mar. 26. By Loan on collateral 1,000.00 

" Note for $750 and interest, from 
March 27, 1889, for 1 year @ 

Qf , due March 27, 1890 756.25 

Balance in Bank 63.82 

$2,620.54 



REPORT OF AUDITING COMMITTEE. 



December 27, 1889. 
To the National Geographic Society : 

The undersigned, having been appointed an auditing commit- 
tee to examine the account of the Treasurer for 1889, make the 
following report : 

We have examined the Treasurer's books and find that the re- 
ceipts as therein stated are correctly reported. We have com- 
pared the disbursements with the vouchers for the same and find 
them to have been properly approved and correctly recorded 
We have examined the bank account and compared the checks 
accompanying the same. We find the balance (beside the sum 
of $756.25 invested in real estate note) as reported by the Treas- 
urer ($63.82) consistent with the balance as shown by the bank- 
book ($82.82), the difference being explained by the fact that 
there are two outstanding checks for the sum of $19.00 not yet 
presented for payment. 

Bailey Willis, 
R. BirjStie, Jr., 
Willard D. Johnson, 

Auditing Committee. 



VOL. II. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



RECORDING SECRETARY. 



The first report of the Secretaries was presented to the Society, 
December 28, 1888. At that time the Society had a total mem- 
bership of 209. Since that date this membership has been in- 
creased by the election of 36 new members ; it has been decreased 
by the death of 3 and by the resignation of 14. The net increase 
in membership is thus 19 and the present membership is 228, in- 
cluding 3 life members. The deceased members are, Z. L. White, 
G. W. Dyer and Charles A. Ashburner. 

The number of meetings held during the year was 17, of which 
15 were for the presentation and discussion of papers ; one was a 
field meeting held at Harper's Ferry, W. Va., on Saturday, May 
11, 1889, and one, the annual meeting. The average attendance 
was about 65. 

The publication of a magazine begun last year, has been con- 
tinued, and three additional numbers have been published, being* 
Nos. 2, 3 and 4 of Vol. I. Copies of the numbers have been 
sent to all members and also to about 75 American and foreign 
scientific societies and other institutions interested in Geography. 
As a result the Society is now steadily in receipt of geographical 
publications from various parts of the world. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Henry Gannett, Recording Secretary. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 

ABSTRACT OF MINUTES. 



Nov. 1, 1889. Twenty-seventh Meeting. 

A paper was read entitled, -'Telegraphic Determinations of 
Longitudes by the Bureau of Navigation," by Lieutenant J. A. 
Norris, TJ. S. 1ST. Published in the National Geographic Maga- 
zine, Vol. 2, No. 1. 

Nov. 15, 1889. Twenty-eighth Meeting. 

A paper was read by Ensign Everett Hayden, TJ. S. N., en- 
titled, " Law of Storms considered with Special Reference to 
the North Atlantic," illustrated by lantern slides. It was dis- 
cussed by Messrs. Greely and Hayden. 

Nov. 29, 1889. Twenty-ninth Meeting. 

A paper was read by Mr. H. M. Wilson entitled, " The Irriga- 
tion Problem in Montana." Discussion was participated in by 
Messrs. Dutton, Greely and Wilson. 

Bee. 13, 1889. Thirtieth Meeting. 

The paper of the evening was by Mr. I. C. Russell upon "A 
Trip up the Yukon River, Alaska," and was illustrated by lan- 
tern slides. 

Deo. 27, 1889. Thirty-first Meeting — 2d Annual Meeting. 

Vice-President Thompson in the chair. The minutes of the 
first annual meeting were read and approved. Annual reports of 
the secretaries and treasurer and the report of the auditing com- 
mittee were presented and approved. The following officers were 
then elected for the succeeding vear : 



68 National Geographic Magazine. 

President — Gardiner G. Hubbard. 

Vice-Presidents— Herbert G. Ogden, [land] ; Everett Hayden, 
[sea] ; A. W. Greely, [air] ; C. Hart Merriam, [life] ; A. H. Thomp- 
son, [art.] 

Treasurer— Charles J. Bell. 

Recording Secretary — Henry Gannett. 

Corresponding Secretary — O. H. Tittmann. 

Managers — Cleveland Abbe, Marcus Baker, Rogers Birnie, Jr., 
G. Brown Goode, W. D. Johnson, C. A. Kenaston, W. B. Powell 
and James C. "Welling. 

Jan. 10, 1890. Thirty-second Meeting. 

The annual reports of Vice-Presidents Ogden and Greely were 
presented. Published in the National Geographic Magazine, 
Vol. 2, No. 1. 

Jan. &£, 1890. Thirty-third Meeting. 

A paper was read entitled, "The Rivers of Northern New 
Jersey," with notes on the " General Classification of Rivers," 
by Professor William M. Davis. The subject was discussed 
by Messrs. Davis, Gilbert and McGee. 

Feb. 7, 1890. Thirty-fourth Meeting. 

The annual report of Vice-President Merriam was presented. 
A paper on "Bering's First Expedition," was read by Dr. W. H. 
Dall. 

Feb. 21st, 1890. Thirty-fifth Meeting. 

Held in the Lecture Hall of Columbian University. The annual 
address of the President, Mr. Gardiner G. Hubbard, was deliv- 
ered, the subject being " Asia, Its Past and Future." Published 

in "Science," Vol. XV, No. 371. 

Feb. 28th, 1890. Special Meeting. 

Held in the Lecture Hall of Columbian University. A paper 
was read by Lieut. Com'dr Chas. H. Stockton, U. S. N., entitled 
" The Arctic Cruise of the Thetis During the Summer and 
Autumn of 1889," which was illustrated by lantern slides. 

March 7th, 1890. Thirty-sixth Meeting. 

A paper was read by Mr. Romyn Hitchcock, entitled " A 
Glimpse of Chinese Life in Canton." 



OFFICEKS 

1890. 



President. 
GARDINER G. HUBBARD. 

Vice-Presidents. 
HERBERT G. OGDEN. 
EVERETT HAYDEN. 
A. W. GREELY. 
C. HART MERRIAM. 
A. H. THOMPSON. 

Treasurer. 
CHARLES J. BELL. 



Secretaries. 



HENRY GANNETT. 



O. H. TITTMANN. 



Managers. 



CLEVELAND ABBE. 
MARCUS BAKER. 
ROGERS BIRNIE, Jr. 
G. BROWN GOODE. 



W. D. JOHNSON. 
C. A. KENASTON. 
W. B. POWELL. 
JAMES C. WELLING. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



a, original members. 
I, life members. 
* Deceased. 

In cases where no city is given in the address, Washington, D. C, is to be under- 
stood. 



Abbe, Peof. Cleveland, a, I, 

Army Signal Office. 2017 I Street. 
Abeet, S. T., 

1928J Pennsylvania Avenue. 
Aheen, Jeeemiah, 

Geological Survey. 804 Tenth Street. 
Allen, De. J. A., 

American Museum Natural History, New York, N. Y. 
Aplin, S. A., Je., 

Geological Survey. 1513 R Street. 
Aeeick, Cliffoed, a, 

Geological Survey. 1131 Fourteenth Street. 
* AsHBUENEE, , PEOF. ChAELES A. 

Atkinson, W. P., a, 

Geological Survey. 2900 Q Street. 
Atees, Miss S. C, a, 

502 A Street SE. 
Bakee, Peof. Feank, a, 

Life Saving Service. 1315 Corcoran Street. 
Bakee, Maecus, a, 

Geological Survey. 1905 Sixteenth Street. 
Baldwin, H. L. Je., a, 

Geological Survey. 125 Sixth Street NE. 
Baeclat, A. C, 

Geological Survey. 1312 G Street. 
Baenaed, E. C, a, 

Geological Survey. 1773 Massachusetts Avenue. 
Baetle, E. F., 

947 Virginia Avenue SW. 
Baetlett, Comde. J. E., U. S. N., a, 

Providence, R. I. 



Members of the Society. 71 

Bartlett, P. Y. S., 

Geological Survey. 806 Seventeenth Street. 

Bassett, C. C, «, 

Geological Survey. 929 New York Avenue. 

Bell, A. Graham, a, 

1336 Nineteenth Street. 

Bell, Chas. J., a, 

1437 Pennsylvania Avenue. 1328 Nineteenth Street. 

Bernadou, Ens. J. B., IT. S. N., 

Office of Naval Intelligence. 1908 F. Street. 

Bien, Julius, a, 

139 Duane Street, New York, N. Y. 

Bien, Morris, a, 

Geological Survey. Takoma Park, D. C. 

Birnie, Capt. Rogers, Jr., U. S. A., a, 

Ordnance Office. 1341 New Hampshire Avenue. 
Blair, H. B., a, 

Geological Survey. 1831 F Street. 
Blodgett, James H., a, 

Census Office. 1237 Massachusetts Avenue. 
Bodfish, S. H., «, 

Geological Survey. 58 B Street NE. 
Boutelle, Capt. C. O., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 105 Fourth Street NE. 
Brent, L. D., 

Geological Survey. 1741 F Street. 
Brewer, H. G., a, 

Hydrographic Office. Meridian Avenue, Mt. Pleasant. 

Brown, Miss E. V., 

1312 R Street. 
Burton, Prof. A. E., a, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Carpenter, Z. T., a, 

1003 F Street. 1009 Thirteenth Street. 
Chapman, R. H., a, 

Geological Survey. 1207 L Street. 
Chatard, Dr. Thos. M., a, 

Geological Survey. The Portland. 

Chester, Comdr. Colby M., U. S. 1ST., 

Navy Department. 
Christie, Peter £L, 

Geological Survey. 811 Ninth Street. 



72 National Geographic Magazine. 

Clark, A. Howard, 

National Museum. 1527 S Street. 
Clark, E. B., «, 

Geological Survey. Laurel, Md. 
Colonna, B. A., 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 23 Grant Place. 
Colvin, Yerplanck, a, 

Albany, New York. 
Court, E. E., 

Hydrographic Office. Seventeenth Street, Mt. Pleasant. 
Craven, Ens. John E., U. S. K, 

Hydrographic Office. 1313 Twenty-second Street. 
Cummin, E. D., a, 

Geological Survey. 1105 Thirteenth Street. 
Curtis, "William Eleroy, a, 

513 Fourteenth Street. 1801 Connecticut Avenue. 
Darwin, Chas. C, a, 

Geological Survey. 1907 Harewood Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
Davidson, Prof. George, a, 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, San Francisco, Cal. 
Davis, Arthur P., a, 

Geological Survey. 1910 Larch Street, Le Droit Park. 
Davis, Mrs. Arthur P., 

1910 Larch Street, Le Droit Park. 
Davis, Prof. Wm. M., a, 

Cambridge, Mass. ' 
Day, Dr. David T., 

Geological Survey. 1411 Chapin Street. 
Dennis, "W". H., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 12 Iowa Circle. 
Diller, J. S., a, 

Geological Survey. 1804 Sixteenth Street. 
Douglas, E. M., a, 

Geological Survey. Takoma Park, D. C 
Dow, John M., 

Pacific Mail S. S. Co., Panama, U. S. Colombia. 
Duke, Basil, a, 

Geological Survey. 1831 F Street. 
Dunnington, A. F., a, 

Geological Survey. 1000 North Carolina Avenue SE. 
Durand, John, 

164 Bd. Montparnasse, Paris, France. 
Dutton, A. H., a, 

Hydrographic Office. 1338 Nineteenth Street. 



Members of the Society. 73 

Dutton, Capt. C. E., TJ. S. A., a, 

Geological Survey. 2024 R Street. 
Dyer, Lieut. G. L., U. S. N., 

Navy Department. 

Edson, J. R,, a, 

1003 F Street. 1705 Q Street. 

Elltcott, Ens. John M., TJ. S. 1ST., 

Office of Naval Intelligence. 3009 P Street. 
Elliott, Lieut. W. P., TJ. S. N., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Fairfield, G. A., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Fairfield, Walter B., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Farmer, Robert A., 

Geological Survey. 1312 G Street. 

Fernow, B. E., a, 

Department of Agriculture. 1843 R Street. 

Fischer, E. G., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 436 New York Avenue. 
Fitch, C. EL, a, 

Geological Survey. 3025 N Street. 
Fletcher, L. C, a, 

Geological Survey. 1831 F Street. 
Fletcher, Dr. Robert, a, 

Army Medical Museum. The Portland. 

Foot, Sam'l A., 

Geological Survey. 918 H Street. 

Gage, IS". P., a, 

Seaton School. 401 Fourth Street. 
Gannett, Henry, a, 

Geological Survey. 1881 Harewood Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
Gannett, S. S., a, 

Geological Survey. 401 Spruce Street, Le Droit Park. 
Gilbert, G. K., a, 

Geological Survey. 1424 Corcoran Street. 
Gilman, Dr. D. C., a, 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Goode, G. Brown, a, 

National Museum. Lanier Heights. 
Goode, R. U., a, 

Geological Survey. 1538 I Street. 
Goodfellow, Edward, a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 7 Dupont Circle. 



74 National Geographic Magazine. 

Gordon, R. O., a, 

Geological Survey. 

Granges, E. D., 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Greelt, Gen. A. "W., U. S. A., a, 

Army Signal Office. 1914 G Street. 
Griswold, W. T., a, 

Geological Survey. Cosmos Club. 
Gulliver, F. P., 

Geological Survey. 811 Ninth Street. 
Hackett, Merrill, a, 

Geological Survey. 318 Third Street. 
Harrison, D. C, a, 

Geological Survey. 1326 Corcoran Street. 
Harrod, Major B. M., 

Miss. River Commission, New Orleans, La. 

Hasbrouck, E. M., 

Geological Survey. 1305 E Street. 
Haskell, E. E., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1418 Fifteenth Street. 
Hayden, Ens. Everett, IT. S. N., a, 

Hydrographic Office. 1802 Sixteenth Street. 
Hayes, C. Willard, 

Geological Survey. 1616 Kiggs Place. 

Hays, J. W., 

Heaton, A. G., 

Henry, A. G., a, 

Henshaw, H. W., a, 

Herrle, Gustav, a, 

Herron, W. H., a, 

Hill, Geo. A., a, 

Hill, Prof. R. T., 

Hinman, Russell, 

In care Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Hodgkins, Prof. H. L., a, 

Columbian University. 1511 Tenth Street. 



Geological Survey. 2225 Thirteenth Street. 

1618 Seventeenth Street. 

Army Signal Office. 948 S Street. 

Bureau of Ethnology. 13 Iowa Circle. 

Hydrographic Office. 646 C Street NE. 

Geological Survey. 1008 H Street. 

Naval Observatory. 2626 K Street. 

State Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 



Members of the Society. 75 

HoDGKINS, "W. C, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 416 B Street, NE. 
Hollerith, Herman, 

Room 48 Atlantic Building. 3107 N Street. 
Hopkins, C. L., 

Department of Agriculture. 1004 H Street. 
Hornaday, W. T., a, 

National Museum. 405 Spruce Street, Le Droit Park. 

Howell, E. E., a, 

48 Oxford Street, Rochester, N. Y. 
Howell, D. J., a, 

District Building. Alexandria, Va. 
Hubbard, Gardiner G-., a, 

1328 Connecticut Avenue. 
Hyde, G. E., 

Geological Survey. 330 Spruce Street, Le Droit Park. 
Iardella, C. T., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1536 I Street. 
Jennings, J. H., a, 

Geological Survey. 824 I Street NE. 
Johnson, A. B., a, 

Light House Board. 501 Maple Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
Johnson, J. B., 

Howard University. 2460 Sixth Street. 
Johnson, S. P., 

Geological Survey. 501 Maple Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
Johnson, "W. T>., a, 

Geological Survey. 501 Maple Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
Jttnken, Charles, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 140 B Street, NE. 
Karl, Anton, a, 

Geological Survey. 1230 Eleventh Street. 
Kauffmann, S. H., a, 

1421 Massachusetts Avenue. 
Kenaston, Prof. C. A., a, 

Howard University. 

Kennan, George, a, 

1318 Massachusetts Avenue. 
Kennedy, Dr. George G., I, 

284 Warren Street, Roxbury, Mass. 
Kerr, Mark B., a, 

Geological Survey. 1708 M Street. 



76 National Geographic Magazine. 

Kimball, E. F., 

Post Office Department. 411 Maple Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
Kimball, S. I., a, 

Life Saving Service. 411 Maple Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
King, F. H., 

University of "Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 
King, Prof. Harry, a, 

Geological Survey. 1319 Q Street. 

King, William B., 

906 F Street. 1328 Twelfth Street. 

Knight, F. J., a, 

Geological Survey. 

Knowlton, F. H., a, 

Geological Survey. 

Koch, Peter, a, 

Bozeman, Mont. 

Lackland, W. E., a, 

Geological Survey. 1305 Corcoran Street. 
Lambert, M. B., 

Geological Survey. 1431 Rhode Island Avenue. 
Leach, Boynton, 

Hydrographic Office. 2028 P Street. 
Lerch, R. L., a, 

Hydrographic Office. 936 K Street. 
LlNDENKOHL, AdOLPH, a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 19 Fourth Street SE. 

LlNDENKOHL, HENRY, a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 452 K Street. 
Lippincott, J. Barlow, 

Geological Survey. 1802 M Street. 
LONGSTREET, R. L., a, 

Geological Survey. 1536 I Street. 
Lovell, "W. EL, 

Geological Survey. 413 Spruce Street, Le Droit Park. 
McCormick, James, 

Geological Survey. 1001 Eleventh Street. 
McGee, "W J, a, 

Geological Survey. 2410 Fourteenth Street. 

McGtll, Miss Mary C, 

336 C Street. 

McKee, R. EL, a, 

Geological Survey. 1753 Rhode Island Avenue. 
McKinney, R. C, a, 

Geological Survey. 1120 Thirteenth Street. 



Members of the Society. 77 

Maher, James A., a, 

Johnson City, Tenn. 
Manning, Yan. H., Jr., a, 

Geological Survey. 1331 N Street. 
Marindin, H. L., 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Marshall, Robert B., 

Geological Survey. 1431 Rhode Island Avenue. 
Matthews, Dr. Washington, U. S. A., a, 

Army Medical Museum. 1262 New Hampshire Avenue. 
Melville, Eng. in Chief, Geo. "W., U. S. ~N., a, I, 

Navy Department. 1705 H Street. 
Mendenhall, Prof. T. C, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 220 New Jersey Avenue SE. 
Menocal, Civ. Eng. A. G., IT. S. 1ST., a, 

Navy Department. 2012 Hillyer Place. 
Merriam, Dr. C. Hart, a, * 

Department of Agriculture. 1919 Sixteenth Street. 
MlNDELEFF, COSMOS, 

Bureau of Ethnology. 1401 Stoughton Street. 

MlNDELEFF, YlCTOR, 

Bureau of Ethnology. 2504 Fourteenth Street. 
Mitchell, Prof. Henry, a, 

18 Hawthorne Street, Eoxbury, Mass. 
Mosman, A. T., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Muldrow, Robert, a, 

Geological Survey. 1511 Rhode Island Avenue. 
Murlin, A. E., 

Geological Survey. 1550 Third Street. 
Natter, E. W. F., a, 

Readville, Mass. 
Nell, Louis, a, 

Geological Survey. 1118 Virginia Avenue SW. 
Niles, Prof. "W. H., 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
ISTordhoff, Charles, a, 

701 Fifteenth Street. 1731 K Street. 
Ogden, Herbert G., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1324 Nineteenth Street. 
Parsons, F. H., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 210 First Street SE. 
*Patton, Pres. W. W., a. 



78 National Geographic Magazine. 

Peale, Dr. A. C, a, 

Geological Survey. 1446 Stoughton Street. 
Peaey, Civ. Eng. R. E., IT. S. K, 

League Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Penrose, P. A. F., Jr., 

State Geological Survey, Little Rock, Ark. 
Perkins, E. T., Jr., a, 

Geological Survey. 1831 F Street. 
Peters, Lieut. G. H., IT. S. 1ST., a, 

Navy Department. 
Peters, William J., a, 

Geological Survey. 1881 F Street. 

Phillips, P. H., 

1511 Vermont Avenue. 
Picking, Capt. Henry E., U. S. IS., 

Hydrographic Office. Baltimore, Md. 
Pierce, Josiah, Jr., 

Geological Survey. 806 Seventeenth Street. 

Powell, Major J. W., a, 

Geological Survey. 910 M Street. 
Powell, Prof. Wm. B., a, 

Franklin School Building. 

Prentiss, Dr. D. W., a, 

1101 Fourteenth Street. 

Pumpelly, Prof. Raphael, 

U. S. Geological Survey, Newport, R. I. 

Renshawe, Jno. H., a, 

Geological Survey. 

Ricksecker, Eugene, a, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Ritter, H. P., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1905 Sixteenth Street. 

Roberts, A. C, a, 

Hydrographic Office. 

Rodman, Ens. Hugh, U. S. ~N., 

Hydrographic Office. 2015 Hillyer Place. 

Russell, I. C, a, 

Geological Survey. 1616 Riggs Place. 

Sargent, Prof. C. S., a, 

Brookline, Mass. 

Schley, Capt. W. S., U. S. K, a, 

Navy Department. 

Scudder, Sam. H., a, 

Cambridge, Mass. 



Members of the Society. 79 

Shalee, Peof. N. S., a, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

SlEBEET, J. S., 

Hydrographic Office. 1911 Hare wood Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
Sinclair, C. H., 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

SlNCLAIE, J. C, 

4 Lafayette Square. 
Smith, Edwin, a. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. Rockville, Md. 
Smith, Middleton, a, 

Army Signal Office. 1616 Nineteenth Street. 
Sommer, E. J., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 330 A Street SE. 
Stein, Robebt, 

Geological Survey. 710 Eleventh Street. 
Stejnegee, Leonhaed, a, 

National Museum. 
Stockton, Lt. Comde. C. H., U. S. ]ST., a, 

Navy Department. 
Sutton, Fbank, 

Geological Survey. 702 Nineteenth Street. 
Thomas, Miss Maey von E., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Thompson, Peof. A. H., a, 

Geological Survey. 
Thompson, Gilbeet, a, 

Geological Survey. 1448 Q Street. 
Thompson, Laueence, a, 

In care Northern Pacific R. R. Co. , Seattle, Wash. 
Thompson, Lieut. R. E., U. S. A., a, 

Army Signal Office. 2011 N Street. 
Tittmann, O. H., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1019 Twentieth Street. 
Towson, R. M., a, 

Geological Survey. 1446 N Street. 
Tweedy, Feank, a, 

Geological Survey. 1311 M Street. 
Uequhaet, Chas. F., a, 

Geological Survey. 1538 I Street. 
Yasey, De. Geoege, a, 

Department of Agriculture. 2006 Fourteenth Street. 
Yinal, W. I., a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 152 D Street SE. 



80 National Geographic Magazine. 

Yon Haake, Adolph, 

Post Office Department. 1215 L Street. 
Walcott, C. D., a, 

Geological Survey. 418 Maple Avenue, Le Droit Park. 
Wallace, Hamilton S., a, 

Geological Survey. 1813 M Street. 
Ward, Lester F., a, 

Geological Survey. 1464 Rhode Island Avenue. 
Weed, Walter H., a, 

Geological Survey. 825 Vermont Avenue. 
Weik, J. B., a, 

1602 L Street. 
Welling, Dr. James C, a, 

Columbian University. 1302 Connecticut Avenue. 
White, Dr. C. H., TJ. S. N., 

Navy Department. 
Whiting, Henry L., 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. West Tisbury, Mass. 
Wilder, Gen. J. T., a I, 

Johnson City, Tenn. 
Wilder, Miss Mart, 

Johnson City, Tenn. 

Willis, Bailey, <x, 

Geological Survey. 1617 Riggs Place. 
Willis, Mrs. Bailey, 

1617 Riggs Place. 

Wilson, A. E., 

Geological Survey. 

Wilson, H. M., a, 

Geological Survey. Cosmos Club. 

Wilson, Thomas, 

National Museum. 1218 Connecticut Avenue. 

Winslow, Arthur, 

State Geological Survey, Jefferson City, Mo. 

Winston, Isaac, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1325 Corcoran Street. 
Woodward, R. S., a, 

Geological Survey. 1804 Columbia Road. 
Yarrow, Dr. H. C, a, 

814 Seventeenth Street. 
Yeates,'Chas. M., a, 

Geological Survey. 1706 F Street. 






\ 






Vol. II. 



No. 2. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE. 




PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Price 50 cents. 






CONTENTS. 



Page 
The Rivers of Northern New Jersey, with notes on the classifica- 
tion of rivers in general : William Morris Davis ... 81 
(With seven illustrations.) 

A Critical Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30, together 
with a translation of his original Report upon it : Dr. Wm. 

H. Dall HI 

(Illustrated by one map.) 

Supplementary note on the alleged observation of a Lunar 

Eclipse by Bering in 1728-9 : Marcus Baker .... 167 



Published May, 1890. 



PRESS OF TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE * TAYLOR, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



Vol. II. 1890. No. 2. 



THE RIVERS OF NORTHERN NEW JERSEY, WITH 
NOTES ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF RIVERS IN 
GENERAL. 

By William Morris Davis. 

Outline.— Rivers of different kinds : consequent, antecedent, superim- 
posed, subsequent, adjusted. — Topography of Northern New Jersey. 
— Revived and superimposed rivers in New Jersey. — Drainage of the 
Watchung crescent. — Re-arrangement of superimposed rivers by 
the growth of subsequent streams. — Application of this principle to 
the Green river in the Uinta mountains : Powell's and Emmons' 
theories. —The Green river probably superimposed and its branches 
re-arranged by the growth of subsequent streams. — Anaclinal and 
reversed rivers in New Jersey. 

Northern" New Jersey is drained by several streams which 
rise in the Archean Highlands, flow southeastward across the 
central Triassic plain and reach the sea near the inland margin of 
the Cretaceous formation. 

What kinds of rivers are these ? Such a question can hardly 
be answered until we have examined rivers in many parts of the 
world, gaining material for a general history of rivers by induc- 
tion from as large as possible a variety of examples ; and until 
we have deduced from our generalizations a series of critical 
features sufficient to serve for the detection of rivers of different 
kinds wherever found. 

VOL. II. 6 



82 National Geographic Magazine. 

The generalizations here referred to may be presented in the 
form of a classification, following the ideas of Powell, Gilbert, 
Heim, Lowl and others, as follows : 

Consequent rivers. — Those that have in their birth, at the time 
of their original establishment on the country which they drain, 
selected courses in accordance with the constructional slopes of 
the surface ; for example, the Red River of the North and such 
of its branches as flow on the even surface of the lacustrine plain 
of Lake Agassiz ; the several streams that drain the broken lava 
blocks of Southern Oregon ; certain streams and rivers of the 
Jura that drain the synclinal troughs of those mountains. Con- 
sequent streams may be divided into definite and indefinite 
groups. Definite consequent streams are those that follow well 
defined constructional channels, such as the axial line of a syn- 
clinal trough, or the lowest point of an anticlinal arch between 
two synclinal basins ; they are defined in location as well as in 
direction. Indefinite consequent streams are those that flow down 
constructional slopes, such as the flanks of an anticline, but whose 
precise location depends on those minor inequalities of surface 
that we term accidental ; they are defined in direction but not in 
location ; and they are as a rule branches of definite consequent 
streams. 

Antecedent rivers. — Those that during and for a time after a 
disturbance of their drainage area maintain the courses that they 
had taken before the disturbance. In Powell's original definition 
of this class of rivers, he said that the valleys of the Uinta 
mountains are occupied by " drainage that was established ante- 
cedent to the corrugation or displacement of the beds by faulting 
or folding."* No limit is set to the amount of corrugation or 
displacement or to the strength of the faulting or folding. It 
therefore seems advisable to consider what variations there may 
be from the strongly marked antecedent type ; one extreme being 
in those cases wjiere the displacement was a minimum and the 
perseverance of the streams a maximum, the other where the dis- 
placement was, a maximum and the successful perseverance of the 
streams a minimum, or zero. The simplest examples of antece- 
dent rivers are therefore found in regions that have been broadly 
elevated with the gentlest changes of slope, so as to enter a new 
cycle of topographic development, all the streams retaining their 
previous courses, but gaining ability to deepen their former chan- 

* Colorado river of the West, 163. 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 83 

nels down to the new baselevel ; such streams may be called 
" revived." Examples of revived streams are very common ; 
nearly all the streams of the Highlands of New Jersey are of this 
kind ; all the streams of central and western Pennsylvania seem 
to belong in the same class. From these simple and common ex- 
amples, we shall some day, when our knowledge of rivers is 
better developed, be able to form a complete series leading to 
what is generally understood as the typical antecedent river, 
which has outlived deformation as well as elevation without 
suffering either deflection or ponding. Large rivers of strong 
slope, well enclosed in steep-sided valleys, or in other words vig- 
orous adolescent rivers have the best opportunity to persist across 
a belt of rising or writhing country,* because a great deformation 
would be required to throw them from their courses. Small 
streams or large ones of faint slope in an open low country are 
more easily deflected. From the typical antecedent river, the 
series may be continued by examples in which even the larger 
streams are less or more ponded or deflected by the deformation, 
until at the end of the series there is a complete extinction of the 
antecedent drainage and the establishment of an entirely original 
consequent drainage. The perfectly typical antecedent river, in 
the middle of this series, is certainly of rare occurrence, and is 
perhaps unknown. 

Consequent streams,, whose course is taken on a relatively 
thin, Unconformably overlying mass, for a time preserve their 
initial courses, even though they may be quite out of accord with 
the underlying structures on which they have descended. Such 
streams were first recognized by Marvine, and afterwards named 
"superimposed," "inherited" or "epigenetic" by various authors. 
A full collection of examples of this class should begin with 
streams that depart from true consequent courses only localh r , 
where they have discovered a small portion of the underlying 
formation, like the Merrimack at Manchester and other water- 
power towns of New Hampshire, where the stream has sunk upon 
rocky ledges beneath the surface drift and sands ; or like the 
Mississippi and other rivers in Minnesota which have in places 
cut through the drift sheet to the underlying crystallines. The 
series would conclude with streams that have stripped off the 
cover on which they were consequent, and have thus become 
superimposed on the underlying formation in their whole length. 

*Stur's expression " Gebirgshub oder Gebirgschub " suggested to me 
the terms here employed. 



84 National Geographic Magazine. 

There is a curious intermediate type of drainage lately recog- 
nized by McGee in the southern states, a superimposed drainage 
that is not inconsequent upon the buried surface beneath the 
unconformably overlying surface layer. It occurs in regions 
where a well-marked drainage had been established ; a brief sub- 
mergence then allowed the deposition of a relatively thin mask 
of sediments ; an elevation brought the masked surface up 
again, and as it rose, the streams took possession of lines essen- 
tially identical with the courses of their ancestors, because the 
mask of newer deposits had not extinguished the antecedent 
topography. McGee proposes to call such streams "resurrected." 

Rivers of all classes as a rule develop during their adolescence 
and more mature .growth certain " subsequent " branches that 
were not in any way represented in the early youth of the system. 
Thus the indefinite members of the consequent drainage of the 
Jura mountains have developed subsequent streams on soft beds 
of monoclinal and anticlinal structures, where there could not 
possibly have been any consequent drainage lines at the birth of 
this system, unless we admit the supposed fracturing of the anti- 
clinal crests, which seems unnecessary to say the least. Even in 
the simplest style of drainage, growing on a level surface, many 
of the branches must be " subsequent," or as McGee has called 
them in such cases, " autogenetic." 

Rivers of all classes are subject to spontaneous re-arrangement 
or adjustment of their courses to a greater or less extent, in ac- 
cordance with the weaker structural lines. This results from the 
migration of divides and the consequent abstraction or capture 
of one stream by another. The capture is generally made by the 
headward development of some subsequent branch. But after 
this kind of change has advanced to a certain extent, the divides 
become stable, and further change ceases. The rivers may then 
be said to be maturely adjusted. Under certain conditions, 
chiefly great initial altitude of surface, and great diversity of 
structure, that is, in mountainous regions, the changes arising 
from adjustments of this spontaneous kind are very great, so that 
the courses of a river's middle age may have little resemblance to 
those of its youth, as Lowl has pointed out and as I have tried to 
show in the case of the Pennsylvanian rivers. It may be difficult 
to recognize in such cases whether the youthful courses of a river 
system were consequent, antecedent or superimposed. Adjust- 
ments of this kind were not discussed by Powell, although he 



Rivers of Northern Neio Jersey. 85 

makes brief mention of what I have called subsequent streams. 
The first appreciation that I gained of river adjustments came 
from the writings of Lowl ; but I have since found that the 
general principles governing their opportunity were stated by 
Gilbert in his monograph on the Henry Mountains of Utah (pp. 
141, 149), and by Heim in his Mechanismus der Gebirgsbildung 
(i, 272, etc., ii, 79, 320). 

Where do the rivers of northern New Jersey stand in this 
general scheme of river classification ? We must again postpone 
the answer to the question, while reviewing the history of the 
general geographical development of the region.* 

The topography of northern New Jersey may be briefly de- 
scribed as made up of valleys and lowlands that have been etched 
in the now elevated surface of what may be called the Schooley 
peneplain on the Cretaceous baselevel. The topographical atlas 
of New Jersey should be constantly referred to, in order to follow 
such a statement as this ; but in order that the reader may with- 
out undue difficulty apprehend the meaning of my descriptions 
and recognize the various localities yet to be named without the 
trouble of searching for them on the maps of the atlas, I have 
attempted to draw a generalized bird's eye view of northern New 
Jersey, as it would be seen by an observer about seventy miles 
vertically above the center of southern New Jersey. The merid- 
ians are vertical and east and west lines are horizontal, but oblique 
azimuths are foreshortened. The result is hardly more than a 
geographical caricature, and I publish it in part to experiment 
upon the usefulness of so imperfect an effort. An active imagin- 
ation may perceive the long even crest line of Kittatinny Mountain 
on the northwest, rising beyond the rolling floor of the Kittatinny 
Valley, as the great Alleghany limestone lowland is here called ; 
then come the Highland plateaus, of accordant altitude one with 
another, but without the mesa-like margin that my pen has not 
known how to avoid indicating. The Central plain lies in the fore- 
ground, diversified by the various trap ridges that rise above its 
surface ; First and Second mountains of the double Watchung 

* The more detailed statement of this history may be found in an 
essay prepared by the author with the collaboration of Mr. J. W. Wood, 
Jr., of the class of 1888 in Harvard College, the study being undertaken 
as a joint thesis by instructor and student in a second course in Physi- 
cal Geography. The essay is published in the Proceedings of the Boston 
Society of Natural History, 1889. 



86 • National Geographic Magazine. 

crescent near the Highlands ; Sourland Mountain in the south- 
west ; and Rocky Hill, the southwestern re-appearance of the 
Palisades intrusive trap sheet, lying a little nearer to us. The 
Central plain is also diversified by the Fall-line, a slight but rather 
distinct break in its surface from Trenton (Tr.) on the Delaware 
to a little below New Brunswick (N. B.) on the Raritan. The 
important drainage lines are : the Delaware, forming the western 
boundary of the State, trenching Kittatinny Mountain at the 
Water Gap, cutting a deep transverse valley through the High- 
lands where it receives longitudinal branches, and a shallower 
trench across the Kittatinny lowland and the Central plain-; the 
Raritan, whose north and south branches head' in the Highlands, 
while the Millstone joins it from south of the fall -line, cutting 
through Rocky Hill near Princeton (Pr) on the way ; and the 
Pequannock-Passaic, rising in the Highlands, gathering tribu- 
taries in the low basin behind the Watchung ridges, and escaping 
to the front country as a single stream, the Passaic, through 
deep gaps at Patterson. The terminal moraine, marking the 
furthest advance of the second glacial invasion of post-tertiary 
time, is indicated by an irregular dotted band crossing the State, 
from the Narrows of New York Bay, which it defines, on the 
east, passing over Second Mountain by the gap at Summit (S), 
rising midway in the Highlands over Schooley Mountain, and 
traversed by the Delaware at Belvidere (B). 

The Schooley peneplain is indicated by the crest and summit 
altitudes of Kittatinny Mountain, the Highland plateaus and the 
trap ridges. This peneplain once lay low and essentially hori- 
zontal, the practically completed work of the processes of denuda- 
tion acting on a previously high land through a long period of 
time : it is now lifted and tilted, so that its inland portion rises to 
the height of the Highlands, which are its remnants, while its 
seaward portion descends slowly beneath a cover of unconformable 
Cretaceous beds, southeast of the fall-line, and thus hidden sinks 
gently beneath the Atlantic shore. The cover of Cretaceous 
sediments was laid on the southeastern part of the old peneplain 
during a moderate submergence of its seaward portion, before the 
elevation and tilting above mentioned (fig. 2, p. 93). Much of 
the cover has been worn away since the time of elevation (figs. 
3-6, p. 95), which gave opportunity for the opening of deep val- 
leys on the soft limestones and slates among the hard crystalline 
rocks of the Highlands ; and for the production of the broad 




Pig. 1. 



88 National Geographic Magazine. 

Kittatinny Valley lowland or peneplain on the wide belt of 
limestones beyond the Highlands ; and furthermore for the 
development of a broad baselevelled plain on the weak Triassic 
shales and sandstones, where the old peneplain has been almost 
entirely destroyed. The Cretaceous cover remains only near the 
coast, where it stood too low to be attacked while the valleys and 
lowlands just described were carved out. An interesting pecu- 
liarity in the relation between the newer baselevel plain on the 
Triassic area and the old Cretaceous peneplain is that their sur- 
faces mutually intersect at a small angle along the line which 
now marks the visible contact between the Triassic and Creta- 
ceous formations : the newer plain standing beneath the eroded 
portion of the older one northwest of this line, while it rises 
above the buried part of the older one and obliquely truncates its 
Cretaceous cover to the southeast of the line. Finally, the land 
as a whole has been raised a little since the making of the« newer 
plain, and shallow valleys interrupt its broad surface. It is no 
longer a true plain ; it has become' a pastplain. A few words 
may be allowed me concerning these terms, peneplain and past- 
plain. Given sufficient time for the action of denuding forces on 
a mass of land standing fixed with reference to a constant base- 
level, and it must be worn down so low and so smooth, that it 
would fully deserve the name of plain. But it is very unusual 
for a mass of land to maintain a fixed position as long as is here 
assumed. Many instances might be quoted of regions which 
have stood still so long that their surface is almost reduced to its 
ultimate form ; but the truly ultimate stage is seldom reached. 
We can select regions in which the valley lowlands have become 
broad and flat, the intermediate " doab " hills have wasted away 
lower and lower until they are reduced to forms of insignificant 
relief ; and yet the surface still does not deserve the name of 
plain as unqualifiedly as do those young lands newly born from 
seas or lakes in which their geometrically level surfaces were 
formed. I have therefore elsewhere suggested* that an old region, 
nearly baselevelled, should be called an almost-plain ; that is, 
a peneplain. 

On the other hand, an old baselevelled region, either a pene- 
plain or a truly ultimate plain, will, when thrown by elevation 
into a new cycle of development, depart by greater and greater 
degrees from its simple featureless form, as young narrow valleys 

* Amer. Jour. Sci., xxxvii, 1889, 430. 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 89 

are sunk beneath its surface by its revived streams. It therefore 
no longer fully deserves the name that was properly applicable 
before its elevation. It must not again be called a peneplain, for 
it is now not approaching and almost attaining a smooth surface, 
but is becoming rougher and rougher. It has passed beyond the 
stage of minimum relief, and this significant fact deserves impli- 
cation, at least, in. a name. I Avoidd therefore call such a region 
a pastplain. The area of the weak Triassic shales was, until its 
late elevation, as good an example of an ultimate basele veiled 
plain as any that I have found ; but now it is a pastplain, as any 
one may see while traveling across it on the train : its doabs are 
broad and continuous, and its valleys are relatively narrow and 
shallow. The Kittatinny lowland is intersected by streams whose 
valleys sink below its generally even, gently rolling surface ; but 
it was never so smooth as the Triassic plain. It was only a pene- 
plain,' and it is now a roughened peneplain. Perhaps the more 
adventurous terminologist will call it a past-peneplain ; but I 
dare not venture quite so far as that. When the Highlands were 
lowlands, their surface well deserved the name of peneplain ; but 
they were lifted so hong ago into so high a position that they are 
now cut into a complicated mass of rugged uplands. They no 
longer deserve the name of peneplain ; and if in preceding para- 
graphs I have referred to them as constituting an old peneplain, it 
is because no satisfactory name has yet been applied to the par- 
ticular stage of development of plains and plateaus in which they 
now stand. Having tried in vain to invent a term with which to 
name the Highlands, let me now advertise for one in the pages of 
our Magazine. 

Wanted : a name applicable to those broken, rugged regions that 
have been developed by the normal processes of denudation from the 
once continuous surface of a plain or peneplain. The name should 
be if possible homologous with the words, plain, peneplain and past- 
plain ; it should be of simple, convenient and euphonious form ; it 
must be satisfactory to many other persons than its inventor ; and its 
etymological construction should not be embarrassed by the attempt to 
crowd too much meaning into it. The mere suggestion that it was 
once a plain and that it is now maturely diversified will suffice. 

The topography of northern New Jersey is therefore, like its 
structure, polygenetic. It exhibits very clearly a series of forms 
developed under three different geographic cycles, and closer 
search will doubtless discover forms belonging to yet other cycles, 



90 National Geographic Magazine. 

less complete and of briefer duration than these three. There is 
the tilted and deeply eroded peneplain of the Highlands, whose 
initial form may be called the Schooley peneplain, from the dis- 
tinct exhibition of one of its remnants on Schooley's mountain ; 
this was the product of Jurassic and Cretaceous denudation. There 
is the younger central baselevelled plain, developed during 
Tertiary time, or thereabouts, on the weaker Triassic and Creta- 
ceous beds ; and the associated valleys of the same age that have 
been sunk into the weakest rocks of the Highlands. There are 
the shallow valleys in the Central plain, of the latest post-tertiary 
cycle, requiring the name of this region to be changed from 
plain, as it was lately, to pastplain, as it is now. The first cycle, 
in which the Schooley peneplain was produced, witnessed the 
accomplishment of a great work ; it included in its later part, 
besides various other oscillations, the sub-cycle when the seaward 
or southeastern part of the peneplain was gently submerged and 
buried to a slight depth under Cretaceous deposits. The second 
cycle was shorter ; being a time sufficient to baselevel the softer 
beds, but not seriously to consume the harder parts of the pre- 
existing surface. We are still in the third cycle, of which but 
a small part has elapsed. The question with which this essay 
opened may now be taken up. 

The streams and rivers of northern New Jersey may be 
examined, with the intention of classifying them according to 
their conditions of origin, to their degree of complexity as indi- 
cated by the number of geographic, cycles through which they 
have lived, and to the advance made toward their mature adjust- 
ment. 

The Musconetcong may be taken as the type of the Highland 
streams. It flows southwestward along a narrow limestone val- 
ley between crystalline plateaus on either side, entering the 
Delaware a little below Easton, Pa., (E, fig. 1). It drains a 
country that has been enormously denuded, and during the Jura- 
Cretaceous cycle of this deep denudation, there must have been 
time for it and its fellows to become thoroughly adjusted to the 
structure of the region ; it must be chiefly for this reason that it 
flows so closely along the weak limestone belt, and has its divides 
close by on the adjoining harder crystallines, (M, fig. 2). What- 
ever its origin, it has lost every initial feature that was discordant 
with the deep structures that it discovered beneath the initial 
Surface ; it is maturely adjusted to its environment. It endured 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 91 

to an old age during the baseleveling of the Schooley peneplain, 
and is now a "revived" stream, in at least its second cycle of 
work. Most of the other streams of the Highlands and the 
country farther inland are also of this well adjusted, revived kind. 
The streams of the Kittatinny valley lowland show not only the 
first revival of the kind just described, but also a second revival, 
in consequence of the recent uplift that has introduced the third 
cycle of development ; this not being so clearly manifested in the 
Highlands, where the rocks are harder, and the valleys of the 
second cycle are narrower. 

Look now at the drainage of the crescentic Watchung moun- 
tains ; the curved edges of two great warped lava-flows of the 
Triassic belt. The noteworthy feature of this district is that the 
small streams in the southern part of the crescent rise on the back 
slope of the inner mountain and cut gaps in both mountains in 
order to reach the outer part of the Central Plain. If these 
streams were descended directly or by revival from ancestors 
antecedent to or consequent upon the monoclinal tilting of the 
Triassic formation, they could not possibly, in the long time and 
deep denudation that the region has endured, have down to the 
present time maintained courses so little adjusted to the structure 
of their basins. In so long a time as has elapsed since the tilting 
of the Triassic formation, the divides would have taken their places 
on the crest of the trap ridges and not behind the crest on the 
back slope. They cannot be subsequent streams, for such could 
not have pushed their sources headwards through a hard trap 
ridge. Subsequent streams are developed in accordance with 
structural details, not in violation of them. Their courses must 
have been taken not long ago, else they must surely have lost 
their heads back of the second mountain ; some piratical subsequent 
branch of a larger transverse stream, like the Passaic, would have 
beheaded them. 

The only method now known by which these several doubly 
transverse streams could have been established in the not too 
distant past, is by superimposition from the Cretaceous cover 
that was laid upon the old Schooley peneplain. It has already 
been -stated that when the Highlands and this region together 
had been nearly baseleveled, the coastal portion of the resulting 
peneplain was submerged and buried by an unconformable cover 
of waste derived from the non-submerged portion: hence when 
the whole area was lifted to something like its present height, a * 



92 National Geographic Magazine. ' 

new system of consequent streams was born on the revealed sea 
bottom. Since then, time enough may have passed to allow the 
streams to sink their channels through the unconformable cover 
and strip it off, and thus superimpose themselves on the Triassic 
rocks below: we should therefore find them, in so far as they 
have not yet been re-adjusted, following inconsequent, discordant 
courses on the under formation. The existing overlap of the 
Cretaceous beds on the still buried Triassic portion of the old 
Schooley peneplain makes it evident that such an origin for the 
Watchung streams is possible; but it has not yet been indepen- 
dently proved that the Cretaceous cover ever reached so far 
inland as to cross the Watchung ridges. * 

Want of other explanation for the Watchung streams is not 
satisfactory evidence in favor of the explanation here suggested. 
There should be external evidence that the Triassic area has 
actually been submerged and buried after it was baselevelled to 
the Schooley peneplain and before it was uplifted to its present 
altitude; other streams as well as the ones thus far indicated, 
should bear signs of superimposition ; and if adjustment of the 
superimposed courses has begun, it should be systematically car- 
ried farthest near the largest streams. I shall not here state 
more than in brief form, the sufficient evidence that can be 
quoted in favor of the first and second requisites. Suffice it to 
say that the overlap of the Cretaceous beds (which contain 
practically no Triassic fragments) on the bevelled Triassic strata 
at Amboy and elsewhere indicates submergence after base- 
levelling; and that the pebbles, sands and marls of the Cretaceous 
series point clearly to the Highlands as their source. The sub- 
mergence must therefore have reached inland across the Triassic 
formation at least to the margin of the crystalline rocks. Some 
shore-line cutting must have been done at the margin of the 
Highlands during Cretaceous time, but the generally rolling sur- 
face of the old peneplain leads me to ascribe its origin chiefly to 
subaerial wasting. Moreover, the North Branch of the Raritan, 
between Mendham and Peapack (* Fig. 1) and the Lockatong (L), 
a small branch of the Delaware on the West Hunterdon sandstone 
plateau, give striking indications of superimposition in the dis- 
cordance of their courses with the weaker structural lines of their 
basins, so unlike the thoroughly adjusted course of the Musconet- 
cong and its fellows, the Pohatcong, the Lopatcong, and others. 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 



93 



The third requisite of the proof of the inland extension of the 
Cretaceous, and the resulting superimposed origin of the Watch- 
ung streams may be stated in detail, as being more in the line of 
this essay: has the adjustment that accompanies superimposition 
systematically advanced farther near the large streams than near 
the small ones ? The character of this adjustment should be first 
examined deductively. Given a series of streams of different 
volumes, flowing southeastward, in the direction of the present 
dip of the remnant of the Cretaceous cover, over the former 
inland extension of this superposed formation; how will these 
streams react on one another when they sink their channels into 
the underlying Triassic formation ? 

The conditions during the formation of the cover of Cretaceous 
beds are illustrated in fig. 2, where the Triassic portion of the 




Fig. 2. 



peneplain is submerged, and the shore-line of the transgressing 
ocean has reached the margin of the crystalline rocks. The 
waste from the crystallines is spread out as a series of gravels, 
sands and marls on the baselevelled Triassic area. 

Then follows the elevation and tilting of the peneplain with 
the cover on its back; and with this regression of the sea, there 
is an equivalent gain of new land; a smooth gently sloping plain 
is revealed as the shore line retreats; streams run out across it 
from the crystalline area, or begin on its open surface, growing 
mouthward as the land rises. Three such streams, A, C, D, are 
shown in fig. 3 ; their opportunity for deep valley-cutting is indi- 
cated by the depth of the new baselevel, BL, below the general 



94 



National Geographic Magazine. 



surface of the country. While these streams are deepening their 
channels in the Cretaceous cover, which is unshaded with mar- 
ginal contour lines in the figures, their subsequent, autogenetic 
branches are irregularly disposed, because there is no lateral 
variation of structure to guide them; but after a time, the base- 
levelled surface of the buried Triassic beds is reached, as is 
shown by linear shading in the valley bottoms of figs. 4, 5, 6, V. 
The growth of the subsequent branches then developed, will be 
along the strike of the Triassic softer beds, that is, about square 




Fig. 3 



to the course of the three transverse streams under consideration. 
The most rapid growth will be found on the branches of the 
largest stream, A, because it will most quickly cut down its 
channel close to the baselevel of the time and thus provide steep 
sloping valley-sides, from which the subsequent branches cut 
backwards most energetically. In due time the main streams 
discover the particularly resistant transverse lava sheets in the 
underlying formation; and then the subsequent branches of the 
largest transverse stream on the up-stream side of the obstruc- 
tions, for example, F and G, fig. 4, will have a great advantage 
over those of the smaller streams. The most rapidly growing 
subsequent branch, G, fig. 5, of the largest transverse master 
stream, A, may grow headwards so fast as to push away the 
divide, X, which separates it from the head of the opposing sub- 
sequent branch, J, of the next adjacent smaller transverse 
stream, C, and thus finally to capture and divert the headwaters, 
H, of the smaller transverse stream to the larger one, as in fig. 6. 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 



95 



The divide creeps while the two opposing subsequent branches 
are in contest ; it leaps when the successful subsequent branch 
reaches the channel of the conquered stream. The first stream 
captured in this way must necessarily be the nearest to the large 
stream. The diversion of the considerable volume of headwaters, 
H, to the channel of the small subsequent branch, G, causes it to 




Fig. 4. 




Fig. 5. 

deepen its channel rapidly; the same effect is perceptible in H 
for a distance above its point of capture and diversion : the in- 
creased load of sediment thus given to G will be in great part 
dropped in a fan-delta where it enters the flat valley of the 
master stream, A, (fig. 6). 

Gaining strength by conquest, other captures are made, faster 
for a time, but with decreasing slowness as the head of the divert- 

VOL. II. 7 



96 



National Geographic Magazine. 



ing subsequent branch recedes from the original master : and at 
last, equilibrium may be gained when the headwater slope of the 
diverting branch is no greater than that of the opposing subse- 
quent branch of the next uncaptured transverse stream. After 
the capture of a transverse stream has been effected in this way, 
the divide, Y, between its diverted upper portions, H, fig. 6, and 




Fig. 6. 



its beheaded lower portion, C, will be pushed down stream by the 
growth of an inverted stream, V. This goes on until equilibrium 
is attained and further shifting is prevented on reaching the hard 
transverse lava sheets, Z, fig. 7 ; here the divide is maturely 




Fig. 7. 



established. In the case of a system of transverse streams, C, D, 
etc., fig. 7, successively captured by the subsequent branch of a 
single master, the divides (Z, Y'), between the inverted (V, V) 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 97 

and beheaded (C, D) portions of the captured streams will for a 
time present different stages of approach to establishment. The 
divide on the line of that one of the original streams, C, that is 
nearest to the master stream, A, may reach a final stable position, 
Z ; while on the next stream further away from the master, 
the beheaded portion, D, may still retain a short piece above the 
gap in the upper lava sheet, not yet secured by the inverted 
stream, V; and a third stream, further away still from the mas- 
ter (not shown in figure 7) might remain uncaptured and inde- 
pendent. 

It is by such tests as these that we may hope to recognize the 
occurrence of partial adjustment in the streams of the Watchung 
crescent as a result of their superimposition on the Triassic forma- 
tion from its former Cretaceous cover. The greater the degree 
of complexity in the tests proposed, the more confidence we shall 
have in the theory when the tests successfully meet the facts. 
Hence the reason for deductively carrying out the theoretical 
conditions to their extremest consequences in order to increase the 
complexity of the tests that are to be confronted with the facts. 
This, as a matter of method, seems to me of great practical impor- 
tance in any attempt to decipher the past progress of geographical 
development. 

The admirable contoured topographic maps of New Jersey, 
issued by the Geological Survey of that state under the leadership 
of the late Professor George H. Cook, afforded means of apply- 
ing the deductive tests above outlined without the necessity of 
plodding over all the country concerned ; but however good the 
maps are, it is hardly necessary to say that they can be interpreted 
with a better appreciation of the facts that they represent after an 
excursion on the ground has given the student some personal 
acquaintance with it. This I have tried to gain on various occa- 
sions, maps in hand. 

Atlas sheet number six, including the Central red-sandstone 
area, and the five-mile-to-an-inch geological map of the state pre- 
sent in the clearest manner the facts of form and structure in- 
volved in our problem ; and to my mind, the correspondence be- 
tween theory and fact is very striking. The Pequannock-Passaic 
is the master transverse stream of the region : its preeminence 
was probably due in the beginning to its gathering, from the un- 
submerged Highlands, a greater amount of drainage than be- 
longed to any other stream that ran southeastward down the gen- 



98 National Geographic Magazine. 

tie slope of the newly revealed Cretaceous cover. It was at that 
time a compound, composite river :* compound because it drained 
areas of different ages ; composite, because these areas were of 
different structures. Existing examples of compound, composite- 
rivers are seen in the Catawba, the Yadkin-Pedee, the Cape Fear 
and the Neuse rivers of North Carolina, which all rise on the 
inland crystalline area, and traverse the coastal quaternary plain 
before reaching the sea. But unlike these, there must have been, 
when the old submerged land rose with the Cretaceous cover on 
its back, numerous small streams whose drainage area lay entirely 
within the Cretaceous plain. These were simple streams, flowing 
over a structure of one kind and one age. Their modern homo- 
logues are seen in the Maurice, the Great and Little Egg Harbor 
and the Wading rivers of southern New Jersey, and I suppose 
also in various relatively short streams of North Carolina, such as 
the Lumber, Great Cohera and Moccassin. 

It cannot be supposed that the original Pequannock-Passaic 
possessed the large southern branch, which I shall call the upper 
Passaic, by which Great Swamp is now drained ;f for had this 
been the case, the divides between the branches of the upper 
Passaic and the heads of the small streams that now still cross 
both of the trap ridges, must have long ago been driven to a 
stable position on the crest line of the inner ridge. The upper 
Passaic member of the Pequannock-Passaic system must be re- 
garded as a branch of subsequent development, guided by some 
of the softer Triassic beds when they were reached beneath the 
Cretaceous cover, and very successful in capturing and diverting 
other transverse streams that were smaller than its master. For 
some distance on either side from the Pequannock-Passaic gaj> in 
the trap ridges at Patterson, the existing streams are perfectly 
adjusted to the Triassic structure ; that is, the ridges are persis- 
tent divides, and the lateral subsequent branches of the master 
flow along the strike of the softer shales and sandstones, except 
where lately thrown off their courses by glacial drift barriers. 
This I interpret as meaning that the Pequannock-Passaic master 

*See terminology suggested by the author. Nat. Geogr. Mag., i, 
1889, 218. 

f It should be recognized that the present round-about drainage of the 
Great Swamp is a post-glacial feature, determined by the morainic bar- 
rier that crosses the basirt from Summit (S) to Morristown (M) : the pre- 
glacial drainage of the southern part of the inner crescent was un- 
doubtedly of a simpler and more direct pattern. 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 99 

stream hereabouts made so early a capture of adjacent superim- 
posed streams that all traces of their initial discordant courses 
have been obliterated by the development of structurally accor- 
dant subsequent streams. 

The Watchung ridges extend only about eight miles northward 
of the Paterson gaps, but reach thirty miles southwestward. It 
is therefore chiefly in the latter direction that we may expect to 
find examples of incomplete adjustment following superimposi- 
tion and capture. At Milburn, there is a deep gap in First moun- 
tain, and opposite this at Summit (S, fig. 1) a partly drift-filled 
gap in Second mountain : this I am disposed to regard as the 
former outlet of the Rockaway-Rahway river, which on account 
of its considerable size was not captured by the Passaic until it 
had cut its passage across the trap sheets almost to a safe depth. 
The diverted upper portion — the Rockaway — now joins the Pas- 
saic ; its crooked course from the Highlands via Boonton (Bn) 
being a post-glacial irregularity ; the beheaded lower portion — 
the Rahway — heads on the ridge of Second mountain, retains the 
pair of subsequent streams between the two ridges, and flows in 
diminished volume to the sea : the divide between the two por- 
tions being in its mature stable position on Second mountain. 

South of the Milburn gap, there are three streams that main- 
tain water gaps in First mountain, and five head branches of these 
three streams rise behind the crest of Second mountain. These 
must be interpreted as remnants of streams that once rose further 
inland, and whose upper courses have been captured by the vic- 
torious upper Passaic ; but it is noteworthy that here, at the 
greatest distance from the gap of the master stream at Paterson, 
the divides between the diverted and beheaded portions of these 
southern streams should lie in unstable positions, back of the 
crest line of Second mountain. This is exactly what the hypothe- 
sis of a superimposed origin for these streams would require ; and 
if the complexity of accordance between deduction and fact here 
presented be duly considered, I believe new confidence may be 
gained in the hypothesis of superimposition, already rendered 
likely from other evidence. 

The rectangular courses of the streams that cross First and 
Second mountains southwest of Milburn do not militate against 
their initial obliquely superimposed courses ; for, as Gilbert has 
shown, oblique courses across tilted beds, alternately hard and 
soft, will gradually shift until they follow rectangular courses, 



100 National Geographic Magazine. 

along the strike of the soft beds and square across the strike of 
the hard beds. Middle Brook, at the southern bend of First 
mountain near Bound Brook (B, B), presents the peculiarity of 
branching east and west while on the trap sheet of the mountain : 
this may be due to a retention here, where the dip is moderate, of 
an initially superimposed bifurcation ; or to guidance by fractures 
at this point where the course of the mountain changes rather 
abruptly ; the facts at hand do not serve to make choice between 
these alternatives. 

The lesson of greatest importance in this study lies, to my mind, 
in the gradual development of accordant subsequent streams in a 
region where the unchanged superimposed drainage would show 
no such accordance. Similar adjustment of subsequent streams 
to structural features may characterize drainage systems that 
were originally antecedent : and with this principle in mind, I 
have recently read over with renewed interest Powell's classic 
study of the Green river where it crosses the Uinta mountains.* 
The Green river and the smaller streams of its lateral canons and 
valleys are all regarded as antecedent. Let us examine the argu- 
ments on which this conclusion rests. 

The Green river itself rises many miles north of the Uinta 
range, traverses a relatively low basin before reaching the flank 
of the mountains, and then instead of turning away, it boldly en- 
ters the great uplift and trenches it from side to side in a pro- 
found canon, flowing out to the southwest on its way to the Colo- 
rado. There is relatively low ground at the eastern end of the 
range, several thousand feet lower than the summits of the range 
on either side of the Green river canon, and many thousand feet 
lower than the restored crest of the great uplift ; but the river 
does not follow this open round-about course. Powell says that 
the river cut through, instead of running around, the great ob- 
struction, because it " had the right of way ; . . it was running 
ere the mountains were formed." Had the mountain fold been 
formed suddenly, it would have turned the river around it to the 
east ; " but the emergence of the fold above the general surface 
of the country was little or no faster than the progress of the cor- 

rasion of the channel." "The river preserved its level,. 

but the mountains were lifted up The river was the saw 

* Exploration of the Colorado river of the west, Washington, 1875. 
152-166. See also the geological map in the Geology of the Uinta 
mountains, 1876. 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 101 

which cut the mountains in two" (152, 153). If this interpreta- 
tion is correct, the Green river would be the type of a perfect 
antecedent stream : but it appears to me that the case is proba- 
bly overstated in that respect. Perhaps it would have been 
more deliberately stated in a later volume if Powell's intention of 
describing - more fully the three chief kinds of drainage of the re- 
gion had been carried out.* Not having seen the region, my com- 
ments may have little value ; but the context of Powell's report, 
the description of the immense series of lacustrine beds, over a 
mile thick, north of the mountains, and the eastward deflection of 
the river where it traverses the mountains all seem to me to indi- 
cate that the Green was by no means continuously successful in 
maintaining its antecedent course across the uplift. It is by no 
means a typical antecedent river. The great series of lacustrine 
beds up-stream from the canon, with conglomerates where they 
rest on the northern flank of the mountains, are fully recognized 
in the report, and must mean that the upper portion of the river 
was for a time shut back, or ponded. During part of this time, 
there may have been no overflow across the growing mountains, 
for the lower lacustrine beds contain fossils indicative of brackish 
water. f The intermittent growth of the mountains and the re- 
peated return of lacustrine conditions, with gradually freshening 
water, is indicated by the strong unconformities that occur at 
various points in the lacustrine beds, and by the change in the 
fossil fauna. It must be conceded from this that the upper por- 
tion of Green river was repeatedly ponded back by mountain 
growth across its middle course ; we therefore have not now any 
close indication of its pre-lacustrine course above the mountains ; 
the ancient, or pre-Uinta, upper portion of the river was extin- 
guished by the lacustrine sediments, and to that extent the Green 
river departs from the perfect antecedent type. 

In the second place, if the original Green river existed upon 
the upper surface of the beds that were at a subsequent date 
raised to form the Uinta uplift, it does not appear to be clearly 
proved that its course at that early time was closely coincident 
with its present course in the mountainous area. The first de- 
formations of the mountain growth may have temporarily inter- 
rupted its flow, as is made likely by the lacustrine deposits 

* Geol. Uinta mountain, page v. 

f Geology of the Uinta mountains, 1876, 84 ; Chapter III, by C. A. 
White. 



102 National Geographic Magazine. 

already referred to; and when the rise in the level of the waters 
of the lake overtook the uplift, probably at a time of slower 
mountain growth than that which first formed the lake, the point 
of overflow may have been many miles to one side of its previous 
drowned-out course. The moderate elevation of the eastern end 
of the range, where it connects with the Yampa plateau, may 
possibly have then been a little higher than a point farther west, 
where the overflow was consequently located. This is perhaps 
hardly as probable as the postulates involved in arguing a truly 
antecedent course for the river ; but its impossibility is not as 
strictly proved as would be necessary before a definite conclusion 
as to the continuous persistence of an antecedent river could be 
finally accepted. Such continuity of action must be rare and 
should be rigorously demonstrated if possible. 
. It must, moreover, be remembered that Emmons* is of the 
opinion that the Colorado, river is not antecedent at all, but is 
superimposed on the eastern portion of the Uinta range from 
a course that it had chosen upon a sheet of horizontal sedi- 
ments — the Wyoming conglomerate — which he supposes once 
stretched unconf ormably all ' over the previously deeply eroded 
surface of the uplifted range, where the canon is now cut. He 
quotes facts of two kinds in evidence of this ; first, the remnants 
of the Wyoming conglomerate still lie on ridges as high as those 
that enclose the river canons ; second, the Green and certain of 
its branches possess tortuous courses, out of accord with the 
structure of the range. It might be added that the wide open 
valley of Brown's park, in the middle of the range is best explained 
as the product of a pre- Wyoming cycle of erosion by rivers that 
were extinguished when the Wyoming beds were laid over 
the mountains. The strongest objection to Emmons' conclusion 
seems to be the great amount of erosion that it requires ; erosion 
sufficient not only to remove the Wyoming conglomerate from 
nearly all its former overlap on the Uinta range, where it had 
buried and extinguished a pre- Wyoming drainage, but also to 
carry away a vast extension of the formation at the same height 
north of the range. It may be best to conclude that both ante- 
cedent and superimposed processes must be called on : for one 
must hesitate before admitting that the Wyoming beds stretched 
all across the country north and east of the Uinta range up to 
the height at which the remnants are now found on the range ; 

* Fortieth Parallel Survey, ii, 1877, 194, 205, 206. 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 103 

it seems more likely that some part of the height of these rem- 
nants is due to a relatively local elevation. As far as this is the 
case, it gives reason for regarding the Green as an antecedent 
river ; that is, antecedent to the local elevation of the Wyoming 
beds, but long posterior to the elevation of the Uinta range : but 
as the river now flows — according to Emmons' theory — on beds 
lying unconformably below those on which its course was chosen, 
it is for this reason to be classed as superimposed. 

The Green river therefore certainly departs from the type of 
an antecedent stream; the departure is distinct in its repeated 
ponding, whereby its upper course was broadly and indetermin- 
ately shifted from its original location; and is at least possible if 
not probable in its defeat at the line of uplift and subsequent 
superimposition on a new line of overflow. The mountains 
wrenched the saw that afterwards cut them in two. 

A study of the Jura drainage, of which a fuller account may 
be given at some future time, has led to the provisional conclu- 
sion that many of its streams show a combination of consequent 
and antecedent characteristics. They appear to be consequent on 
the early stages of the deformation but antecedent to its later 
growth, and for this kind of a stream I have no satisfactory 
name to suggest at present. 

Heim has shown that the Reuss and the adjacent smaller trans- 
verse streams of northern Switzerland near Lucerne are in part 
persistent across a series of folds, and in part slightly shifted 
from one course to another and ponded in Lake Lucerne; but 
unless the other ranges of the Alps rise hereafter faster than they 
have heretofore, the geologist of the future will reasonably regard 
the more mature Reuss as an essentially successful antecedent 
river. 

The Sutlej and other rivers that escape from the inner valleys 
of the Himalaya by deep gaps in the outer ranges, are described 
by Medlicott as antecedent to the elevation of the ranges through 
which they flow: their antecedent origin being argued from the 
delta-like structure of the upturned beds in the outer gorges, as 
if the rivers were now cutting down the deformed deltas of an 
earlier time ; but the heavy gravel and sand deposits in their 
upper valleys indicates that they were nearly if not quite ponded 
for a time during the deformation. 

Rivers seem to have the habit of cutting down their upturned 
deltas. Bonney refers to several such examples among the rivers 



104 National Geographic Magazine. 

that flow northward from the Alps, and transect pai'ticularly 
thick portions of the upturned marginal conglomerates and sand- 
stones, which he regards as the deltas formed by the same rivers 
at an earlier time, when the mountain folding had not extended 
outward as far as it does now from the axis of the Alps. I have 
suspected that the same kind of evidence might be used to indi- 
cate that the Delaware above Trenton, between Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey, is in part of even pre-Triassic origin ; for where it 
now enters the Triassic belt, there is a particularly heavy and 
coarse sandstone, sometimes conglomeratic. Being a large stream, 
it might persist in an anaclinal course through the northwest- 
ward monocline formed by the Jurassic uplift of the Triassic 
beds, although the smaller streams of the region were then prob- 
ably extinguished, to be replaced by a new system consequent 
upon the new order of things. 

Large rivers, more or less persistent in the face of opposing 
disturbance, therefore appear to be generally recognized; but it is 
noticeable that those quoted from the Himalaya and the Alps 
presumably occupied, at the time of disturbance, well enclosed 
valleys, from which it would have been difficult for them to 
escape backwards or laterally; and that, even if successful in the 
end, they for a time suffered defeat or ponding of greater or less 
extent and duration. There is no evidence that the Green river 
was well enclosed immediately north of the Uinta mountains at 
the time of their first elevation; hence the likelihood of its tem- 
porary ponding or enclosure is increased. 

It is stated by Powell that not only the Green but even the 
smaller streams of the Uintas are of origin antecedent to the 
mountains. He writes : " the explanation of the canons of Green 
river will assist us in understanding the origin of the lateral 
valleys and canons. The streams were there before the moun- 
tains were made — that is, the streams carved out the valleys and 
left the mountains. The direction of the streams is indisputable 
evidence that the elevation of the fold was so slow as not to 
divert the streams, although the total amount of elevation was 
many thousands of feet. Had the fold been lifted more rapidly 
than the principal streams could have cut their channels, Green 
river would have been turned about it, and all the smaller 
streams and waterways would have been cataclinal " (Colorado 
River, 162). 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 105 

This appears to me an unproved conclusion, and the evi- 
dence of it needs careful attention. It appears that there are 
several streams which descend from the crest of the mountains 
towards the flanks, but instead of running all the way out to the 
margin of the fold, they turn along the strike of a monoclinal 
valley, and thus reach the main river by a short cut. Such 
streams are cataclinal for a time, then monoclinal. It is in refer- 
ence to these that it is said, " the streams were there before the 
mountains were made;" and again that "the drainage was estab- 
lished antecedent to the corrugation or displacement of the beds 
by faulting and folding" (163). In approaching this conclusion, 
Powell says these streams cannot be consequent ; for " valleys 
consequent upon the corrugation, which was one of the conditions 
of the origin of the Uinta mountains, could not have taken the 
direction observed in this system ; they would have all been 
cataclinal, as they ran down from the mountains, and turned into 
synclinal valleys at the foot, forming a very different system 
from that which now obtains" (166). Nor can the streams be 
superimposed, for the " later sedimentary beds, both to the north 
and south, were found not to have been continuous over the 
mountain system, but to have been deposited in waters whose 
shores were limited by the lower reaches of the range" (166). 
Therefore the discordant streams must be antecedent. 

It appears to me that the possibility of error in this argument 
lies in the omission of all consideration of the migration of divides 
and the resulting adjustment of stream courses to deep internal 
structure ; but at the time of the exploration of the Colorado 
river, this important process in the development of rivers was not 
understood. It now seems only natural that the original, conse- 
quent, cataclinal streams, flowing down the slopes of the range 
from crest to flanks, should have permitted the opening of subse- 
quent monoclinal branches on the soft beds that they discovered ; 
and that the shifting of divides in these monoclinal valleys should 
have led to the capture of several cataclinal streams by that par- 
ticular one of the subsequent branches that grew out from the 
master stream, the Green river itself. Thus it must happen that 
the streams " which head near the summit of the range, and, 
running down the flank, turn into the Green river, are, in their 
upper courses, cataclinal, and when they turn to follow the strike 
of the rocks into Green river, are monoclinal" (161) : this being 
a normal result of river work in cutting down the thousands of 



106 National Geographic Magazine. 

feet of rocks of various hardnesses, here concerned. The smaller 
streams of the Uinta range are therefore certainly not of necessity 
antecedent to the Uinta uplift : the probability is that they were 
originally purely consequent, and that at present they are nicely 
adjusted to the structures that they have discovered. 

I have learned so much from the doctrine of baselevelling, as 
presented in Major Powell's writings, that I shall hope to profit 
by the lesson of the Uinta drainage as well : that is, the possibil- 
ity that an apparently sound conclusion may be overturned when 
new processes that bear upon it are discovered. It is here said 
that the drainage of the Watchung crescent in New Jersey is an 
example of partial adjustment following a superimposed origin : 
hence the necessity of watching closely for the discovery of new 
principles in the history of river work that may call for a revision 
of this conclusion. 

There are two other examples of peculiar accidents in the his- 
tory of rivers in New Jersey, to which I wish to call attention ; 
both of them in the latest cycle of the development of the State, 
that is, in the cycle which has changed the central region from its 
even baselevelled lowland surface, to the pastplain as we now see 
it. Like the uplift of the Schooley (Highland) peneplain, the 
uplift of the Central plain, in passing from the second to the third 
cycle, was not uniform throughout, but was greater in one place 
than in another. In the neighborhood of the lower Raritan 
river, a distinct though gentle slope to the northwest is apparent 
in the unconsumed surface of the pastplain ; but this strong 
river runs southeastward against the slope ; it is an anaclinal 
stream. The tilting of the pastplain is moderate, and its rocks 
are weak ; the river is large and strong. Its anaclinal course is 
therefore best explained by regarding it as a mild example of an 
antecedent stream. But Ambrose's brook, a small stream to one 
side of the Raritan, flows northwest with the gentle slope that 
was given to the pastplain. Ambrose's brook therefore most 
likely is not a survivor from the previous cycle, but is a new 
stream consequent on the slight deformation by which the latest 
cycle here considered was ushered in. Manalapan and Assanpink 
are apparently of the same kind. (See fig. l). 

The Millstone river appears to be intermediate as respects 
origin between the Raritan and Ambrose's brook. It appears 
still to lie for the most part in the channel that it occupied before 
the elevation and tilting of the baselevelled Central plain, but the 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 107 

tilting of the plain seems to have reversed its direction of flow. 
It rises near the center of the State and flows northwestward till 
it joins the Raritan near Someiwille, and on the way it crosses 
from the thrown or depressed to the heaved or elevated side of 
the "fall-line,"* and passes through a deep gap in the trap ridge 
of Rocky Hill back of Princeton. I believe there is no other 
Atlantic river which runs against the fall-line in this way ; and it 
is certainly at first sight remarkable that a stream of moderate 
size like the Millstone should have held its own against a displace- 
ment that sufficed to deflect great rivers like the Delaware and 
the Susquehanna from their courses. 

The Millstone appears to have been a stream of the normal 
kind in the previous cycle, before the tilting of the Central plain, 
when it probably ran southeastwai'd with its fellows, and carried 
off its share of waste in the baselevelling process of that time. 
No other supposition than this seems consistent with the general 
history of the region. It was during that cycle that the deep 
gap was cut in the Rocky Hill trap ridge. Then came the 
deformation of the baselevelled plain, the relatively recent eleva- 
tion and gentle tilting that have permitted the streams to carve it 
into a pastplain ; and with this, the dislocation along the fall- 
line. The inclination of the interstream surfaces of the past- 
plain leaves no doubt that it was tilted to the northwest, and to 
this tilting we must ascribe the present direction of the Millstone 
flow : but why did not the accompanying dislocation on the fall- 
line throw this moderate sized stream off of its track and divert it 
southwestward to the Delaware at Trenton, or northeastward to 
the Raritan below New Brunswick. The effect of the dislocation 
appears with considerable distinctness along a line from Trenton 
towards Amboy, in the less altitude of the general surface of the 
pastplain to the southeast than to the northwest of the line, the 
difference of altitude of the two parts being about a hundred feet. 
The persistence of the Millstone against such a dislocation seems 
to require that we should postulate a slower and smaller move- 
ment here than that which deflected the Delaware. 

The reversed course of the Millstone cannot be regarded as an 
example of inversion following a capture of its ancient northern 
headwaters by a branch of the Raritan ; for in such a case, surely 
the inversion could not have progressed farther south than the 

*For an account of the "fall-line" displacement, seeMcGee, Seventh 
Ann. Rep., U. S. G. S., 1888, 616. 



108 National Geographic Magazine. 

hard trap ridge of Rocky Hill, where a stable divide would have 
been formed : nor can the Millstone be regarded as an original 
stream, first developed and consequent upon the deformation of 
the Central plain, for in that case, it should consist of two sepa- 
rate parts ; one part running from the actual head of the river to 
the fall-line, where it would turn southwest and cross the faint 
flat divide that separates it from the Delaware ; the other part 
beginning by Princeton north of the fall-line, and running thence 
north to the Raritan. The continuity of these two parts in the 
actual Millstone seems to be explicable only by regarding the 
river as the upper portion of a single larger river that had 
reached an old age in the previous cycle ; it was then broken in 
two at the head of the present river where the greatest elevation 
of the Central plain occurred, and thus had its former head 
waters reversed from a southeast to a northwest direction of flow 
across and against the fall-line break by the tilting of the plain. 
Only in this way can the deep gap in Rocky Hill be explained. 
The river is thus consequent on the tilting of the plain, and yet 
antecedent to the accompanying faulting. It cannot be called an 
original stream, for it had an ancestor in its very channel. It is 
not a purely consequent stream, for it runs against the heaved 
side of a fault. It is not a strictly antecedent stream, for it flows 
in a direction determined by a disturbance that occurred late in 
its life. It is too exceptional a stream to have a generic name. 
We cannot expect to find many others like it. 

The result that has been of the greatest interest to me in these 
studies is the discovery of well-recorded and peculiar histories in 
the commonplace small-sized rivers of our Atlantic slope. We 
have looked for some years to the west as the region where river 
history should be illustrated, because it was there that the pioneers 
in this branch of study taught us the lessons on which our further 
work must depend. But home study as well as distant travel has 
its rewards, and with the progress of good topographic work on 
this side of the country we confidently await much instruction 
from a close acquaintance with the curious histories of many ■ 
of our rivers which we know now only by name. 

Harvard College, January, 1890. 

Supplementary Note. — Professor Albrecht Penck of Vienna 
has published a valuable essay on " Die Bildung der Durchbruchs- 
thaler " (Verein zur Verbreitung naturwissenschaf tlicher Kennt- 



Rivers of Northern New Jersey. 109 

nisse in Wien, 1888) from which the following historical notes 
are taken to illustrate the gradual overthrow of the fracture 
theory of cross valleys by the introduction of the idea that rivers 
can sometimes cut down their beds as fast as the land is uplifted 
or upf olded beneath them. 

Ferd. Romer. Die jurassische Weserkette. Zeit. d. deutsch. 
geol. Gesellsch., ix, 1857, 581. The deepening of valleys by 
rivers and streams must keep pace with the gradual elevation of 
continental masses. The Porta Westphalica has thus been cut by 
the Weser in the Wiehen-Weser range, in the northeastern part 
of Westphalia. 

A similar suggestion was briefly made a little later by Bischoff, 
to explain the gorge of the Rhine below Bingen. Lehrb. d. 
chem. u. phys. Geol., 2 Aufl., i, 374, 382 : and again independ- 
ently for the same river by D ticker. Zeitschr. d. Gesellsch. f. 
Erdk. Berlin, v, 1870, 183. 

Giimbel explained the course of the Altmuhl, a branch of the 
Danube which crosses the Frankish Jura in northwestern Bavaria, 
by supposing its course was defined before and maintained during 
the deformation of the range. Bavaria : Landes- und Volks- 
kunde des Konigreichs Bayern, 1865, iii, 756. 

Medlicott recognized that many streams flowing from the inner 
Himalaya are older than the outer ranges, and showed reason for 
believing that they held their places while the outer ranges were 
tilted up. Mem. Geol. Survey India, iii, 1865, 6, 122, 127, 157, 
163. A little later, he applied the same explanation to some 
Alpine rivers. The Alps and the Himalayas, a geological com- 
parison. Q. Journ. Geol. Soc, London, xiv, 1868, 47, 52. 

"Wynne explains the Indus and adjacent rivers as of greater age 
than the elevation of the Salt Range in northwestern India. 
Mem. Geol. Survey India, xi, 1875 ; xiv, 1878. 

Riitimeyer recognized the possibility of uprising ranges being 
cut down by transverse rivers, but regarded the occurrence as a 
rare one, thinking that lakes would generally appear behind such 
a, growing barrier. He emphasized the idea that erosion works 
upstream, which Lowl has later developed farther. Ueber Thal- 
und Seebildung, Basel, 1869 ; 2 Aufl., 1874. 

Tietze regarded the persistence of rivers across growing ranges 
as the rule rather than the exception. Die Bildung von Quer- 
thalern. Jahrb. d. k. k. Geol. Reichsanst., 1878, 581. 



110 National Geographic Magazine. 

Hayden was perhaps the first to point out in this country the 
antecedent origin of certain headwaters of the Missouri in Mon- 
tana, where the mountain ranges are frequently cut across by 
deep canons. Amer. Journ. Science, xxxiii, 1862, 305. Hayden's 
Sixth Report, 1872 (1873), 85. 

Reference may be made also to White, Hayden's Tenth Report, 
1876 (1878), 52 ; Peale, id., 167 ; Bechler, id., 372. General dis- 
cussion of valley making is given by Green, Geology for students 
and general readers, London, 1876 ; Hartung, Zeitschr. Gesellsch. 
f. Erdkunde, Berlin, 1878, 308. 

In spite of the early date of some of these essays, the idea of 
the antecedent origin of rivers did not gain general recognition 
and acceptance till it was strongly stated by Powell. 



Ti.d& 

S.lHmibr 



m't. 



V 



ref.* 



55 



IIIIIIMII ^ j- J 



>bolsk. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. Ill 



A CRITICAL REVIEW OF BERING'S FIRST EXPEDI- 
TION, 1725-30, TOGETHER WITH A TRANSLATION 
OF HIS ORIGINAL REPORT UPON IT. With a Map. 

By Wm. H. Daix. 

Contents. — Introductory remarks. — Instruments and Methods. — 
Sources of information. — Translation of Bering's Report. — Bering's 
List of Geographical Positions. — An Itinerary of the Expedition. — 
Annotated Synopsis of the Voyage compiled from all accessible data. 
— Comparative Table of Geographical Positions. — Resume of the 
results of the Expedition. 

In 1648 the tide of exploration and adventure setting eastward 
through Siberia, impelled the fitting out of seven small trading 
boats on the Kolyma river. Three of these, in charge of Simeon 
Deshneff, Gerasim Ankudinoff and Feodor Alexieff, respectively, 
reached Bering Strait. Ankudinoff's boat was wrecked on East 
Cape, but his party was accommodated on the others. There 
were hostilities with the Chukchi, the two boats were separated, 
and Deshneff's alone finally reached Kamchatka. Next year he 
constructed the trading post on the Anadyr river subsequently 
known as Anadyrsk. 

There is a tradition that in 1654 a trader named Taras Stadu- 
kin followed Deshneff's route, made a portage across the neck of 
East Cape, circumnavigated Kamchatka, discovered the Kurile 
Islands, and finally reached the Gulf of Penjina in safety. 

In 1711 an emissary named Peter Iliunsen Popoff was sent to 
East Cape by the Russians to induce the Chukchi to pay tribute. 
In this he failed, but brought back an account of islands beyond 
East Cape, and of a continent reported by the Chukchi to exist 
beyond these islands. Some statements which he made in regard 
to the people of this continent were regarded by geographers of 
the last century as fictitious, but with our better knowledge, they 
set the seal of authenticity upon Popoff's report and show that 
his journey was really made. 

The political disorders which prevailed in Western Russia 
about this period, prevented any attention from being directed to 
the reports of these explorations, which were preserved in the 
archives at Yakutsk. Somewhat later the attention of geog- 

VOL. II. 8 



112 National Geographic Magazine. 

raphers was directed toward this unknown corner of the world 
and the subject was brought to the notice of Peter the Great. 
He took great interest in it, drew up instructions for an expedition 
with his own hand and delivered them to Count Apraxin with 
orders to see them executed. A few days later, in January, 
1725, he died ; but the Empress desiring to carry out all the plans 
of her deceased husband as closely as possible, ordered their exe- 
cution. Fleet-Captain Vitus Ivanovich Bering was nominated to 
the command of the expedition and Lieutenants Martin Spanberg* 
and Alexie Chirikoff to be his assistants. 

This expedition forms the subject of this paper. It has been 
treated of by various geographers and biographers, but so far the 
original report of Bering, printed in 1847 in the Russian language, 
has never been faithfully translated into any other language ; 
while his map has never, in its entirety, been published at all. 
Reduced sketches derived from the maps and more or less muti- 
lated and garbled versions of the report have appeared in sundry 
collections of voyages, and upon these the latest contributions to 
the history of the expedition have been in great part based. 

Believing that the original report is a document of sufficient 
historic and geographic interest to be made accessible to those 
who do not read Russian, and that the errors of existing works 
make a critical review of the subject desirable, I have translated 
the document in question and prepared a general review of the 
present state of our knowledge in regard to the expedition. 

Bering's Report being written in archaic and badly spelled 
Russian, with a singular disregard of punctuation and other 
literary niceties, the translation presented unusual difficulties, in 
solving which I have had the kind cooperation of that excellent 
Russian scholar Mr. J. Curtin. I am indebted to the Reverend 
Father Richards, president of Georgetown University, and 
Father Maas of Woodstock College, Md., for valuable informa- 
tion in regard to the church festivals and saints, whose names 
were utilized in the nomenclature of Bering's new discoveries. 
To Mr. Marcus Baker, Messrs. Gannett and Woodward, and Mr. 
C. C. Darwin of the Geological Survey ; Dr. S. Hertzenstein of 
the Zoological Museum of the Academy of Sciences, St. Peters- 
burg ; Baron Nordenskiold of Stockholm, and Baron Robert 
Klinckofstrom ; Drs. Holm and Stejneger of the U. S. National 
Museum, and Prof. Julius Olson of Madison, Wisconsin, I am 

* So spelled by Bering himself. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 113 

indebted for numerous favors and courteous assistance, and to 
all of these gentlemen I desire to express my thanks. 

In conclusion I desire to state that I am well aware this paper 
cannot he regarded as a finality, hut as a contribution to the geo- 
graphical history of North America it will not be without its 
value, while the fact that I have myself spent parts of three 
summers in scientific exploration of the coast visited by Bering 
and first charted by him, has greatly helped me in my discussion 
of minor details of his work. 

Instruments and Methods. 

In considering the work done by the expedition it is very 
necessary to bear in mind the character of the instrumental outfit, 
if any, which they might have possessed, and the state of the 
science of navigation at the time. 

When Bering and his two cartographers left St. Petersburg in 
February, 1725, the astronomical instrument in use by naviga- 
tors was the Davis quadrant or " backstaff," in which the sun's 
altitude was measured by sighting without a telescope or tube on 
the shadow cast by the sun from one projection of the instrument 
upon another, the observer's back of course, being turned to the 
luminary. The only alternative to this was the still older astro- 
labe with which the observer had to look along the two lines of 
his angle at the same time, and which also depended upon sights 
or spurs attached to a frame. The reflecting quadrant of Hadley 
was not invented until 1731 and telescopes were not used on the 
instruments of navigation until somewhat later. There were no 
chronometers or reliable watches or clocks for use in dividing 
intervals of time. Even after the Hadley quadrant came into 
use, time was noted by a pendulum vibrating seconds, which 
could not be used on ship-board. 

A futile attempt had been made by means of tables of varia- 
tion of the compass to determine the longitude by comparison 
with observed variation in the field. Results by this method 
approached the truth accidentally, if at all. Lunar observations 
were the only means of getting an approximation to the longitude 
except the occultations of Jupiter's satellites, both methods being 
impracticable on board ship, with the instruments then employed. 

In 1731 the astronomer Halley proved* that at that date it was 
still impossible to find the longitude correctly by the moon, the 

* Phil. Trans. 1731, No. 421. 



114 National Geographic Magazine. 

lunar tables being so inaccurate that an error of several hundred 
miles was quite possible and an accurate determination would 
depend upon the respective errors of instrument, observation and 
the lunar tables happening to balance one another. Halley ven- 
tured to express the hope that the tables may be so amended that 
an error may scarce ever exceed three minutes, which would cor- 
respond to a degree and a half of longitude, amounting at the 
equator to a distance of a little less than one hundred miles. 
Messerschmidt, who preceded Bering as an explorer of Eastern 
Siberia, was according to Middendorf (Sib. Reise, iv. 1, p. 56) 
thirty-two degress out in his determination of the longitude, and 
the eastward extent of Asia in this region was underrated by that 
amount or thereabouts, on many maps. 

One other means of approximating to the meridian remained, 
in the observation of eclipses. This from the comparative rarity 
of these occurrences in the case of the sun and moon, could 
with the imperfect instruments of those days be available but sel- 
dom. Owing to the difficulty of determining the exact time of 
the first and last contacts the longitudes computed by these obser- 
vations were liable to quite as great inaccuracy as those computed 
from the lunar tables. Still an ordinary spyglass would enable 
an observer to note the time within a minute or two, and, if he 
was possessed of the local time, a simple comparison with the ob- 
served time of the eclipse in some locality where the longitude 
was known would give a fairly good determination, considering 
the instruments and methods of those days. Of the four eclipses 
of the moon occurring in 1728-9 two might have been observed 
without difficulty by Bering, one would have been invisible to 
him, and one might barely have been noted, but in all probability 
was not observed by him. In none of the published reports of 
the expedition is any mention made by Bering or his officers of 
the occurrence or observation of an eclipse, which seems very sin- 
gular if by such an observation he was enabled to correct an error 
of 30° in the longitude of northeastern Siberia. However, Mid- 
dendorf states (Sib. Reise, iv. 1, p. 56) that "Bering and his lieu- 
tenant in the years 1728 and 1729 observed in Kamchatka* two 
eclipses of the moon," by which they corrected the longitude. 
He gives no authority for this statement. 

* It is possible that an eclipse observed at Ilimsk in Middle Siberia by 
Chirikoff is thus erroneously referred to. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 115 

Euler, who had access to the archives of the Admiralty Col- 
lege, while engaged on a Geography of Russia, mentions (Philos. 
Trans., No. 482, p. 421) that he was informed that Bering observed 
an eclipse " at Kamchatka." This letter of Euler's is copied by 
Campbell in Harris' Voyages (vol. II, Book III, p. 1024) and 
the expression " at Kamchatka " has led to the statement that 
these observations were made at the fort or Adllage of Lower 
Kamchatka. This is an error since Bering gives no longitude for 
the fort in his table of geographical positions. It must be re- 
membered that the name Kamchatka at that period was applied 
not merely to the peninsula as at present, but also to the whole 
region of northeastern Siberia, the governor of Kamchatka being 
located at Okhotsk. So to come within the probable meaning of 
the phrases used by Middendorf and Euler it is only necessary to 
suppose that the observations were made somewhere in that 
region. Lauridsen (Danish edition, note 34, p. 186) refers to a 
paper of Struve (Bull, phys.-math. Acad. St. Petersb., I, 1842, p. 
290) containing a table of geographical positions in Russia, in 
connection with these alleged observations of Bering. An exam- 
ination of Struve's paper does not bear out the implication of 
Lauridsen's reference, as Struve not only makes no mention what- 
ever of Bering's observations there but specifically states that the 
first observations of precision made in this part of Siberia were 
those of Krassilnikoff who accompanied Bering's second expedi- 
tion in 1741. It would seem extraordinary that a determination 
so important for geography as that of Bering and his companion 
should be unknown to so distinguished an astronomer as Struve 
who must have had access to all the archives of the early explora- 
tions by Russia. But it may be perhaps accounted for by the 
facts that Bering's observations were necessarily of a very rough 
and primitive character — as it is certain he had no instruments of 
precision ; and that, for that reason, they were not received with 
entire confidence ; so that Struve may have considered them insuf- 
ficiently exact to be included with those of Krassilnikoff and 
others made with more modei'n appliances. 

From the note in regard to the eclipses which is kindly contri- 
buted by Mr. Marcus Baker and from the other circumstances, it 
is evident that if Bering and his party made the observations 
alluded to, the eclipses noted were the partial eclipse of Feb. 25 
(local calendar), 1728, of which he might have observed the last 
contact, or the total eclipse of Feb. 14, 1729, of which he might 



116 National Geographic Magazine. 

have observed the first contact and the totality. At the time of 
the last eclipse he was at Lower Kamchatka post, and as, in the 
list of positions handed in with his Report in 1*730, no longitude 
is entered for this locality, it would seem that choice is reduced 
to the first of the two mentioned ; which occurred when Bering 
was either at Bolsheretsk or on his way from that place to Lower 
Kamchatka, which he reached about a month later. Campbell's 
table of positions is credited by him to the year 1728, but my 
own opinion is that it was really derived (with various errors, 
interpolations, etc.) from Bering's table of 1730. 

The ordinary method of getting the longitude of a place, and 
that upon which Bering originally depended, as his itinerary table 
shows, was by a continuous record of the distances and directions 
traveled from a point of known longitude. This record would 
afford the data from which the distance on a mean parallel, by 
means of a traverse table, could be computed. Laborious, im- 
perfect, and slow as it was, it was the only sure reliance of the 
traveler in those days. Whether Bering observed an eclipse or 
not, it is certain that his original dependence was upon his 
itinerary, that his report was based upon that and that this part 
of his work was done as well as the nature of the method would 
permit. His silence about the eclipse'may be due to the fact that 
he depended not upon astronomical but upon pedometric observa- 
tions, to which the eclipse may have afforded some corrections. 
At any rate the pedometric determination of the distance between 
Tobolsk and Okhotsk or the peninsula of Kamchatka was in 
itself a tremendous undertaking. 

I find by a rough calculation from Bering's data that the longi- 
tude resulting from his itinerary from Tobolsk to Okhotsk is 
77° 36' E. The distance in a straight line is about 2,390 miles, 
but by the route Bering traveled the distance is a little more than 
3,746 miles. The longitude in Bering's List of Positions is 
76° 07', which differs from the pedometric measurement by 1° 29' 
(or about 45 miles). On Bering's map, Okhotsk is located in 
longitude 74° 30' E. of Tobolsk, while the most modern observa- 
tions for Okhotsk put it in 142° 40' E. of Greenwich or 75° 40' 
E. of Tobolsk. So that Bering's pedometric measurement was 
nearly 60 miles in excess ; his revised table (as corrected by the 
eclipse ?) 27 miles in excess ; and his map about 30 miles in error 
in the opposite direction. These discrepancies show the inexact- 
ness of the methods then in vogue and also that the pedometric 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 117 

method was not very much worse than the others in its results. 
Although there are several typographic or other errors in his 
table of itinerary which render exact comparisons impossible, it 
may be said that the error of the pedometric method, including 
the passage by sea from Okhotsk to Kamchatka, averages about 
two degrees or sixty geographical miles. In the cases of Okhotsk 
and Bolsheretsk the error is one of excess ; in the case of the 
cape at the mouth of the Kamchatka river and of the turning 
point of the expedition north of Bering Strait, the result is too 
small by about the same amount. 

That his chart and his revised list of positions should differ as 
they do, is quite as likely the result of the careless way in which 
the minutiae of such work were generally regarded at that day, as 
to any difference of date, or of intentional modification. 

To conclude our review of the instrumental means and methods 
then in use, it may be said that the compasses in use at that day 
were comparatively roughly made and more or less inaccurate. 
The variation was determined in a given latitude by the azimuth 
of the Polestar or the sun at setting observed by means of sights 
attached to the rim of the compass, which was a method accurate 
enough for the general purposes of navigation. The distance run 
was measured on shipboard by the log which was in about the 
same form and perfection as at present, being a very ancient 
invention. 

The survey of a general coast-line was made by compass bear- 
ings on prominent points, repeated from successive stations, the 
distances of the ship's course being determined by the log and 
the courses by compass, with corrections for current and the varia- 
tion. The lines thus obtained were checked by latitude observa- 
tions made with Davis' backstaff when the weather permitted. 

Apart from any of the methods mentioned it seems to have 
been overlooked that Bering might have corrected the longitudes 
of the N.E. Siberian coast by the ordinary dead reckoning kept 
on board his vessel, provided he started by adopting the longitude 
for the southern part of Kamchatka peninsula which was in com- 
mon use on many of the charts of his day. Though it is true 
that the maps of that part of Siberia north and northeast from 
the Okhotsk sea were many degrees in error in the longitude, this 
observation does not hold good in regard to the southern end of 
Kamchatka. The work of the Jesuit fathers in China had 
already determined fairly well the position of China and Korea, 



118 National Geographic Magazine. 

while rude outlines of the northern islands of Japan, Sakhalin, 
the Kuriles and the south end of Kamchatka, were added to these 
on maps of Asia. The outlines are often very incorrect but it is 
quite evident what is intended. In nearly all early maps of this 
region which I have been able to consult, as for instance those of 
N". de Witt, I have found the south end of Kamchatka in approxi- 
mately correct longitude. For instance, in the Novissimae Epheme- 
rides of Manfredio, published at Bonn the same year that Bering 
left St. Petersburg, and which might well have been sent to him 
before he sailed, we find two charts of the paths of solar eclipses 
(Plates ii and iii). On these charts the meridian of 180° from 
Ferro passes across what is unmistakably the south end of Kam- 
chatka, though northeastern Siberia remains a blank. This 
would be a sufficient starting point and is quite as correct as 
Bering's determinations ; in fact is within a few miles of the 
modern longitudes for the same part of the peninsula. Dead 
reckoning along the shores of the peninsula, corrected by latitude 
observations, would have done all that was necessary to correct 
the meridian without observing any lunar eclipse, provided the 
surveyor started with such an assumption as Manfredio's or De 
Witt's charts supply. 

Sources or Information. 

The general History of China [etc.] Done from the French of 
P[ere]. DuHalde [by R. Brookes]. London, John Watts, 1736. 
4 vols. 8° with maps and ills. 

This is referred to in the following text by the letter B. 

This is the first English translation from the original French edition 
of the " Description geographique et historique de l'empire de la Chine ,? 
by the father J. B. Du Halde, published at the Hague in the same year 
as the above translation. The text of the original French I have not 
been able to consult, though, so far as Bering's voyage is concerned, 
there does not seem to have been any material abridgment in the 
translation above cited, for an opportunity of consulting which I am 
indebted to the Librarian of Congress. 

The maps and charts of the original French edition were separately 
printed in an atlas by themselves, for the use of those who might desire 
to do without the text, under the following title : 

Nouvel Atlas de la Chine, de la Tartarie Chinoise, et du Thibet : 
contenant Les Chartes generates & particuliei'es de ces Pays, 
ainsi que la Carte du Royaume de Coree ; (etc.) : Redigees par 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 119 

M r D'Anville, Geographe ordinaire de sa Majeste ti*es Chretienne, 
Precede d'une description de la Boucharie, Par un Officier Suedois 
que a fait quelque sejour dans ce Pays. A la Haye, chez Henri 
Scheurleer mdccxxxvii. Folio, 12 pp. 42 charts. 

The chart of Bering forms sheet 42, and differs from the others in 
being on Mercator's projection which indicates that it was copied 
directly from an original as stated in the text, and not redrawn. It is 
20|^ by 9^ inches on the neat-lines and is entitled : 

"Carte des Pays traverse par le Cap ne . Beerings depuis la 
ville de Tobolsk jusqu'a Kamtschatka." 

Beneath the title is a table of four transliterated Russian terms for 
fort, post, village and convent, with their French equivalents. This 
and certain peculiarities in the transliteration of proper names make it 
certain that the original chart was in Russian and that the translitera- 
tion was done by some one not perfectly familiar with both languages. 
There are a few errors of the engraver in rendering single letters " c " 
appearing for " t " and " r " for " e " in a few places. The longitude is 
reckoned in degrees east from Tobolsk to which 67' degrees when added 
will give practically the meridian east from Greenwich. The transcriber 
of the map from the Russian appears to have been a Dane, G. Kondet. 

That part of this chart east from 112° E. Gr. has been fairly repro- 
duced by Lauridsen (Chart I) with the omission of some unimportant 
names and the addition of a signature (not the ordinary autograph) of 
Bering. This is reproduced with a different running headline to 
accompany Olson's translation. 

The fourth volume of Brookes' translation (pp. 429-440) con- 
tains 

" A succinct narrative of Captain Beerings's Travels into 
Siberia :" 

with a reduction of the above-mentioned map, on which there is no 
trace of the island of St. Demetrius, even its name, which alone appears 
on the Du Halde map, is here omitted. Otherwise this version of the 
map does not differ from Du Halde's, more than one copy of a drawing 
usually differs from another. When Bering started on his expedition 
he was accompanied by two cartographers (Bergh, First Voy. of the 
Russ. pp. 2-5, fide Lauridsen) Luzhin and Potiloff , and to one or both of 
them under Bering's direction the construction of the map in question 
was probably due. 

When Bering made his report it was accompanied by a list of posi- 
tions for important places visited by the Expedition. 

Dr. Campbell, while gathering material for his second edition of 
Harris' Voyages, procured a copy of this unpublished list of positions 
and prints it in his account of Bering's travels, with the comment that 



120 National Geographic Magazine. 

it was sent by Bering from Kamchatka, before his return to Russia, and 
to the Senate at St. Petersburg, to which Bering did not report. 
Whether due to the transcriber or the printer there are several very- 
obvious errors in the list as printed by Campbell, and when it is com- 
pared with Bering's own list we see that there are also several interpo- 
lations. 

But the positions adopted in the chart, said by Du Halde to have been 
brought to St. Petersburg by Bering on his return (a statement con- 
firmed by the mention of a chart in the report itself), are not identical 
with the positions enumerated in the list. This leads to the suspicion 
that Bering's first chart was not published, and that the chart issued 
was due to a recomputation and revision of his data. This suspicion is 
made stronger by the statement of Lauridsen, who gives no authority, 
however, that Bering's chart was made in Moscow in 1731,* though this 
may merely mean that some of the copies which were distributed to 
various personages were so prepared. 

These manuscript copies of the chart and report were sent to various 
foreign courts, as a matter of general interest, by the Russian authori- 
ties. The copy used by Du Halde was communicated to him by the 
King of Poland who had received it as a " Present worthy of his regard 
and curiosity " (Du Halde, iv, p. 439, Brookes' ed.). Other copies were 
sent to Sweden and probably to England and other countries. In the 
journal, " Ymer," of the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geog- 
raphy (1884, p. 93) is a short notice by E. Dahlgren of three manuscript 
copies of Bering's chart of his first expedition, or rather of charts 
embodying its results. Two of these charts are in the Royal archives 
of Sweden and measures 58 x 135 cm. One of them is ornamented with 
ten colored drawings of natives of Siberia. The other is without these 
but does not seem to be a copy of the first as it has a number of sound- 
ings between St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands which are not on 
the former, and some names which are peculiar to it. Both have 
many more names than are given on the chart published by Du Halde. 
Both of the manuscripts have a legend referring to the coast from the 
Kolyma eastward, on the north coast of Siberia, to the effect that it is 
put down from older charts and information, doubtless furnished by 
the archives at Yakutsk. The third copy is in the possession of Baron 
Robert Klinckofstrom, of Stafsund, Sweden. 

Through the kind offices of Baron Nordenskiold and the generosity of 
Baron Klinckofstrom, the last mentioned chart has been forwarded to 
the writer through the Smithsonian Institution for examination. It 
appears to be essentially the same as the second of the two charts 
referred to as comprised in the Royal Swedish Archives. The result of 
my examination of it leads me to the belief that there were two dif- 
ferent charts sent out in manuscript by the Russian authorities. The 
first, which I regard as the earlier, and which is certainly more accu- 
rate, shows the island of St. Demetrius in its proper place in accord- 
ance with Bering's Report and list of positions. It formed the basis of 

* Lauridsen, Am. ed., p. 57. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 121 

Campbell's engraving which will be referred to later, and of the chart 
which appears in the various editions of Du Halde. It is possible that 
this represents the original chart prepared by Bering in Kamchatka 
during the winter of 1728-9. The second and probably later form of 
the chart is represented by the Klinckofstrom chart, upon which the 
name and island of St. Demetrius have vanished and a smaller island 
in the corresponding latitude is represented close to the Siberian coast 
and westward from the meridian passing through the eastern extreme 
of East Cape. This island is named the island of St. Diomede. If it is 
intended as a revised position for the island of St. Demetrius of the 
other chart and of Bering's Report, it is in conflict with the facts and 
with the position assigned to St. Demetrius in the report. No one who 
had sailed between St. Demetrius and East Cape could have sanctioned 
such a position for the island with honesty. If a different island is 
intended the question arises, Why is St. Demetrius omitted ? This sec- 
ond chart is obviousiy the basis upon which in D'Anville's chart of 
Asia (1753) the configuration of the eastern extreme of Siberia is based, 
and I suspect that the chart of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at 
St. Petersburg and the reproduction of Jefferys, were also derived from 
it as far as this region is concerned. 

It would be rash, in the absence of authentic information which only 
the Russian archives can supply, to hazard an opinion as to the origin 
of the important difference between these charts. I may return to this 
point later. Apart from this, it may be added that the northern coast 
of Siberia from East Cape west to Cape Sheiagskoi is represented as 
mountainous throughout its extent. A legend states that it is laid 
down from older charts and information. This relieves Bering from 
the responsibility for the fictitious or at least grossly erroneous and 
exaggerated form and direction given to Cape Sheiagskoi on his chart. 
The west coast of the Okhotsk sea and part of its northeastern shores 
not visited by Bering are stated to be laid down from "information." 
This map is not dated and the blank space in the title left for Bering's 
autograph has never been filled. No name of draughtsman or place or 
authority of issue are indicated upon it. It measures 51 by 20£ inches 
between the neat-lines. It is in black and white, the mountains 
washed in, the only color being small green trees as a conventional sign 
for wooded country. A copy of the earlier chart fell into the hands of 
Dr. Campbell and was published by him in his edition of Harris' 
Voyages,* together with a version of the report which is more or less 
mutilated and to which the editor to make his book more readable has 

* Harris, John. Complete collection of Voyages and travels [etc.]. 
London, T. Woodward [and others] 1748. 2 v. folio, maps and plates, 
Vol. 2, pp. 1016-1041, is devoted to a discussion of Bering's discoveries, 
entitled: Book III, Section VIII. "A distinct account of part of the 
northeast frontier of the Russian Empire, commonly called the country 
of Kamschatka or Kamschatska including the voyages of Captain 
Behring for discovering toward the East [etc.], collected from the best 
authorities both printed and manuscript." 



122 National Geographic Magazine. 

added certain flowers of rhetoric which detract from its accuracy. 
Campbell's copy of the map is the most perfect yet published and the 
only one showing the island of St. Demetrius in its proper place. 

In Du Halde's copy and those derived from it the eastern border of 
the chart has cut off the island, though in some of them, as in that of 
1736, the name remains. The only fault to be noted in Campbell's 
edition of Bering's map is the omission by the engraver of the small 
bay named Preobrazhenia by Bering and which, though it is not named, 
appears on the other editions of the .map. The title is as follows : 

" An exact chart of all the countries through which Cap*. 
Behring travelled, from Tobolski Capital of Siberia to the country 
of Kamtschatka." 

The size of the map is 7 x V2% inches. It extends on the east to the 
meridian of 126° east from Tobolsk which enables the "Isle of St. 
Demetrius " (our present Big Diomede) to appear in its proper place. 
The editions previously reported have all stopped at the 124th meridian, 
thus cutting off the island, whose name sometimes appeared and some- 
times did not. 

It will be observed that Dr. Campbell in this paper was the means of 
introducing the erroneous and obnoxious Germanized spelling of Ber- 
ing's name into English literature. This is a pretty good indication 
that he had no autographic documents from Bering himself, and that 
his manuscripts were obtained from German sources, or at least had 
been transcribed into the German language. In his thorough search 
of the literature of the subject and lengthy discussion of the results, 
Dr. Campbell undoubtedly gathered the fullest account of the first 
expedition which had up to that date been printed. In order to 
enliven his history of the proceedings, the good Doctor occasionally 
rises to flights of fancy, and the theories he held were long since proved 
erroneous. 

There are several other English translations of Du Halde's China, of 
which the following is the most important : 

" A description of the empire of China and Chinese-Tartary, 
together with the kingdoms of Korea, and Tibet : containing the 
geography and history (natural as well as civil) of those countries. 
From the French of P. J. B. Du Halde, Jesuit. Illustrated with 
general and particular maps, and adorned with a great number of 
cuts. With notes geographical, historical and critical, and other 
improvements, particularly in the maps, by the Translator." 
London, Edward Cave, 1741. 2 vols, folio, maps and ills. 

This edition does not show the name of the translator, but he was 
evidently a man of no small attainments as a geographer and carto- 
grapher, and introduced numerous improvements and corrections into 
the charts of D'Anville, which accompanied the original edition of Du- 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 123 

Halde. A copy of this was presented to the library of Harvard College 
by the province of New Hampshire in 1765-6, for an opportunity of 
examining which I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Justin 
Winsor, the Librarian. 

The text of this edition, compared with that of 1786, is as much as 
possible abridged, yet contains nothing not in the original, but the map 
exhibits certain additions to be noted. This map is entitled, 

" A Map of Capt. Beerings' travels from Tobolskoy to Kam- 
chatka between y e years 1725 and 1730. With improvements by 
y e Editor." It contains the following note by the editor. "Capt. 
Beerings probably observ'd y e Lat.2 in y e Principal places thro' 
w ch he pass'd, tho' two Observations only are mentioned in his 
Journal. But M r Kyrilow in his Map of the Russian Empire 
does not follow y e Author in this respect for instance he places 
Ilimski 1° 30' more north, Yakucskoy 2° more south, and Cape 
Chiokotskago 1° more south than Cap 1 . Beerings ; likewise other 
places in Proportion. I have reckon'd y e Long d of Tobolskoy 
from Paris according to an Eclipse of y e Sun observed at Ham- 
burg and Tobolskoy, mentioned by Mr. Strahlenberg in his 
account of y e Northern parts of Europe and Asia. This is all 
that can be done till y e return of y e Russian Mathematicians sent 
to make observations and discoveries throughout Siberia." Then 
follows a line " Inscribed to Francis Gashrey Esq r ." 

The main body of the chart is that of Du Halde's original and the 
scale is the same, but the height of the neat-lines is only 8^6 inches. 
Bering's track from Okhotsk to Bolsheretsk, across Kamchatka, north- 
ward to 67° 18' ; also his track eastward from Kamchatka in 1729 and 
around the peninsula to Bolsheretsk and Okhotsk ; are indicated by 
dotted lines. The two latitudes noted in Bering's journal are indicated 
on this map by a + , and the northern one is placed near the Asiatic 
coast in latitude 118° E. from Tobolsk. At the top of the map the sup- 
posed Paris meridians* are indicated, a difference between Paris and 
Tobolsk being assumed of 70° degrees, which is about five degrees too 
much. There are also sundry infelicities in the transliteration of the 
names from the French of D'Anville. 

A chart which deserves notice, though almost wholly fictitious, being 
chiefly devoted to the spurious discoveries of the alleged Admiral de 
Fonte, was issued by J. N. de LTsle with the concurrence of M. P. 
Buache, or at his suggestion. It appeared at Paris, in 1752, and was 
copied for Jefferys' (2d) edition of Voyages from Asia to America in 
1764. I do not know if this copy appeared in the first edition, but pre- 
sume it did. 

* In the Campbell map these are taken as east from London with 
an allowance of 67° between London and Tobolsk. 



124 National Geographic Magazine. 

For present purposes the interesting features of this map are as 
follows : 

Opposite the eastern extreme of the Chukchi peninsula there is 
represented part of America with the legend, "Terres vues par Mr. 
Span berg in 1728, frequentees a present par les Russes, qui en apportent 
de tres belles fourrures." In the English edition the legend is "Seen 
by Spanberg 1728." Four islands are represented in the strait between 
Asia and America, corresponding in a general way to the four now 
known to exist there. Connected with America and north of the 
Chukchi peninsula is land with an island off it corresponding not badly 
to Wrangell and Herald Islands, and marked "Discovered in 1722." It 
is possible that, this land is ^i hypothetical compound of the land 
reported by the Chukchis east of the strait with that which they knew 
to be visible in clear weather from Cape Yakan. more or less confused 
accounts of which had long been current among persons interested in 
these regions. 

The next chart of note in this connection was published by D'Anville, 
the royal geographer of France, who had previously prepared the 
original map of Bering for publication. He issued a general map of 
Asia, in three parts, each of two leaves which could be joined together, 
of which the first part appeared in 1751 and the third part in 1753, 
entitled : 

Troisieme Partie de la Carte /d'Asie,/contenant/ La Siberie/et 
quelques autres parties / de la Tartarie, / Publiee sous les Auspices 
de Monseigneur / Louis-Philippe d'Orleans /Due d'Orleans/ Pre- 
mier Prince d'u Sang. /Par le S r . d'Anville, / Secretaire de Son 
Alt 8 . Sereniss s ./MDCCLIII./Avec Privilege./ 

This map is in two sheets (each 20 x 21 inches), the engraving of the 
geographical part by Guill. de la Haye and of the ornamental title by 
De Lafosse. The longitude is reckoned from Ferro, and the map is 
constructed on a scale of 23 French leagues to 60 geographical miles. 
The boundaries are colored and the sea shore shaded with short hori- 
zontal lines. It is on the polyconic projection. 

This map includes many of the additions to geography in eastern 
Siberia which were due to the members of the great Siberian expedi- 
tion. The courses and branches of the rivers especially were aug- 
mented and corrected as well as named. The branches of the Anadyr 
River were represented and named, but as no new information in 
regard to the coast had been received at that date, this river was still 
mapped as entering the sea to the south and west of Cape Thaddeus, as 
erroneously laid down by Bering, who confounded with the Anadyr a 
small river which does come in here, and passed the estuary of the 
true Anadyr without seeing it. The coast lines are essentially those of 
Bering. Beyond the basins of the Kolyma and Anadyr is marked 
"Terre inconnue"; a small supplement in the north-east corner of the 
map, on half the scale of the map, represents the north-east extreme of 
Asia as delineated by Bering. This little supplement is of considerable 
interest as it gives fuller information than that which appears on the 



Review of Bering' 8 First Expedition, 17*25-30. 125 

original publication of Du Halde, perhaps from a more modern version 
of Bering's chart, as previously suggested. 

Several names appear for the first time in cartographic history, upon 
this map. Preobrazhenia Bay ; Bolshoia River falling into Holy Cross 
Bay, and the "Isle de St. Diomide" are among these. The Island of 
St. Demetrius is omitted, as well as its name. The Island of St. 
Diomide is placed about on a line between East Cape and Cape 
Chukotski, to the westward of the meridian of East Cape. There is a 
discrepancy averaging about five minutes in latitude and longitude 
between the positions on this map and those on .the second version of 
the Bering manuscript charts. But in the main these differences are, I 
suspect, merely due to carelessness in^copying, and the general har- 
mony between the two leads to the belief that the DAnville outline for 
this region was based on the second version of the manuscript. 

The differences of position for points on this part of the coast are 
numerous. I have noted them in the comparative table of positions 
herewith. They may be chiefly owing to slips in transferring from the 
Mercator to the Poly conic projection ; but some of them are- due to 
new information, probably derived from the surveyors of the second 
expedition. Bering island appears on the map, in about its proper 
place, though Copper island is not indicated, nor are any of the 
Aleutians shown. I suspect this is the first publication of a carto- 
graphic kind on which Bering island is laid down, as the map of the 
Imperial Academy of Sciences, embodying the geographical results of 
Bering's Voyage to the coast of America, was not engraved until a 
year later, while De L'Isle's of 1752 does not contain them. 

The island between Cape Shelaginski and East Cape off the northern 
coast, on Bering's map, is omitted by D'Anville. The Kamchatkan 
peninsula in latitude 56° is represented to have a width of 180 miles, 
while Bering made it 270 miles. 

A most important contribution to the subject appeared in Midler's 
Historical Collections known as the " Sammlung Russische Geschichte" 
and published at St. Petersburg (Kayserl. Academie der Wissenschaften, 
1732-64. 8°. Nine volumes.) Des dritten Bandes (erstes, zweytes und 
drittes Stuck, pp. 1-304, 1758) contains the original account of the 
Russian Voyages toward America from which the work of Jefferys 
has, with some errors and omissions, been translated. As far as 
regards Bering's first voyage, there is only one error of consequence 
made by Jefferys, which will be noted in its place. This book is 
extremely rare, and the only copy in America which I have been able 
to find after much enquiry, is in the library of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

The first volume of this series has the title 

" Eroffnung eines Vorschlages zu Verbesserung der Russischen 
Historie Durch den Druck eines Stiickweise herauszugebenden 
Sammelungen von alleiiy zu den Umstanden und Begebenheiten 
dieses Reichs gehorigen Nachrichten. St. Petersburg, bey der 
Keyserl. Academie der Wissenschaften, 1732." 



126 National Geographic Magazine. 

The succeeding volumes have the running title " Samnalung Russische 
Geschichte" with the number of the parts subjoined, but no other 
title-page. 

The account of the Russian Voyages is stated by Muller to have been 
prepared at the direction of the Empress and endorsed by the Academy 
of Sciences. It contains invaluable material on the early explorations, 
which, if it had not been for Mtiller's painstaking researches, would 
have been totally lost, as the archives of Yakutsk from whence the 
data were derived by Muller were subsequently destroyed by fire. The 
errors which occur in it are chiefly due to Miiller's endeavor to utilize 
the inexact geographical data of the Promyschleniks and Cossacks by 
combining them with the less detailed but more precise observations of 
later observers. In this attempt he added many valuable details to the 
charts, but at the same time introduced several errors. The exagger- 
ated distances reported by the first explorers who were unable to 
correct their estimates by observations of precision, distort those parts 
of the map due to their reports. The peninsula of Aliaska becomes 
hugely exaggerated as does the Shelagskoi promontory on the Arctic 
Sea. But no unprejudiced person can read Miiller's account without 
perceiving his great caution in accepting unreservedly these imperfect 
contributions, the really important additions which he made to car- 
tography, the preciousness of the facts which he rescued from oblivion, 
and his desire to be fair to everybody. 

The insinuations of malice and of a desire to injure Bering by means 
of this account given by Muller, which Lauridsen attributes to the 
latter, appear to be entirely the product of a suspicious temperament 
and an excited imagination. Certainly I have seen nothing anywhere 
cited which lends to such suspicions any tint of probability. The facts 
cited in support of them can easily be otherwise explained, if one de- 
sires to view the subject judicially, and for the most part are not quite 
thoroughly understood by the Danish author. 

One error upon which the latter lays great stress, is due to a manipu- 
lation of the record, originated or at least adopted by Bering himself, 
and which is incorporated in the map and report which all authors 
agi*ee proceeded directly from Bering's own hand. 

The next map of importance was issued by the Imperial Academy of 
Sciences, St. Petersburg in 1754. It was made under the inspection of 
Gerhard Friedrich, Staatsrath von Muller, who revised and corrected it 
subsequently, when an edition dated 1758 was issued. This map com- 
prised the geographical results of the great Siberian expedition sent 
out by the Russian government ; of Bering's voyages ; and of the 
records of the hunters (Promishleniks) and traders in northeastern 
Siberia preserved in the archives of Yakutsk. The sources of this map 
are fully explained by Muller in the "Russian Discoveries" (Jefferys' 
translation, p. 108 et seq.). I have not been able to examine a copy of 
the original map, and have therefore relied on the English version of 
it which is to be found in Jefferys' translation, second edition, London, 
1764. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition^ 1725-30. 127 

Among the improvements introduced on this map may be specified, 
the correction of the shores of the Okhotsk Sea, and Gulf of Penjina, 
the correcter location of the mouth of the Anadyr river and its estuary, 
the introduction of the results of the voyages of Gvosdeff , Bering and 
Chirikoff to the northwest coast of America, and a multitude of details 
relating to northeastern Siberia. The island of St. Deomid (Diomede) 
is not represented though its name appears on the 65th parallel in Ber- 
ing Strait. The island may have been on the original map and care- 
lessly omitted by Jefferys' engraver on his copy. Among the errors, or 
rather mistaken hypotheses of others, which are suggested in this map 
by dotted lines, are the extension westward to 174° E. of Greenwich, 
of the peninsula of Aliaska which is also given a wholly uncalled-for 
width; and the northward extension of the coast on each side of Bering 
Strait. In the former case the cartographer was misled by the errors 
of the map of Bering and Chirikoff's last voyage and rumors reported 
by other navigators ; and in the second case he followed Bering in 
adopting an erroneous position and exaggerated form for the coast 
eastward from Koliuchin Bay, due to the uncorrected sketches of the 
Cossacks and traders. The northern extension of the American coast 
opposite, was purely hypothetical and for this Mliller must be held 
responsible. Many of the western Aleutians are exaggerated in size 
and erroneous in position but the chart of Bering's last voyage, and 
the exaggerated reports of the hunters who followed him, must be held 
responsible for this, in the main. 

The work in which this chart appears is largely derived from Midler's 
" Sammlung russische geschichte," St. Peterburg, 1758, vol. iii, Parts 
I-III (cf. antea). The first edition is entitled, according to bibli- 
ographies : 

" Voyages from Asia to America for completing the discoveries 
of the northwest coast of America. A summary of voyages made 
by the Russians on the frozen sea. From the high Dutch of 
S[taatsrath]. Muller by T. Jefferys. London : T. Jefferys, 
1761." lxvi, 76 pp. 4°, with four maps. 

The second edition which is that referred to in this paper is entitled 
" Voyages from Asia to America, for completing the dis- 
coveries of the northwest coast of America. To which is pre- 
fixed, a summary of the Voyages made by the Russians on the 
Frozen Sea, in search of a northeast passage. Serving as an 
explanation of a map of the Russian discoveries, published by 
the Academy of Sciences at Petersburgh, [etc.] London : T. 
Jefferys, 1764," viii, 120 pp. 4°, four maps. 

A French translation by Dumas, with the author's initials misprinted 
G. P. instead of G. F. , was printed at Amsterdam in 1766. It consisted 
of two volumes, 18mo, with a map. A Danish translation, by Morten 

VOL. II. 9 



128 National Geographic Magazine. 

Hallager, was issued at Copenhagen in 1784, as a portion of a volume 
relating to northern explorations. Bibliographers seem to have been 
puzzled by the discrepancy of initials, not recognizing that the S. in 
Jeffery's volume stood for a title and not a name. Another work im- 
portant in its collection of facts bearing upon the general question of 
the explorations eastward by the Russians, was published by the arch- 
deacon of Wilts, Rev. William Coxe in 1780. This was followed by a 
second edition during the same year. A third edition accompanied by 
a Supplement of 57 pages was printed in 1787 and a fourth in 1803. 
There were two apparently distinct translations of the book printed at 
Paris in 1781, and a German edition at Frankfurt and Leipzig in 1783. 
The third edition which is the best and most correct appeared both in 
octavo and quarto form, and is that to which reference is made in this 
paper. It is entitled: 

" Account of the Russian discoveries between Asia and America. 
To which are added the Conquest of Siberia, and the history of 
the transactions and commerce between Russia and China, [etc.]. 
London: T. Cadell, 1787." 

410 pp. 8° [or 4°] with four charts and one plate; to which is added, 
consecutively paged: 

"A comparative view of the Russian discoveries with those 
made by Captains Cook and Clerke, and a sketch of what remains 
to be ascertained by future navigators. London: T. Cadell, 1787." 
3 1. unp., 417-456 pp. 8°. 

The latter was also separately issued. Among the maps contained 
in this work of Coxe's are a reduced copy of the general map of Russia 
issued by the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1776, and 
a chart of Synd's Voyage toward Chukotski Noss. 

The latter is the only chart of Synd's voyage (1764-1768)- which is 
accessible, and it is vouched for as authentic by Dr. Coxe. Compared 
with later charts it is, of course, extremely imperfect yet there is in it 
enough resemblance to the truth to enable us to recognize what was 
intended in many instances. In the northeastern part of the chart, 
the latitudes are exaggerated and the longitudes contracted in a very 
erroneous manner. Nevertheless we recognize East Cape, here named 
" Prom. Tschukotskoi;" the two islands now called the Diomedes but 
here left nameless ; a large island, moved eastward out of place, but 
doubtless intended for Arakam Island, is called " I. Diomedis;" while 
among a crowd of islets (referable to the hills of St. Lawrence Island 
seen through a fog and laid down very inaccurately), the name " S. 
Diomedis " appears again. The American coast was seen and landed 
upon; Cape Prince of Wales and the shore south and east from it are 
recognizable. The island of St. Mathew was discovered and named, 
though placed a degree too far south. The island of St. Paul in the 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 129 

Pribiloff group was discovered by Synd, put in its true latitude, and 
named Preobrazhenia or Transfiguration Island. It is about seven 
degrees out in relative longitude and fourteen in absolute longitude. 
One cannot doubt however that it was the island now known as St. 
Paul when we recall the fact that there are no other islands than the 
Pribiloff group, in that latitude or within that general area of Bering- 
Sea. The southern Cape of the Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Cape of 
Bering and Midler is represented two degrees too far south. Preobra- 
zhenia Bay is not recognizable but the name is transferred to the 
bight west and north of Cape Bering of our present charts. This part 
of the coast was not however approached by Synd, who spent much 
time on the coast of Kamchatka. On his chart this peninsula is repre- 
sented better than we should have expected from the rudeness of the 
r^st. 

The map of the Academy shows the influence of those who discredited 
the near approach of America to eastern Siberia ; notwithstanding the 
explorations of Deshneff, Gvosdeff and Synd, the American shore of 
Bering Strait has disappeared altogether. The eastern portion of the 
Chukchi Peninsula is indented by a host of hypothetical inlets, and 
defended by an unrecognizable archipelago of nameless islands. The 
far-stretching chain of islands, among which Bering's second expedi- 
tion was so long entangled, excepting those confirmed by Krenitzen 
and Levasheff (who sailed far north of the southern arc of the chain) is 
also absent. Excepting that the fictitious peninsula north from Chuk- 
chi land is effaced, the map in its main features for this region is less 
accurate than that of Bering, and does not compare very favorably 
with that of Mliller. And yet but shortly after its publication, the ex- 
plorations of Cook and Clerke recorded the facts which should, when 
published, exalt the memory of the older geographers and scatter the 
hypotheses which for a time prevailed against them. 
Their explorations are included in 

" A voyage to the Pacific Ocean, undertaken by the command 
of his Majesty, for making discoveries in the northern hemis- 
phere, [etc.], performed under the direction of captains Cook, 
Clerke and Gore, in his Majesty's ships the Resolution and Dis- 
covery, in the years 1776-1780. London, for T. Nicol and T. 
Cadell, 1784-5." 3 volumes 4° and atlas folio." 



This is the edition ordered by the Admiralty. Of this celebrated 
work, said to have been written from the explorers' manuscripts by 
Bishop Douglas, there have been many editions. In the Bulletin of the 
Societe de Geographie, Paris, 1879, pp. 481-540, is a bibliography by 
James Jackson. 

The most interesting points in regard to Cook's explorations about 
Bering Strait are comprised on the chart (vol. ii, p. 467) entitled : 



130 National Geographic Magazine. 

" Chart of Norton Sound and of Bherings Strait made by the 
East Cape of Asia and the west point of America." 

On this chart the main features of the coast on either side of the 
strait are correctly indicated, though several of the inlets and bays are 
wanting. The Diomedes and Fairw ay Rock of modern charts are lo- 
cated but left without names, King's Island is named ; Arakam was not 
recognized as an island nor was Point Chaplin (Indian Point) observed. 
St. Lawrence Island was seen in. foggy weather. Its isolated hills con- 
nected by very low flat land led Cook into the error of supposing that 
it comprised several islands, one of which he correctly referred to that 
named St. Lawrence by Bering and the rest he lumped under the name 
of Gierke's Islands. A single fictitious island, midway between St. 
Lawrence and King's appears on the chart, but is not named or men- 
tioned in the text. St. Lawrence Bay is named and discovered. Ber- 
ing and Midler's Chukotski cape is correctly identified. East Cape is 
well delineated, and the name Serdze Kamen (Heart-Rock) originally 
given to a cliff or bluff point at the entrance of Holy Cross Bay is 
transferred to a point on the Arctic shore of the peninsula. There is a 
confused and somewhat curious history connected with the use of the 
names Serdze-Kamen and Chukotski Cape. After the travels of Desh- 
neff , Popoff and others and the reception at various times of informa- 
tion from the natives, it was pretty generally understood among the 
hunters and traders of this region that the extreme of Asia was a cape 
or point on or near which the Chukchi dwelt, or which they described, 
which was not definitely located, and which was vaguely known as the 
Chukchi Cape or the Cape of the Chukchis, Chukotski Noss in the 
Russian tongue. Cape Serdze Kamen will be found on the chart of 
Billings' Voyage. It was the point where the Chukchis successfully 
defended themselves against the invading Russians who sought to force 
them to pay tribute. Beyond it, for the Russians all was mysterious 
Chukchi country with an unknown coast. This cape being their ne 
plus ultra it is probable that it was more or less confounded by these 
illiterate and ignorant hunters with the supposed eastern Cape of Asia, 
otherwise the Cape of the Chukchis as used by Midler. Admit this and 
it is not difficult to frame an hypothesis which shall account for the 
confusion, without recourse to the absurd charges with which Laurid- 
sen attempts to soil the reputation of Miiller. Steller and others. 

"When Bering named a cape near which he met a baidar-load of 
Chukchi who gave him some geographical information (among other 
things that the coast made a turn after passing it) he called this cape 
with great propriety the Cape of the Chukchis, as observed by Cook 
(ii, p. 474) and with no reference to the legendary Cape of the Chukchis 
above referred to. 

But when Miiller and others more familiar with the records of the 
earlier explorers came to make maps, they naturally applied the 
legendary name to the cape which they supposed to be the eastern end 
of Asia, and beyond which the coast makes a turn to the west. Miiller 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 131 

believing in a great cape or peninsula on the northern coast of the 
Chukchi country supposed this to be the true Cape Chukotski, and to 
the eastern Cape of Bering he left the name of Serdze-Kamen, prob- 
ably knowing little about the original Cape Serdze. And as Bering, by 
the ambiguity of his journal, gave color to the idea that he had rounded 
East Cape and pursued the north coast west of it for a few hours before 
turning homeward, 'what more natural than that those little acquainted 
with the region should speak of his turning back from near Serdze- 
Kamen ? Thus Cook, following out the same idea derived from his 
study of the map and journal in Harris, transferred the name to a 
point in the latitude at which Bering turned back, on the coast which 
he supposed him to have surveyed. There is plenty of confusion here 
but no just ground for supposing malice in it. 

A publication which throws much light upon Bering's voyage of 1728 
was printed by Vasili Nikolaievich Bergh (or Berkh) a well known 
writer on geographical matters in connection with Russian history. 
It is in the Russian language and the title may be translated as follows : 

First Sea Voyages of the Russians undertaken for the settle- 
ment of this geographical problem — Are Asia and America 
united ? — and performed in 172*7, 28 and 29, under the command 
of fleet captain of the first rank, Vitus Bering. To which is 
added a short biographical account of Captain Bering and some 
of his officers. St. Petersburg, Academical printing office, 1823. 
8°. 3 pr. 1. iv, 126 pp. 1 map. Russian text. 

This book was printed, as many private books are, at the printing 
office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, but was not published or 
printed by the Academy. The only copies I know of are those in the 
library of the Academy and one in the British Museum library, neither 
of which I have been able personally to consult. But through the kind 
offices of Dr. S. Hertzenstein, of the Zoological Museum of the Acad- 
emy, I learn that Bergh found in the Archives of the State Admiralty 
Department the logbook of midshipman Peter Chaplin entitled, "Mid- 
shipman Peter Chaplin's journal of the Kamchatka expedition of 
1725-1731." From this MSS and from the notes of G. F. Miiller and 
Admiral Nagaieff, Bergh compiled his work. Chaplin's journal is not 
reprinted verbatim but only paraphrased by Bergh who adds his own 
commentary on the subject matter, and occasionally gives extracts 
from Chaplin whose logbook seems to have been kept in a model way. 

An effort will be made to obtain a copy of the original logbook,* but 
for the present we are obliged to be content with what of authenticity 

* Simultaneously with the proofs of this paper the work of Bergh 
has been communicated to me through the liberality of the University 
of Upsala, Sweden. The results of a critical examination of it will 
form the subject of a later paper as the present publication cannot be 
delayed. 



132 National Geographic Magazine. 

remains to the data which have been translated or paraphrased by 
Bergh, Lauridsen and Olson, necessarily submitting to more or less 
modification in the process. 

The most authentic and important document for the history of this 
voyage is naturally the official report handed in by Bering himself and 
printed in the Journal of the Military Topographical Depot of the 
Russian Army, volume x, pp. 67-79, St. Petersburg, 1847. 

This journal is a quarto and the report is printed verbatim et literatim 
if one may judge by the archaic and mispelled words with which it is 
adorned. It comprises Bering's report including his instructions, a 
table of geographical positions, and a painfully detailed table of routes 
and distances by which his position in Kamchatka was computed. 
This report has never been translated in full and unmodified, the orig- 
inal is thought to have been lost. The present publication is not re- 
ferred to by Lauridsen and was apparently unknown to him. I 
have therefore thought it worth while to prepare an English version 
of the report and geographical table which are incorporated in this 
paper. 

The result shows that the previous versions of the report which have 
appeared were more or less mutilated or colored by the editors printing 
them, probably with the view of making the report of more popular 
interest to their readers but with injurious results to its historic value 
for reference. 

We now come to the latest contributions to the subject. If it were 
not for the deficiencies in them, which seem to me serious, this paper 
would not have been prepared, but it seemed to be a pity that the sources 
of information in regard to Bering, accessible to those who do not read 
Russian should not be both more impartial and more accurate. 

Vitus J. Bering og de Russiske opdagelsesrejser fra 1725-43. 
Af P. Lauridsen. Udgivet med understottelse af den Hielm- 
stierne-Rosencroneske stiftelse. Kjobenhavn. Gyldendalske 
Boghandels forlag (F. Hegel & Son). Fr. Bagges bogtrykkeri, 
1885. Small 4°, six prel. 1. 211 pp., 4 sheets of charts, one plate, 
one wood-cut. 

This work is an attempt at a life of Bering which should combine 
an account of his « career with a reversal of the generally received 
opinion in regard to his indecision of character. It embodies a general 
polemic against those who at different times have criticised the explorer. 
It contains a paraphrase of some portions of Bergh's work which had 
not previously been accessible in any language except the Russian, yet 
which would have been much more valuable in the shape of exact 
translation and quotation. The author labored under the disadvantages 
of not understanding the language in which all the original records 
both printed and in manuscript are written ; of having little or no 



Review of Bering's First Exjjedition, 1725-30. 133 

familiarity with nautical surveying or cartography ; and of being 
apparently unacquainted with the best modern cliarts of the region. 
His criticisms of others are couched in very heated and not altogether 
parliamentary language, and he is the victim of a narrow spirit of 
nationalism which is sometimes mistaken for patriotism. Nevertheless 
he has brought together a great deal of information ; it is evident, in 
spite of his violent criticisms, that he has not intended to be unfair, 
since he puts on record in several instances evidence damaging to his 
own views which would not otherwise have come to light ; and he has 
certainly exhibited Bering's valuable qualities in a manner which will 
do much towards rehabilitating his reputation.* 

Review : Bulletin of the American Geographical Society for 
1885. New York, the Society, 1885. pp. 285-298. 

This review forms pai't of a " Reply to criticisms upon the voyage of 
the Vega around Asia and Europe," by Baron A. E. von Nordenskiold, 
translated from the Swedish by Vere A. Elfwing. It is addressed only 
toward certain points in Lauridsen's work, and contains valuable cor- 
rections of certain errors therein, and information in regard to the work 

* I may take opportunity in this place of replying to certain criticisms 
of Mr. Lauridsen on the chronological chapter of my work on Alaska 
and its Resources published in 1870. 

That chapter was and was stated in its introductory paragraph to be 
a compilation from the authorities on the subject. It contained no 
original matter except that relating to explorations subsequent to 1865. 

For Bering's two voyages I consulted the report on the Russian Dis- 
coveries printed by order of the Empress and under the auspices of the 
Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, prepared by the dis- 
tinguished geographer Muller, himself a member of the second expedi- 
tion and personally acquainted with the actors in those scenes. No 
more authoritative printed document exists on the subject. The sup- 
posed errors animadverted upon by Mr. Lauridsen are either taken 
directly from Muller, or are inferences drawn from his report. Some 
of them the critic has misunderstood or misconstrued, which from the 
necessarily extreme condensation of my table is particularly easy. The 
expression of surprise that Bering passed through Bering Strait without 
seeing the Diomedes, was warranted by the fact that Bering nowhere 
mentions their name or speaks of seeing any islands in their location, 
nor are they on his earliest printed charts. This point, however, will 
be more fully dealt with later. If I were to re-write that chapter I 
should probably modify the criticisms of Bering's character which 
appear in it ; but at the time it was written I was fresh from four years' 
exploration in the same region, and was particularly impressed with his 
failure to secure better results when to do so would have been so easy, 
as well as directly in the line of his duty. 



134 National Geographic Magazine. 

of Strahlenberg and the other early cartographers of Eastern Siberia. 
It is a translation of a paper published in Ymer for 1885, to which for 
exact accuracy reference should be made. 

Russian explorations, 1725-1743. Vitus Bering : the discov- 
erer of Bering Strait. By Peter Lauridsen (etc.). Revised by 
the author and translated from the Danish by Julius E. Olson 
(etc.). Chicago, S. C. Griggs & Company, 1889. 8° xvi, 223 
pp., 2 cuts, 2 folding sheets of maps. 

This edition is a good deal condensed, especially in the matter of 
references, and does not have all the illustrations of the original. There 
are also a good many slips or typographical errors, which affect its 
value as a work of reference. Some of those important in connection 
with the present paper are as follows : page 31, line 4, " 60° 50' N. " 
latitude should be " 62° 50'." On the last line of the same page "longi- 
tude" should be "latitude." Page 32, after " cloudy weather " in the 
second line from the bottom, the whole remaining record of August 
15th is omitted altogether. The sentence beginning "From noon" 
relates to August 16th, nautical reckoning. Page 33, line 5, "30° 19' 
east" should be "30° 17' east;" line 20 after "half west" should be 
inserted "south by east, by compass." Page 51, line 4 from bottom, 
"latitude" should be "longitude." 

Review : Nation (The) New York, -vol. xlix, No. 1275, p. 454. 
Dec. 5, 1889. 

I may add that a number of references to Russian articles 
treating of Bering will be found in my Bibliography of charts 
and publications relating to Alaska and adjacent region, published 
by the IT. S. Coast Survey in 1879. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 135 

Report of Fleet-Captain Bering on his Expedition to 
the Eastern Coast of Siberia. 

To the most Serene Sovereign, the high and powerful, the 
Empress of all the Russias : 

A short relation of the Siberian Expedition upon which was 
sent 

Of your Imperial Majesty the most humble servant and fleet- 
captain, W. I. Bering. 

On February 5 of the late year 1725 I received from her 
Imperial Majesty the Empress Ekaterina Alexievna, of happy 
and well-deserving memory, the autographic instructions of his 
Imperial Majesty Peter the Great, of happy and well-deserving 
memory, a copy of which is hereunto affixed. 

Instructions. 

(1.) There should be built on the Kamchatka [River], or at 
some other place adjacent, one or two boats with decks. 

(2.) With these boats [you are directed] to sail along the coast 
which extends northwards and which is supposed (since no one 
knows the end of it) to be continuous with America. 

(3.) And therefore [you are directed] to seek the point where 
it connects with America and to go to some settlement under 
European rule, or if any European vessel is seen, learn of it what 
the coast visited is called, which should be taken down in Avriting, 
an authentic account prepared, placed on the chart and brought 
back here. 

The following were the instructions given me by the former 
General Admiral Count Apraxin, in which were written : "Arti- 
sans, laborers and whatever, in my opinion, is necessary for the 
expedition, are to be demanded from the chancellor's office of the 
government of Tobolsk and monthly reports sent to the Imperial 
Admiralty College." 

Before receiving these instructions, January 24, a lieutenant 
and 26 men of my command had been ordered to service on the 
expedition by the Admiralty College with the necessary equip- 
ment for 25 wagons. The whole number of my command sent 
out amounted to 33 men who were ordered to Vologdie and from 
St. Petersburg to Tobolsk by a route which passed through the 
towns here named : through Vologdie, Totma, Upper Ustiuk, 



136 National Geographic Magazine. 

Solwichergodsk, Kaigorodok, Solkamsk, Verkhoturia, Turinsk, 
Epanchin and Tiumen. 

On the 16th day of March we arrived at Tobolsk and were 
there until the 15th day of May because of the lateness of the 
season interfering with travel. During the delay at Tobolsk 
requisitions were made for the necessary outfit for the expedition. 

May 15th we left Tobolsk by water down the Irtish to Sama- 
rovska Yama, on four boats of the kind called by the Siberians 
" dostcheniki," on which were loaded all the outfit brought from 
St. Petersburg or obtained at Tobolsk ; together with a chaplain, 
commissary, sub-officers and thirty-four soldiers. 

I had previously sent a garde-marine officer, on a small boat 
furnished by' the Tobolsk authorities in obedience to the orders of 
the Naval College, to the proper settlements where the prepara- 
tion of freight-boats had been ordered on the Yenisei and Uskut 
rivers, and I ordered him to sail to Yakutsk. 

From Samarovska Yama the Obi river was ascended to Surgut 
and to Narim, and thence the Ket river to Makovska post. From 
Tobolsk to Makovska as we traveled live Ostiaks who were 
formerly idolaters, but, since the year 1715, through the labors, of 
the Metropolitan of Tobolsk they have been converted to the 
true faith. From Makovska post to Yeniseisk the route lay over- 
land. From Yeniseisk to the Ilima-mouth we proceeded also in 
four boats by way of the Yenisei and Tunguska rivers. On the 
Tunguska there are three rapids and several shoals ; rapids be it 
understood where across the whole width of the river large rocks 
stand high in the water, with a passage only in one or two places; 
and shoals, similarly under water and above water but composed 
of small stones, alternate with rapids and with places where the 
water in the river is shallow for the distance of one or two versts, 
and which are not surmounted without a great deal of labor. 
From Yeniseisk in pursuance of orders from Tobolsk we took 
thirty men, carpenters and smiths. 

On the Ilima river, on account of rapids, bars and shoal water, 
the barges could not be taken to Ilimsk. For a certain distance 
only small canoes were available, for which reason the heaviest 
part of the outfit was reserved to be sent by sledges in winter. 

Lieut. Spanberg, with a party of thirty-nine carpenters and 
laborers, went by land from Ilimsk by the Uskut to the river 
Lena, to prepare during the winter fifteen barges on which the 
command and its equipment should be floated down to Yakutsk. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 137 

I remained with the rest of the party Bear Ilimsk just below the 
Uskut, because at Ilimsk there are few houses and on account of 
the difficulties involved in a winter journey to Yakutsk, from the 
deficiencies of transportation, the deep snow and the severe cold, 
which prevented us from proceeding. 

To these reasons [was added] the necessity, according to the 
orders from the authorities at Tobolsk, of drawing the provisions 
for the expedition from Irkutsk and from Ilimsk down to Yakutsk 
because at the latter place grain is not cultivated. During our 
wintering at Ilimsk I made a sledge journey to Irkutsk to advise 
with the local Voivod who had previously been Voivod at Ya- 
kutsk and who understood what would be needed by us in trans- 
porting our outfit from Yakutsk to Okhotsk and Kamchatka, 
since I did not possess any actual information in regard to that 
region. During the last days of winter travel I went over to the 
Uskut and obtained from Irkutsk twenty additional carpenters 
and smiths for the work of the expedition and two coopers from 
Ilimsk. 

On the Tunguska, Ilima and Lena rivers to the Vitim live the 
so-called Tunguses, people who own reindeer which they use as 
draught animals, while those who do not own deer live near the 
rivers on fish and travel in canoes made of birch bark. These 
people are idolaters. 

From Uskutsk on fifteen barges, in the spring of 1726, we 
descended the Lena to Yakutsk. From the river Vitim down to 
the Lena, on both banks live Yakuts with a smaller proportion of 
Tunguses. The Yakuts possess herds of cattle, plenty of horses 
and cows by which they subsist, and are contented with the 
product of their herds, depending but little on fish except where 
their cattle are too few. They pay an idolatrous reverence to 
the sun and moon as well as to birds, such as the swan, eagle and 
crow. They also hold in great honor their own fortunetellers, 
known hereabouts as shamani, each of whom owns small idols or 
figures which they call shaitan. By their own account these 
people are of Tartar origin. 

On reaching Yakutsk in boats I required the aid of all the 
people of my command. Thirteen flat-bottomed barges which 
had been constructed at Uskutsk, under Lieut. Spanberg, pro- 
ceeded by water on the Lena down to the Aldan to ascend that 
river, the Maya and the upper Yudoma. Such a cargo could 
hardly have been transported to that distance overland on horse- 



138 National Geographic Magazine. 

back where but little in the way of subsistence was obtainable 
from land or water. The Cross of Yudoma might only be reached 
with great difficulty, but if successful the expense would be less 
than if the material had been carried on the backs of horses. I 
myself with a few people crossed from Yakutsk to Okhotsk with 
pack horses, as is the general custom. The load or pack taken is 
only about five puds to one horse, less than by the telega [ordi- 
nary^cart], the deep mire and high mountains to be traversed not 
permitting more, though my supplies amounted to 1600 puds. 
At the post called Okhotsk is a Russian village of only ten houses, 
and Lieut. Chirikoff was left to winter at Yakutsk with orders to 
come overland to the Okhotsk post in the spring. 

In the last days of December, 1726, a message asking for assist- 
ance was received from Lieut. Spanberg, who had been dispatched 
by the river, saying that the boats had failed to get within 450 
versts of Yudoma Cross and were frozen in on the Gorbeh River, 
where he was transporting by sledges a cargo of outfit indispen- 
sable to our party. I sent at once, from among those who were 
wintering with me at the post of Okhotsk, a party with dogs and 
supplies and brought in the Lieutenant to the post on the first 
day of January, IV 2 7, but without any of the outfit, he having 
left the Gorbeh river November 4th, 1726. His command had 
been obliged by hunger to eat the flesh of their horses and even 
the rawhide harness, the skin of their fur clothing and the 
untanned uppers of their shoes. Their cargo was all left at four 
different places along the route, which lay through uninhabited 
country. The only addition to their means which they had been 
able to secure, was some of our own flour, to the amount of 150 
puds, which on my overland journey I had been obliged to leave 
near Yudoma Cross on account of the death of some of my pack- 
horses. 

Along the rivers Aldan and Maia live Yakuts of the same stock 
as those of the Lena and Yudoma rivers. But near and around 
the post of Okhotsk wander the seaside Tunguses and some 
Lamuts with their herds and many reindeer, who travel about 
winter and summer where their deer can find pasturage ; and 
some pedestrian Tunguses who live near the sea and rivers and 
are professional fishermen as among the Yakuts. 

February 1, ninety men with some dogs and sledges were col- 
lected and sent under Lieut. Spanberg to bring in the outfit left 
behind by the Yudoma river, and by the 1st of April about half 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 139 

of it had been transported safely to Okhotsk. Since more re- 
mained I sent twenty-seven men to Yudoma Cross to bring over 
the rest of the material on pack-horses from that place, who 
returned in May. 

In this region in winter time from Yakutsk to Okhotsk and 
other distant places people always travel on foot in parties of 
eight or ten, hauling their own sledges after them. Those be- 
longing to our command, when sent from Gorbeh to Okhotsk, 
brought down ten or fifteen puds or more, the snow being seven 
feet deep in places and travelers in winter being obliged to dig 
out a camp every evening, down to the ground to keep warm. 

June 30, Lieut. Spanberg in his newly built vessel sailed across 
the sea to the port of Bolsheretsk with a cargo of outfit and sup- 
plies and the material for the shipbuilders and workmen of our 
command, sent to Kamchatka to get out the timbers for a vessel, 
being ordered to return again for us. 

July 3d, Lieut. Chirikoff arrived from Yakutsk with 2300 puds 
of flour, according to my instructions. 

August 21, we loaded the new vessel which had returned from 
the land of Kamchatka, and another old boat which had been at 
Bolsheretsk, with the flour, and the whole command then at 
Okhotsk proceeded across the sea to Bolsheretsk. The officer 
who had been left to guard the provisions which had not arrived 
from the wintering place on the Gorbeh river was directed to float 
them down again and take a receipt from the authorities at Ya- 
kutsk and endeavor, the following year, to deliver to the com- 
mand in Kamchatka some part of the provisions, iron and tar. 

It was necessary to take the supplies from the mouth of the 
[Bolshoia] river to the post of Bolsheretsk by water in small 
boats. At the post were fifteen houses inhabited by Russians. 
For the ascent of the shallow river small boats had been built as 
I desired that the outfit and the most necessary part of the pro- 
visions should be transported to the upper Kamchatka post, a dis- 
tance of 120 versts by water. The transportation between Bol- 
sheretsk and Upper and Lower Kamchatka in winter was entirely 
carried on by the use of the native dogs. Every evening it is 
necessary to dig out the camp in the snow, in order to get shelter 
from whirlwinds of snow which in this region are called poorga. 
If one makes camp in an open place free from snow, these snow 
squalls are liable to overwhelm the party and they may perish. 



140 National Geographic Magazine. 

At Upper Kamchatka there are seventeen and at Lower Kam- 
chatka fifty houses, at another place [Middle Kamchatka] where 
there is a church are fifteen houses, and in all these settlements 
there are not over 150 Russian subjects, who live by the collec- 
tion of the yassak [tribute money], beside those who were brought 
to the country on our expedition. 

In coming over to Bolsheretsk we brought 300 puds of whale 
blubber obtained from a whale cast up by the sea, which served 
us as money, together with the Circassian tobacco which is here 
commonly so used. 

In the southern part of Kamchatka live Kuriles, in the northern 
part Kamchadales, whose language is peculiarly their own with 
but few introduced words. Of these people some are idolaters, 
others believe in nothing and are strangers to all honesty. The 
Russians who live in Kamchatka and the indigenes grow no grain 
and have no domestic animals except draught dogs. They dress 
and subsist upon what they can get, principally fish, roots and 
berries, in summer time wild fowl and large marine animals. At 
present in the wilderness of Yakutsk, the convent, which is of the 
same age as the Kamchatka churches, cultivates barley, hemp and 
turnips. Here only turnips are grown by the people of the three 
settlements, but they grow very large, in Russia they are smaller, 
here there may be four turnips to a pud. I brought with me on 
my journey some rye which was sowed around the establishments 
near us, but whether it ripened or not I did not ascertain. The 
frost strikes early into the ground in this region and the absence 
of cattle renders it difficult for the people to plow. 

The natives described and from whom the yassak [tribute] is 
collected, belong to the Russian Empire and are all savages. 
They are known for their dirt and bad passions. If a woman or 
any animal brings forth twins then one of them is smothered, the 
hour it is born, and it is regarded as a great fault if one does not 
smother one of the two. 

The Kamchadales are very superstitious. If there is any one 
who is very ill, even a father or mother, or near the point of 
death, they will carry them out into the woods and leave them 
without nourishment for a week together whether it be winter or 
summer, from which treatment many die. The dead are not cov- 
ered with earth but are dragged out and left to be eaten by dogs. 
The house of a man who has died is abandoned. Among the 
Kariak people it is the custom to burn the body,, although this is 
forbidden. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 141 

By the time of our arrival at the Lower Kamchatka post the 
ship-timber for our vessel was in large part prepared, and upon 
the 4th of April, 1728, was put upon the stocks for the vessel, 
which, with God's help, was finished by the 10th of July, the tim- 
ber being hauled by dogs. Tar was made from the native tree 
which is called JOistvenniJc [spruce], since the tar which we should 
have brought with us had not arrived. 

Before this it was not known here that tar could be obtained 
from the native trees. So also for the sea voyage, the deficiency 
of spirit made from grain was supplied by a liquor distilled from 
herbs, and salt was made by boiling sea water. To increase our 
store of sea provisions, in place of cow's butter, fat was tried out 
from fish, in place of meat fish was salted. The vessel was pro- 
visioned with everything needful for forty men for a year. On 
the 14th day of July we went out of the mouth of the Kamchatka 
river into the sea, in obedience to the autographic orders given 
me by his Imperial Majesty Peter the Great, as the map con- 
structed for that purpose will show. 

August 8th, having arrived in north latitude 64° 30', eight men 
rowed to us from the shore in a skin-boat, enquiring from whence 
we came and what was our business there. They said they were 
Chukchi, (whom the Russians of these parts have long known) 
and as we lay to they were urged to come to the vessel. They 
inflated some floats made of sealskin and sent one man swimming 
to us to talk, then the boat came up to the vessel and they told us 
that on the coast lived many of their nation ; that the land not 
far from there takes a decided turn to the westward, and they 
also said that at no great distance from where we were, we should 
see an island. This proved true, but we saw nothing valuable 
upon it except huts. This island in honor of the day we named 
St. Lawrence, but we were not able to see any people upon it, 
though an officer was sent in a boat from the vessel on two occa- 
sions to look for inhabitants. 

On the 15th of August we arrived in the latitude of 67° 18' and 
I judged that we had clearly and fully carried out the instructions 
given by his Imperial Majesty of glorious and ever deserving 
memory, because the land no longer extended to the north. 
Neither from the Chukchi coast nor to the eastward could any 
extension of the land be observed. If we should continue on our 
course and happen to have contrary winds we could not get back 
to Kamchatka before the close of navigation and might be 



142 National Geographic Magazine. 

obliged to winter in that region, not only without a harbor, but 
where no fuel could anywhere be obtained, where the native peo- 
ple do not acknowledge the authority of the Russian government, 
but are wholly independent and united against us in refusing to 
pay tribute. 

From the mouth of the Kamchatka river and all the way to 
this place along the seacoast wind elevated mountains, resembling 
a wall in steepness, and from which the snow does not disappear 
in summer. 

On the 20th of August four canoes were observed rowing 
toward us, containing about forty people who were Chukchi of 
the same sort as those whom we had met before. They brought 
for sale meat, fresh water, fish, fox skins, of which fifteen were of 
the white fox, and four walrus teeth, which my people bought of 
them for needles and flint-and-steels. They said that some among 
them had been overland with reindeer to the Kolyma river and 
that they never went by sea to the Kolyma ; but, at a great dis- 
tance, by the seashore lived some of our people, born Russians, 
people whom they had known for a long time, and one of them 
said that he had been at the Anadyr post to trade. To other 
questions they gave the same answers as the Chukchi previously 
seen. 

On the 2d of September we entered the mouth of the Kam- 
chatka river and wintered at the post of Lower Kamchatka. 

On the 5th of June, 1729, having repaired the vessel which had 
been laid up, we went out of the mouth of the Kamchatka river 
and put to sea to the eastward, because the inhabitants of Kam- 
chatka declared that on fine days land could be seen across the sea. 
Though none of our own people had observed it, we went out to 
determine the authenticity of the information. We sailed nearly 
200 versts and saw not the slightest trace of land. We sailed 
around the south point of Kamchatka to the mouth of the Bol- 
shoia river, making a chart of this part which had not previously 
been delineated. From the mouth of the Bolshoia river we sailed 
across the sea to the post of Okhotsk having left at Lower Kam- 
chatka and at Bolsheretsk, out of the supplies received by us from 
the authorities of Yakutsk, flour, meal and dry salt meat to the 
amount of 800 puds. 

On the 23d of July the vessel reached the mouth of the 
Okhotsk river, where the outfit and supplies of the expedition 
were turned over to the governor and I, with my command, on 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 143 

hired horses, crossed over to Yudoma Cross and thence in canoes 
down the Aldan river, crossing over at Belskoi and below, and 
carrying everything on pack horses over to Yakutsk. 

The whole journey occupied the time from Okhotsk, July 29th, 
to Yakutsk on the 29th of August. We remained in Yakutsk 
until September 3d, and from September 10th until October 1st 
traveled in two barges on the Lena when we were arrested by ice 
at the settlement of Peleduie. Here we were detained until the 
29th of October, by the absence of snow and the presence of small 
ice in the Lena. When the ice solidified we proceeded to Ilimsk 
and from Ilimsk to Yeniseisk on the Tunguska river, stopping at 
Russian settlements ; and from Yeniseisk to Tomsk with Russians 
and converted Tartars ; from Tomsk to Chausk Ostrog, Russian 
settlements ; from Chausk to Tari by the Barabinskoi steppe ; 
from Tari to Tobolsk by the Irtish river among the Tartars ; ar- 
riving at Tobolsk January 10, 1730. From Tobolsk for St. Peters- 
burg we left on the 25th of the same month, following the same 
route by which we originally reached Tobolsk from the capital. 
We arrived in St. Petersburg March 1, 1730. 



Note. — The extensive tabular itinerary covering two quarto 
pages, showing the details of the route traversed in going to 
Kamchatka, the distances and directions from point to point (ex- 
cept during the sea voyages), the native tribes in the region trav- 
ersed, etc. — is not reproduced, as it contains no information of 
importance in the present connection. The other table, showing 
the astronomical position estimated for the more important places 
is herewith transcribed. 

To get the approximate Greenwich longitude 67° should be 
added to the longitudes in the table which are reckoned from 
Tobolsk. 

I have provided a tabular itinerary, which shows the dates of 
the events of the expedition, derived from Bering's Report and 
from other sources, which are indicated by letters. B stands for 
Brookes 1 edition of Du Halde ; H for Campbell's version in Har- 
ris ; M for Midler's account ; and L for Lauridsen. The astro- 
nomical events are taken from Oppolzer's standard catalogue of 
solar and lunar eclipses. 

VOL. II. 10 



144 



National Geographic Magazine. 



It will be noted in the following tables there are a few discrep- 
ancies of single days compared with Lauridsen's account or other 
authorities. These I take to be due to the use in the ship's jour- 
nal of the nautical day in which the nautical second day of the 
month begins on the first calendar day at noon and ends at noon 
on the second calendar day, so that events occurring during the 
first twelve hours of the nautical day would have a date one day 
later than the true calendar date. 

Catalogue of the towns and notable Siberian places put on the 

chart through which the route passes, toith their latitude 

and longitude, the latter computed from Tobolsk. 



Cities and Places. 



Tobolsk 

Samarofska Yama 1 

Town of Surgut 

Town of Narim 

Ketskoi post - -.. - - - 

Losinoborski convent ...- 

Makoff ska post 

Yeniseisk - -- 

Kashim convent 

House of Simakhina, Ilima river mouth . . 

Ilimsk - - 

Ust Kutskoi post - 

Kirinski post 

Yakutsk - 

Okhotsk post - . - 

Mouth of Bolshoia river, Kamchatka 

Upper Kamchatka post --- 

Lower Kamchatka post 

Mouth of Kamchatka river 

Cape St. Thaddeus 

West cape, Holy Cross bay - 

East cape, Holy Cross bay 

Preobrazhenia bay 

Chukotski cape, east end 

St. Lawrence island 

St. Diomede island 

Place from which we turned back 

South cape of Kamchatka 



Latitude N. 



58° 05S 

60 17 

60 51 

58 48 

58 19 

58 17 

58 03 

58 20 

58 37 
57 25 
56 40 

56 40 

57 50 
62 08 

59 13 
52 42 
54 48 
56 11 
56 03 
62 20 
65 35 
65 28 

65 01 
64 25 
64 00 

66 00 

67 18 
51 10 



Long - . B. of 
Tobolsk. 



00° 00' 

00 30 

5 18 

14 35 

* 

* 

23 13 

25 12 

32 00 

35 16 

36 44 
38 26 
41 01 
57 53 
76 07 
89 51 



96 10 

111 32 

115 15 

115 37 

120 30 

122 55 

122 55 

125 42 

126 07 
89 51 



* These longitudes absent from Bering's own report are supplied by 
Campbell in his list, probably from the chart. 

In the Table of positions the addition of 67° will reduce the 
longitudes to E. of Greenwich. It is probably from this table 
that Dr. Campbell derived his list, in Harris, which is, barring 



Itinerary for Bering's First Expedition. 
Dates corrected to ordinary calendar, beginning at midnight. 



1725. 



Authorities. 



Date. 
Old Style. 



I Date. 

New Style. 



Advance party under Chirikoff left 

St. Petersburg H. L. 

Bering followed B. L. M. 

Bering arrived at Tobolsk B. H. L. M. 

Bering left Tobolsk Bering. 

Bering arrived at Ilimsk, where 

they spent the winter of 1725-6.. L. 
Lunar eclipse obs. at Ilimsk Chirikoff. 

1726. 

Bering arrived at Yakutsk. IL. 

Bering left Yakutsk . . L. 

Bering reached Okhotsk. L. 

Bering's provision train arrived at 
Okhotsk L. 



1727. 



H. 



H. L. 
M. L. 



B. H. M. 



Spanberg reached Okhotsk) Jan. 6, L). M 
Vessel Fortuna launched at Okhotsk L. 
Spanberg sailed fof Bolshoia river. M 
Chirikoff arrived at Okhotsk . . . . . B. 
Spanberg returned with Fortuna . . L. 
Bering and party sailed for Bolshoia 
river (Lauridsen says August 19). B. M. H. 

Bering arrived at Bolshoia river M. 

Bering arrived at Bolsheretsk . . L. 

1728. 

Partial eclipse of moon, visible in 
Kamchatka, last contact 7 h 41 m 
P. M. Oppolzer. 

Bering arrived at Lower Kam- 
chatka _. L. 

Vessel Gabriel put on the stocks... B. H. M. 

The Gabriel launched (Lauridsen 
says she sailed to the mouth of 
the river July 9) 

The expedition left the river to 
commence explorations B. H. L. 

The expedition sailed northward _. M. 

Bering reached his northernmost 
point and started on his return .. M. H. B. L. 

They reached the Kamchatka river 
on their return _ H. L. 

1729. 

Total eclipse of the moon, visible in 
this region, beginning at 6 h 06'" 
A.M. Oppolzer. 

Bering sailed E. from Kamchatka 
river (Lauridsen says July, which 
is erroneous) ... M. H. 

Bering steered to the southwest L. 

The party arrived at Bolsheretsk . . . 

Bering sailed for Okhotsk L. 

Bering arrived at Okhotsk M. Ber. 

Bering left Okhotsk H. 

Total eclipse of the moon same day, 
but not visible in this part of Asia Oppolzer. 

1730. 
Bering arrived at St. Petersburg... H. M. B. L. 



Jan. 24. 
Feb. 5. 
Mar. 16. 
May 15. 

Sept. 29. 
Oct. 10. 

Mid. June. 
Aug. 16. 
Sept. 30. 

End Oct. 



Jan. 1. 
June 8. 
June 30. 
July 3. 
Aug. 11. 

Aug. 21. 
Sept. 2. 
Sept. 4. 



Feb. 14. 

March 11. 
April 4. 



June 10. 

Julv 13. 
July 14. 

Aug. 15. 

Sept. 2. 



Feb. 2. 



Feb. 4. 
Feb. 16. 
Mar. 27. 
May 27. ' 

Oct. 10. 



End June. 
Aug. 27. 
iOct. 11. 

Mid. Nov. 

Jan. 12. 
June 19. 
July 11. 
July 14. 
Aug. 22. 

Sept. 1. 
Sept. 13. 
Sept. 15. 



Feb. 25. 

Mar. 22. 

April 15. 



June 21. 

July 24. 
July 25. 

JAug. 26. 

Sept. 13. 



Feb. 13. 



June 5. 


June 16 


June 8. 


June 19 


July 2. 


July 13. 


July 14. 


July 25. 


July 23. 


Aug. 3. 


July 29. 


Aug. 9. 


July 29. 


Aug. 9. 


March 1. 


Mar. 12 



146 National Geographic Magazine. 

some additions, errors, and mistranslations, much the same. As 
Bering does not give any longitude for Lower Kamchatka post it 
is highly improbahle that he observed it at that place, by means 
of a lunar eclipse or otherwise. 

Chirikoff' s observation of a lunar eclipse at Ilimsk made that 
point 30° 13' east longitude from Tobolsk or, approximately, 
97° 13' east from Greenwich. His pedometric observations placed 
Ilimsk in 103° 44' E. Gr. On recent charts Ilimsk is in about 
104° E. Gr., so that the eclipse observation was in error about 6^- 
degrees. The meridian used on the voyage of 1728 was that of 
Lower Kamchatka, based on pedometric observations from Ilimsk 
convputed by means of a traverse table. These, according to 
Chirikoff' s journal, gave for the Lower Kamchatka post a meridian 
of 126° 01' 49" east from St. Petersburg or about 156° 02' east 
from Greenwich, which is in error about six and a quarter 
degrees. Discarding the eclipse observation and using only the 
pedometric observations from Tobolsk to Lower Kamchatka the 
result for that place is 162° 33' E. Gr., which is very near the 
truth. I have no doubt that this result is what was finally used 
in the chart (though not in the original report) and, therefore, 
that all the observations of Lauridsen and others in regard to the 
alleged eclipse in Kamchatka are based on a misunderstanding 
and without value. 

Synopsis of the Voyage. 

The dates are reduced to the Julian calendar from the nautical 
account. The longitude is stated in degrees east from Greenwich. 

June 10/21, 1728. The vessel, which was named the Gabriel, 
was launched at the Lower Kamchatka fort and loaded with a 
year's supply of provisions for forty men (B. C. H. M.). She 
resembled the packet boats used in the Baltic. 

Notes. — This vessel was constructed of the Kamchatkan spruce, a 
species according to Kittlitz closely resembling Abies canadensis of 
America. There is also a smaller species, A. mertensiana, and by dis- 
tillation of these two trees the deficiency in their supply of tar or pitch 
was made up. The rigging, sail-cloth, oakum and anchors had been 
transferred with great labor from Tobolsk. The planking and timbers 
were doubtless fastened with trenails and not with spikes, so the 
amount of iron used was much smaller than it would be in most 
modern vessels. The provisioning of the expedition is the subject 
of a fanciful paragraph garbled from Bering's original report, which 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 147 

has been quoted by every one of the historians of the voyage from 
D'Anville to Lauridsen. I transcribe it from Brooke's translation of 
1736, pp. 437-8. 

" The provisions consisted of Carrots for want of Corn (=grain or 
wheat), the fat of Fish uncured served instead of Butter and salt fish 
supplied the place of all other meats." 

Campbell in Harris' Voyages, p. 1020, still further enlarges this state- 
ment and Lauridsen puts it 

" Fish oil was his butter and dried fish his beef and pork. Salt he 
was obliged to get from the sea," and "he distilled spirits from 'sweet 
straw.'" 

This gives a totally false idea of the supplies provided for the expedi- 
tion. Bering received from Yakutsk over forty-two tons of flour, and 
large numbers, fifty at a time, of the small Siberian cattle were driven 
on the hoof to Okhotsk where their flesh was partly dried and partly 
salted. On his return he delivered surplus supplies to the proper 
officers in Kamchatka and at Okhotsk ever 30,000 lbs. of meal, flour 
and salt meat. There were at that time no carrots to be had in Kam- 
chatka as Bering himself testifies. Salted salmon then as now, formed 
a staple article of diet in Kamchatka and was without doubt included 
in his stores. The delicate fat obtained by boiling the bellies of the 
salmon, is annually prepared in Kamchatka and is regarded to this 
day as a great delicacy (cf. Voyage of the Marchesa, 2d edition, p. 135.) 
A store of it might without any hardship be furnished to the comman- 
der for use as butter. Salt he obtained as it is usually obtained by 
evaporating sea-water, and the absence of strong drink of European 
origin was supplied by a distillation of the stalks of the bear's foot or 
" sweet herb" of the Cossacks (Heracleum dulce Kittlitz), long used for 
that purpose by the Russians in Siberia and from which, even in 
modern times, according to Seemann, the Kamchadales secured addi- 
tions to their scanty supply of syrup or sugar. 

The supplies then of the expedition, were not inferior to those in 
common use at sea at that period, and as far as health is concerned 
were certainly less likely to result in an invasion of scurvy than the 
use of salt beef and pork alone would have been. 

It must be remembered that the fare on naval vessels all over the 
world in those days, was rude and coarse to a degree now long unknown 
and that it was not until the voyages of Cook, nearly half a century 
later, that the antiscorbutic and varied regimen, now usually enforced 
by law in maritime nations, was even thought of. 

The force crowded together on the little Gabriel is enumerated by 
Lauridsen presumably from the account of Bergh. 

It consisted beside the commander, of Lieutenants Martin Spanberg 
and Alexie Chirikoff ; Second Lieutenant Peter Chaplin, Doctor Nieman, 
a quartermaster, eight sailors, a worker in leather, a rope maker, five 
carpenters, a boatswain, two cossacks with a drummer and nine 
marines, six servants, stewards, etc., and two Kariak interpreters, a 
cabin boy and a pilot, in all forty-four persons. 



148 National Geographic Magazine. 

It is not clear from Lauridsen's account whether in the above list are 
or are not included the two mates, Richard Engel and George Morison, 
or the cartographer Potiloff , who started with Bering from St. Peters- 
burg. Luzhin was left behind, being ill. 

July 13/24. The variation of the compass was determined to 
be 13° 10' easterly (L.). In the afternoon (being the 14th nauti- 
cal reckoning) the vessel left the Kamchatka river. (B. C. H.) 
They steered to the northeast along the coast, which was kept in 
sight to the north and west, in from nine to twelve fathoms 
water. As the point of departure Cape Kamchatka was deter- 
mined to be in north latitude 56° 3' (M. L.) 

Notes. — The variation of the compass in 1885 was 2° 30' easterly 
(Schott). As will be seen by the Table of Positions, the latitude above 
given for the cape is not the same as that adopted by Bering on his 
chart. The depth mentioned shows that the Gabriel must have kept 
within a few miles, probably not exceeding ten, from the shore and 
the very slow progress made, as indicated by the log, not much exceed- 
ing two miles an hour gives rise to the suspicion that, in the early part 
of the voyage, in order to keep their survey continuous, they probably 
lay to during the hours of darkness. Off Karaginski Island the varia- 
tion of the compass was determined to be the same as at the mouth of 
the Kamchatka river. 

From this date to the 27th, the accessible authorities give no data, 
and the expedition probably pursued its way uneventfully. 

-£-— — — . This day a prominent Cape was passed at a distance 

of some three miles. [It was named St. Thaddeus, after the 
saint on whose holy day it was again seen on the return voyage.] 
Many grampus, porpoises, seals and sealions were seen (L.). 

Notes. — This Cape St. Thaddeus is not the cape of the same name on 
modern charts, but the cape now known as Cape Navarin. This is 
evident from Bering's chart. Bering's position for the cape is in error 
about fifteen miles in latitude and three degrees in longitude on his 
chart, while in the list of positions, the error is only about five miles of 
latitude and half a degree in longitude. 

From near Cape Thaddeus Bering stood across Anadyr Gulf, out 
of sight of the low land, missing Anadyr Bay, and thereby falling 
into the error of placing on his chart the mouth of the Anadyr River 
south of the cape. The error was subsequently corrected by G. F. 
Midler. 

Lauridsen observes (American edition, p. 30), that "having sailed 
past the Anadyr River without quite being able to find their bearings, 
in regions of which they had not a single astronomical determination," 



Review of Bering's First Expedition^ 1725-30. 149 

etc. This is absurd. They had a compass and there is no reason why 
they should not find their bearings, and it is certain they were there 
to make observations and not to verify those already made. No 
apology is needed for Bering's determination to press more rapidly 
northward. It was in accordance with common sense, considering the 
lateness of the season and the uncertainty of what they had to accom- 
plish before the season closed. 

Aug. 1/12. Festival of the Holy Cross. The expedition saw 
land to the northward and soon after entered a great bay which 
they named Holy Cross Bay. This they explored to the river at 
its head which they named Bolshoia (Great) River, and on the 
western point of entrance the latitude was, Aug. 2/13, observed 
to be 65° 35' north, while the longitude by dead reckoning was 
estimated at 182° 15' east of Greenwich, and the magnetic varia- 
tion f of a point easterly. 

Notes. — Lauridsen says (p. 31, American edition i that in Holy Cross 
Bay the Gabriel spent two days under sail in search of fresh water and 
a place to anchor." This is extremely singular, as there is an 
anchorage immediately at the entrance to the bay, on the starboard 
hand, and runs of fresh water are abundant. The application of an 
obvious correction* to the list of positions given by Campbell makes 
the position at the western elbow or spit, at the mouth of Holy Cross 
Bay, that which is given above. This position is over a degree too far 
west and over six miles too far south. But Lauridsen (quoting Camp- 
bell without observing the blunder?) not stating the source of his 
information, gives a position (N. Lat. 62° 50') which is two hundred and 
twelve miles too far south and the English translation improves upon 
this by making it 60 D 50', or three hundred and thirty two miles south 

* In Harris' Voy., 2d ed., ii, p. 1021, Bering's table of positions is 
printed : 

Nischuvi Kamschatska Oostrog, (N. Lat.) 56° 11' (Lon. E. Tobolsk), 98° 30' 
The Mouth of the river of the Apostle Thadeus and the 

Cape 56° 03', 96° 10' 

The Elbow of the river Sivetoi Krest - - - 62° 20', 111° 32' 

Eastern Point - 65 c 35', 115° 15' 

This should read, errors and misplacements corrected : 

Lat. Long. 

Nizhni Kamschatsk Ostrog 56° 11', 95° 30' 

The mouth of the River (Kamchatka) 56° 03,' 96° 10' 

The Cape of the Apostle Thaddens - 62° 20', 111° 32' 

The western cape (or spit) of Svietoi Krest Bay 65° 35', 115° 15' 

The words in parentheses are added by the writer for clearness. It is 
somewhat surprising that in using this table nobody seems to have 
recognized these errors. 



150 National Geographic Magazine. 

of the truth, or two hundred and sixty-five miles south of the entrance 
to the bay as platted on Bering's own chart. 

Bering's table in his report and Bering's chart as printed by D'Anville 
differ from each other fifteen miles in latitude and two degrees and 
twenty-five minutes or nearly seventy-five miles in longitude. The 
chart is the more correct, but it differs more than thirty miles in lati- 
tude and nearly a degree in longitude from the modern observations of 
Llitke and Rodgers for the same locality. After leaving Holy Cross Bay, 
the voyage was continued to the southeast along the " high and rocky 
coast" of which Lauridsen (probably paraphrasing Bergh) says that 
" every indentation was very carefully explored." This is obviously a 
flight of fancy, since a good part of this coast is low and sandy, while 
there is no indication of two excellent harbors which it affords, on any 
of the charts of Bering or his successors in that century. 

Aug. 6/17, 1728. This day, the festival of the Transfiguration, 
found the Gabriel entering a small bay, which on that account 
was named Transfiguration (Preobrazhenia) Bay. Here they 
anchored (L.). Lieutenant Chaplin was sent ashore for water 
and found native huts but no people. 

Notes. — This bay has never been surveyed, and on the best modern 
charts is merely indicated, while on many others it is omitted altogether 
or the name transferred to the anchorage north of Cape Bering or to 
Plover Bay. Bering's position for the spit at the entrance of Transfigu- 
ration Bay is two degrees and a quarter too far east and sixteen miles 
too far north by the table, but his chart gives the position much more 
closely, with a difference from Rodgers' chart of not exceeding five 
miles. 

Aug. 7/18. They proceeded along the coast in a south-south- 
easterly direction. 

Note.— The total eclipse of the moon of this date could hardly have 
been observed by Bering, since the moon must have been close to the 
horizon and first contact of the shadow occurred only about five minutes 
before the moon set. As Bering does not mention it, it is not likely 
that he noted the eclipse. 

Aug. 8/19. At seven in the morning a skin-boat (umiak or 
bidarra) was observed to be launched from the shore, eight men 
getting into it and rowing toward the vessel (B.). They 
approached within hail, and were understood, through the aid of 
the Kariak interpreters on board the Gabriel, to enquire whence 
the vessel came and what was the object of the expedition in 
entering these waters. After much persuasion one of the natives 
left the skin-boat and swam, sustaining himself on two inflated 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 151 

seal-skins tied by a pole, to the Gabriel and came on board and 
the others, seeing that no harm befel him, came nearer the vessel 
shortly afterward (M. B. C). The interpreters had some difficulty 
in understanding all the natives said, but it was gathered from 
their conversation that these people called themselves Chukchi 
(or by an analogous name) ; that they were acquainted with the 
Russians, by report or otherwise, that there were numerous settle- 
ments of their people along this shore ; that the Anadyr River lay 
far to the west (L.) ; that to the south and east lay an island which 
would soon be visible to the people on the Gabriel if they continued 
on the course they were then steering ; that in the vicinity of this 
island the shore of the mainland changes its direction and extends 
beyond to the north and then to the westward (B. M. C. H.). 
The man who had boarded the vessel was given some presents and 
sent back to the native boat, in the hope that he would persuade 
his comrades to come on board the Gabriel, but, suspecting some 
evil design, the natives pulled away toward the shore and disap- 
peared. According to Bergh, Chaplin's journal expresses regret 
that more important information could not be obtained owing to 
the difficulty in interpreting what was said by the Chukchi. At 
noon the latitude was estimated to be 64° 30'. In the afternoon 
the cape mentioned by the Chukchis was seen. 

Notes. — The account given in Bering's report, and variously rendered 
by Miiller, Brooks, D'Anville and Campbell, differs in several details 
from that given in Chaplin's journal and described by Bergh and Lau- 
ridsen. The various English versions of both fail in clearly rendering the 
important point gained by this interview with the natives, which was, 
that, at a short distance, the main coast changes its direction and 
turns to the north and west. These Chukchis pointed the way to the 
strait for the party on the Gabriel, and their account proved to be 
accurate in every particular. 

The people of this part of the coast call themselves Tsau-chu, which 
is their tribal name. The similar name of another branch living near 
the Anadyr River has been corrupted into the word Chuk-chi, by the 
Russians, from which we derive our general name for these people. 
Lauridsen says "Breden var 64° 41'" which in the American edition 
stands, "the longitude (sic) was 64° 41'." But the original and all the 
variants of Bering's own report make the latitude 64° 30' which is 
correct. If it had been 64° 41' they would have been north of their own 
position for Transfiguration Bay, from which their course had been 
S.S.E., therefore the 41' is certainly erroneous. 

On Bering's chart he refers to the point of the coast where the shore 
changes its direction under the name ChukotsJcago Noss, which means 
the promontory of the Chukchi, though this is not the same as the 



152 National Geographic Magazine. 

Chukchi Cape of the Anadyr Cossacks, who so denominated the eastern 
extreme of Asia, which they knew from report and by the voyage of 
Deshneff . There can be no reasonable doubt that Bering named his cape 
after the people who had described it to him, although the imperfections 
of the record leave this to be inferred. Bering's map gives the latitude 
of the south extreme of the cape as about 64° 02', and it is erroneously 
represented as extending south of the latitude of the northwest end of 
St. Lawrence Island. Its real latitude is about fifteen miles further 
north. Cook made it 64° IB'. Chaplin's journal (according to Laurid- 
sen) makes it 64' 18', which would agree with the latest surveys very 
nearly, though the coincidence must be regarded as a happy accident 
in view of their imperfect tables, instruments and methods. Bering's 
report places its eastern extreme in 64° 25' and (wrongly) in the same 
longitude as the west end of St. Lawrence Island. 

Aug. 10/21. St. Lawrence's day. The island referred to by 
the Chukchi was seen and the vessel stood toward it, about two 
o'clock in the afternoon. Twice, an officer with a four-oared boat 
was sent to reconnoiter the coast more closely, but he saw only 
what appeared to be huts without inhabitants (C). The island 
(of which only the northwest billy portion was seen, owing to the 
hazy weather) was named after the patron saint of the day and 
the course of the vessel was changed to the northward. 

Aug. 11/22. . At noon the latitude was estimated at 64° 20', and 
at sunset an attempt was made by the determination of the 
magnetic variation to get the longitude (L.). 

Notes. — An illustration of the want of care with which Lauridsen has 
weighed his comments, it may be pointed out that he claims (p. 32, Am. 
Ed.) that on reaching latitude 64° 20' the Gabriel was in Bering Strait, 
while two pages later, on her return southward, he declares her to 
have got out of the strait on reaching latitude 64 u 27' ! As a matter of 
fact, at the present day, the whalers and traders of this region consider 
that Cape Chaplin (more commonly known as Indian Point) forms the 
southwest point of entrance to the strait ; and this point is situated in 
latitude 64° 25' and E. longitude 187° 40', as determined by the writer 
in 1880. This is perhaps the point referred to by Bering as the eastern 
point of his Chukotskoi Cape. 

The magnetic method of determining the longitude would give cor- 
rect results only accidentally, as previously explained. The result 
announced by Lauridsen for the present occasion is 25° 31' east from 
Lower Kamchatka Ostrog or 187° 51' east from Greenwich, which would 
be within a few miles of the latest determinations. But it is obvious 
from Bering's map that he could not have made his position less than 
28° 45' east from Lower Kamchatka, and the position above given is 
perhaps an interpolation from modern sources, which has been misun- 
derstood or mistranslated. As Lauridsen has paraphrased, not quoted, 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 153 

it is impossible in the absence of Bergh's original to determine who is 
responsible for the incongruity. An interpolation seems the more likely 
since Bering himself gives the longitude as 189° 55' E. Gr.* 

Aug. 12/23. From noon of the 11th to noon of this day, the 
Gabriel sailed sixty -nine miles, but the difference of latitude was 
only 21 miles. The wind was light to fresh and the weather 

overcast (L.). 

Notes. — If the above statement be taken literally with the assumption 
that they were at noon of the 11th in latitude 64° 20' and E. longitude 
188° from Greenwich, it would give their position for noon of the 12th 
as 64° 49' and longitude 190° 45' E. Gr. , which does not at all accord with 
the subsequently narrated course, etc. If we proceed on the hypothesis 
that it means that the log recorded 69 miles and that only 29 miles were 
made good (which might easily happen if the polar current were run- 
ning strong on the west side of the strait) and that their course was 
parallel with the Siberian shore in a general way they would have been, 
at noon of August 12th, in latitude 64° 49' and longitude 188° E. Gr. or 
thereabouts, which agrees very fairly with the known circumstances. 

Aug. 13/24. A fresh breeze and cloudy weather. The Gabriel 
sailed the whole day with no land in sight and the difference in 
latitude was only 78 miles at noon, reckoned from noon of the 
12th. The wind diminished toward night. 

Notes.— On the same hypothesis as to the meaning of " difference in 
latitude " as the words are used by Lauridsen, the Gabriel at noon of 
the 13th would have been ten or twelve miles south from East Cape 
and in about latitude 65° 55'. If the words are to be taken literally, as 
a navigator would use them, the Gabriel would have been about fifteen 
miles to the northward and eastward of East Cape, which agrees much 
less with the subsequently detailed circumstances. With the nautical 
day beginning at noon on the 13th according to Lauridsen the weather 
began to be calm and cloudy which would check their progress. 

Aug. 14/25. This is the festival of Saint Demetrius of Africa. 
A current was experienced during this day which was estimated 
to have helped the vessel northward eight miles and three quarters. 
This current ran from south-southeast to north-northwest. From 
noon of the 13th to noon of this day the vessel sailed 29 miles in 
addition to the current drift. At noon the latitude was estimated 

* A glance at Bergh shows that this statement of Lauridsen is simply 
a blunder. Bergh only says they obtained the magnetic variation 
(25° 31' easterly) by an amplitude observation ! Longitude is not men- 
tioned, nor Kamchatka. 



154 National Geographic Magazine. 

to be 66° 41' and high land was visible astern. At three o'clock 
in the afternoon high mountains were observed to the southward, 
which, says Chaplin, "were probably on the continent." 

Notes. — Under any hypothesis either the run of the vessel was under- 
estimated or the latitude was overestimated. Adding the estimated 
run to the position attained under our hypothesis for the 13th and 13th 
it will put the Gabriel at noon, August 14th, in about north latitude 
66° 24' and longitude E. Gr. 191° 30'. Chaplin's reckoning as given by 
Lauridsen would have put the Gabriel more than fifty miles off shore 
when the land spoken of would have been out of sight. Our hypothesis 
puts her about twenty-eight miles N.E. true from East Cape when the 
high land of either shore, under favorable circumstances, might have 
been seen even if the sky were overcast. Clouds do not interfere with 
seeing, unless attended by fog or haze. During this day the Gabriel 
had sailed between East Cape and the islands now known as the Dio- 
medes ; the shore being near by. Why then should it be noted in 
the log that ' ' high land was seen astern " at noon ? The high land of 
Siberia they had seen and sailed along for days in full sight of it. It 
seems to us that this excludes the idea that the log refers to the Siberian 
highland and that what was seen was the loom of land not before seen, 
as of the Diomedes or even of America. It may not have been clear to 
the commander and yet have been marked enough for the subordinate 
officer to have put it in his log, with the dead reckoning and daily 
notes.* On several old charts mention is made of land seen by Spanberg 
which is supposed to have been America, after Gwosdeff had confirmed 
the existence of the American mainland in that direction and Synd had 
landed upon it. This suggestion is not unimportant in connection with 
the subsequent conduct of Bering and will be referred to again in its 
proper connection. The further fact that all early printed versions of 
Bering's list of positions, refer to the modern Diomedes only as the 
island of St. Demetrius and that this day was the festival of that 
obscure saint, lends further confirmation to the above suggestions. 

Aug. 15/26. The Gabriel appears to have continued to sail in 
a northeasterly direction until three o'clock in the afternoon, hav- 
ing been aided by the current to the extent of 8f miles and 
sailed 65 miles ; many whales were seen and the depth averaged 
between 23 and 36 fathoms. Since the 13th the water had 
appeared whitish or discolored. The wind was moderate and the 
weather cloudy. Between noon and three o'clock the vessel made 
seven miles against a head wind. The position of the Gabriel at 
that time was estimated to be in north latitude 67° 18' and 30° 17' 
east longitude from the town of Lower Kamchatka (C. corrected). 

* Lauridsen gets over the discrepancy by putting the word "still" 
before "seen" (Am. Ed., p. 41), but there is nothing in the original 
sources to confirm this view of the matter. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 155 

Note. — The nautical day Aug. 15 extending from noon of the 14th to 
noon of the 15th is altogether omitted from the American translation of 
Lauridsen's book. The position for the turning point estimated by 
Chaplin is manifestly by dead reckoning, as the sky was cloudy. It 
was not adopted in the list of positions published by Campbell in Harris' 
Voyages nor on Bering's map. In the former the longitude he adopts 
is 27° 37' east of Lower Kamchatka fort, and this agrees exactly with 
the point on the coast in Du Halde's engraving of Bering's map where 
the mountains cease to be put down near the shore, the point on the 
north coast of Siberia where Lauridsen, and Chaplin as quoted by him, 
say Bering did not go, and the point which has been generally regarded 
as Bering's farthest ! 

If we apply the distance and direction from Chaplin's journal to the 
course of the Gabriel platted from his preceding data, literally, it will 
put the turning point of the voyage in N. latitude 67° 32' and E. longi- 
tude 193° 37' or thereabouts, which is about thirty-five miles off the 
American coast southwest from Cape Seppings. But if we do this the 
position is far from agreeing with Chaplin's. By applying the hypo- 
thetical correction which we have heretofore used, the position would 
be in latitude 67° 24' and E. longitude 193° 15' from Greenwich or 31° 
east from Lower Kamchatka fort, agreeing more nearly with Chaplin. 
On the other hand the position off Cape Seppings agrees better with 
Chaplin's figures for the remainder of the day. 

At this point the commander of the expedition determined to 
turn homeward. The Gabriel was put on a course S. by E. by- 
compass (S. by W. ^ W. true, the variation allowed being 2£ 
points easterly) before a brisk seven knot breeze, making better 
time than is recorded for any part of her outward voyage. 

Notes. — Lauridsen says* that, in terminating the outward voyage, 
Bering ' ' announced that as he had now accomplished his task it was 
his duty, according to his orders, to return." Midler and other authori- 

* Bergh (p. 54) quotes Chaplin's journal, which says: "At three 
o'clock Captain Bering announced : that it ivas necessary for him, in 
spite of his instructions, to turn back, and put the vessel about with 
orders to steer S. by E. by compass." The italics are Bergh's, who 
adds that, in the journal of Lieut. Chirikoff , the same statement is made 
in the same words. I transliterate the italicized phrases according to 
the schedule for Russian letters published in Nature, Feb. 27, 1890. 
" Chto nadlezhit emu protiv ukazu vo ispolnenie vozvratit'sya." This 
plain statement, which proves that (at the moment) Bering recognized 
that he was not fulfilling his orders, is suppressed by Lauridsen and of 
course by Bering himself when he came to prepare his official report. 
Lauridsen however is not satisfied with suppressing the truth, which 
would have weighed so heavily against his hero and his argument, but, 
with the truth in his possession, he has inserted in his book a statement 
which is diametrically opposed to it as above cited. 



156 National Qeograjpliio Magazine. 

ties quote, more or less modified in the translation, the reasons given 
in Bering's report. But, as there is no reason to suppose these were 
uttered to the ship's company officially at the time, a consideration of 
them may be deferred until the total results of the voyage are discussed. 
The course set, according to Chaplin's journal, would, if made good, 
have carried the Gabriel east of the Diomedes and close to Cape Prince 
of Wales. The northwesterly current referred to by Chaplin and rec- 
ognized by most navigators who have since visited those seas, would 
have carried the vessel more to the westward, as was actually the result, 
and it was probably allowed for. 

August 16/2*7. Saint Diomede's day. The Gabriel had kept on 
her course with a free wind making more than seven knots (miles) 
an hour. At nine in the morning they found themselves off a 
high promontory on the west, where there were Chukchi habita- 
tions. On the east and seaward they saw an island, which it was 
proposed to call after the saint of the day. At noon the vessel 
had made since the previous noon 115 miles and had reached lati- 
tude 66° 02'. Continuing on their way, with a fresh breeze and 
cloudy weather, they sailed along the Asiatic coast near enough 
to observe many natives and at two places they saw dwellings. 
At three p. m. very high land and mountains were passed (proba- 
bly the highlands near St. Lawrence Bay). 

Notes.— From 3 P. M. Aug. loth to 9 A. M. Aug. 16th is 18 hours, which 
at seven knots an hour (allowing the alleged excess to be the equivalent 
of the drift caused by the current) would amount to 126 miles. Deduct 
from this the seven miles sailed between noon and 3 P. M. Aug. 15th in 
the opposite direction and we have remaining 119 miles made on the 
homeward voyage at a time when the Gabriel was between the Dio- 
medes and East Cape, or at least in plain sight of both. But three 
hours later, at noon, according to Lauridsen, they had made only 115 
miles in all, although the breeze was fresh and fair. From Chaplin's 
position for the turning point to latitude 66° 02' off East Cape is 96 
miles. From our hypothetically corrected position for the turning 
point, off Cape Seppings, the distance would be to the same place 126 
miles, or thereabouts. It is evident that there is a miscalculation, or an 
error in the record here, which, without further data, it is not possible 
to correct. 

It is certain that Bering with whom the right of naming any new 
island would have rested, did not then name the island above men- 
tioned after St Diomede. On all copies of the earlier version of his 
chart it appears if at all under the name of the Island of St. Demetrius. 
From this we may suspect that he identified it with the high land seen 
Aug. 14th, St. Demetrius' day, while others on board, suspecting they 
were not the same proposed the name of Diomede for the present 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30 . 157 

island ; regarding the high land as something distinct. If the hardy 
and self-willed Spanberg was the one who reported the land Aug. 14th, 
and if he saw the high land about Cape Prince of Wales, as several old 
charts allege, he would have been the last to admit that the relatively 
small and adjacent island now seen, should be identified with his dis- 
covery. 

Aug. 17/28. The breeze having been strong and fair an obser- 
vation at noon indicated that the latitude was 64° 27' and that the 
Gabriel had sailed 164 miles since noon of the 16th. In the 
afternoon the weather was clear and the wind became light. 
(The Gabriel must have come out of the strait this afternoon). 

Notes. — A distance of 164 miles from the position of the previous 
noon would have put the Gabriel in latitude 63' 38'. The distance on 
the general course sailed by the Gabriel from 66° 02' to 64° 27' is about 
107 miles. It is possible that in copying or printing 104 miles has be- 
come transmuted to 164 miles. There is an obvious error here of some 
kind. 

Aug. 18/29. (Lauridsen does not refer to any record for this 
day, but it is probable that the wind continued light and the 
weather fair and that the Gabriel was slowly working her way 
westward and southward in the vicinity of Cape Chukotski.) 

Aug. 19/30. In the afternoon being in the vicinity of the 
place where they had met the Chukchi boat on the outward 
voyage, four baidars were seen with their crews pulling for the 
vessel, which accordingly lay by for them to come up with her. 
There were ten natives to each baidar, or forty in all. They 
brought reindeer meat, fish, and fresh water in large bladders for 
sale for which they were suitably rewarded, while the crew of the 
Gabriel obtained from them skins of the red and the polar foxes 
and four walrus teeth, which the natives bartered for needles, 
flint-and-steel for striking fire, and iron. These Chukchi told 
them that they went over land to trade at the Kolyma River, 
carrying their goods with reindeer, and that they never went by 
sea. They had long known the Russians and one of them had 
even been to the Anadyrsk fort to trade. From this man they 
had hopes of gaining valuable information but he could tell them 
nothing more than they had learned from the first Chukchis who 
had been questioned. 

Aug. 20/31 to | e pf— g. (For this period the documents accessi- 
ble to me give no information, but the Gabriel was doubtless 



158 National Geographic Magazine. 

pursuing her homeward way uneventfully along the coast of 
Kamchatka.) 

s u ^' 10 - A heavy storm arose with fog and the Gabriel finding 
herself dangerously close to the shore anchored near the land to 
ride it out. A note in Harris indicates that they may have been 
near Karaginski Island. 

^HTTr ^ one p ' M " ^ e s * orm n ad abated, but in weighing 
anchor the cable had been so chafed by the rocky bottom that it 
parted and they lost the anchor, and were obliged to put to sea 
without recovering it. 

Sept. 1/12, 1728. At five o'clock in the afternoon they 
approached and at seven the next morning entered the mouth of 
the Kamchatka river, thus ending the voyage. 

Note. — The Gabriel was secured in a slough of the river and the party 
went up the river to the fort of Lower Kamchatka where Bering passed 
the winter. 

It is certain that the residents of Kamchatka and others more or less 
familiar with the reports of Cossack explorations in Chukchi-land were 
not altogether satisfied with the summary manner in which exploration 
had been given up by Bering, and his apparent assumption that there 
was no adjacent land to the eastward except small islands. More or 
less such discussion and criticism could hardly have failed to reach his 
ears, and his reflections may have led him to think that, after all, he 
had been too hasty. Trees not indigenous to Kamchatka had been 
seen floating near the shores, no heavy breakers ever proceeded from 
the eastward and it was even alleged that land or the loom of land 
might be seen to the east from the coast mountains in very clear 
weather. On account of these and other reasons* which were urged 
by residents of the country, Bering determined to make a new trial. 
Instead of proceeding directly to Okhotsk across Kamchatka he fitted 
out the Gabriel for another voyage. Beside the fact that Luzhin, one 
of his cartographers, had explored the Kurile Islands lying next to 
Kamchatka, the vessel Fortuna during Bering's absence had doubled 
Cape Lopatka and was anchored in the Kamchatka River when Bering 
entered it on his return. It was therefore evident that the straits were 
navigable and the return voyage might be made that way. Spanberg 
was ordered to Bolsheretsk " on account of illness " (L.), and it is pos- 
sible he took the Fortuna back there since she had already returned to 
Bolsheretsk when Bering reached that port, on his way to Okhotsk. 

* The natives even claimed that a man had been stranded on the 
coast of Kamchatka in 1715, who stated that his own country lay to 
the eastward and contained forests with high trees and large rivers. 
(Lauridsen, op. cit. Am. ed. p. 51). Bering himself states that he made 
the search of 1729 at the instance of the Kamchatkan residents. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 159 

Lauridsen has ascribed to Bering's own initiative the willingness to 
make another search for land as if these ideas were original with him. 
It is evident that this is unjustified and fanciful. Midler's account 
shows that the incitement to a second attempt proceeded from the resi 
dents of the country and that Bering complied with their suggestions ; 
and Bering says so himself in his report. 

On June* 5/16, 1729, the Gabriel left the mouth of the Kamchatka 
River and stood to the eastward, directly off shore. She continued on 
this course about forty-eight hours, sailing a distance variously esti- 
mated at from ninety to one hundred and thirty miles. The weather 
was foggy, no land was seen, the wind shifted to dead ahead at east 
northeast, and on the third day Bering gave up the search and steered 
for the southern coast of Kamchatka, the extreme of which is marked 
by the point known as Narrow (Ooskoi) Cape, or more generally as 
Shovel (Lopatka) Cape, from its low square termination. He deter- 
mined the latitude of this cape, and passing through the strait south of 
it reached Bolcheretsk on the west coast of the peninsula on the second 
of July. Most of this time was probably spent in tracing the form 
of the southern part of Kamchatka. Half way between the Kam- 
chatka River and the coast the variation was observed to be one point 
easterly, and off Avatcha Bay three-quarters of a point easterly. 

In the American translation of Lauridsen it is said (p. 51) that Bering 
fixed the difference of latitude (for which one should read longitude) 
between Bolcheretsk and Lower Kamchatka Ostrog at 6° 29'. But on 
Bering's maps the difference is only 3° 50', while in his list of positions 
no longitude is assigned to Lower Kamchatka post. In Campbell's list 
it stands at 8° 39', which the correction of an evident error of 98° for 
95° reduces to 5° 39'. The true difference of longitude according to the 
latest charts is about 5° 25'. "Where Lauridsen got his figures he does 
not state. Campbell, in Harris, states that Bering was the first navi- 
gator to double Cape Lopatka, but the Fortuna had made this voyage 
in 1728, though her commander is not known. 

At Bolsheretsk Bering left a crew for the Fortuna which had returned 
thither ; turned over some of his surplus stores to the local authorities 
and on the 14/25 July sailed from the Bolshoia River for Okhotsk. 
Here he arrived ^ ly ^| and after some days spent in turning over gov- 
ernment property to the local officials and procuring his horses and 
outfit, he left Okhotsk J j~-^ on the overland journey to St. Peters- 
burg. The second eclipse of the moon for the year occurred on this 
day, but during hours of daylight, and hence was invisible in this part 
of Asia. 

After an uneventful but successful journey Bering arrived in St. 
Petersburg Mar. 1/12, 1730, bringing with him, according to Du Halde, 
the map and report he had prepared upon his explorations. 

* Lauridsen says July, which is erroneous. 

VOL. II. 11 



160 



National Geographic Magazine. 



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162 National Geographic Magazine. 

Resume oe the Results. 

Bering had brought a party, together with supplies and ma- 
terial, over the rough and difficult but long-traveled routes to 
Okhotsk. Wherever he went he found settlements and roads 
such as they were. He transported his material to Bolsheretsk 
and from there across the peninsula to Lower Kamchatka settle- 
ment. It would have been much easier and shorter to have 
doubled the peninsula and taken his stores by sea ; one of his 
party had already explored the straits near Cape Lopatka, but 
there was the chance of disaster in this plan and, with his stores 
on terra firma, Bering cannot be blamed for taking the land 
route ; especially as the difficulties would not inconvenience him 
personally. He succeeded in getting his stores and shipwrights to 
the place designated and there prepared himself for the voyage. 
In all this there was difficulty and trouble enough of a certain 
kind. That it all was surmounted with success is very creditable 
to Bering and his officers. But to call it exceptionally heroic or 
extraordinary, is to forget the hundreds of others who preceded 
Bering, without the strong arm of the government at their backs, 
who made the trails he followed, who founded the settlements at 
which he rested, who raised the dogs, the horses and the cattle 
which were used or consumed by his party. 

Whatever praise we may feel due to Bering and his companions, 
and it is certainly no stinted allowance, the appreciation of their 
struggles cannot fail to include with justice, the still more re- 
markable and nearly forgotten pioneer labors of the undaunted 
Siberiaks, who paved the way, not only for Bering's weary jour- 
ney, but for the slow yet never ceasing march of civilization. 

After leaving port Bering traced the shores of Kamchatka and 
eastern Siberia as far as East Cape. Thence he sailed in a north- 
easterly direction. At 3 p. m., Aug. 14th, land was seen astern ; 
the vessel continued in the same direction until 3 p. m. the next 
afternoon, having, at most, sailed about twenty-four hours out of 
sight of land but in shallow water. Bering then concluded he 
had gone far enough to show the separation of Asia from Amer- 
ica, or any land to the eastward. No doubt he was influenced by 
the testimony of the residents of Kamchatka who knew the work 
which had been performed in this region by Deshneff and others, 
and also by the fact that the native testimony all pointed the 
same way. If he was convinced of the truth of this testimony 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 163 

he would have been disposed to accept as conclusive evidence 
which would not be so regarded by critics. All the evidence 
shows Bering as faithful to the letter of his orders, honest, 
patient with the ill-doing or insubordination of others, but per- 
fectly satisfied with the accomplishment of what he had been 
specifically directed to perform, and with a tendency to limit the 
specifications to the narrowest construction they would bear. He 
adventured nothing beyond. In the arbitrary government under 
which he served, with the violent competition between foreign 
officers in the Russian service for promotion in rank and pay, who 
can criticise him for the prudence and caution which kept him 
well within his instructions ? I certainly do not. But to say 
that he was a cautious, prudent and sagacious officer, is a different 
thing from asserting he was a daring, adventurous and heroic ex- 
plorer. I have not been able to discover anything in his career 
justifying the latter estimate of his character. 

At all events in the present case it must in time have occurred 
to him, or have been suggested by his officers or by the Kam- 
chatkans after his return that the mere sailing off shore in admit- 
tedly shallow water for twenty -four hours, was not an absolutely 
conclusive proof that the continents were separated. Here was a 
man with a new vessel, a full crew, a year's provisions for all 
hands, who has come half around the globe, taking three and a 
half years to do it, building ships and at no end of labor of one 
sort and another ; all this to get into the region where there is a 
question to be answered ; and when he gets there he barely gives 
twenty -four hours to searching for that answer with a month of 
the season still available for work ; and then starts for home 
without settling the question ; with a right conclusion, it is true, 
but not of his own discovery, and without securing definite proof 
to defy critics. 

Leaving out of account the continent within half a day's sail 
which he fairly ran away from, ignorantly, where is there any- 
thing adventurous, daring or heroic in such conduct ? 

It is evident that if Bering had sailed along the coast which 
the Chukchis said extended to the westward, instead of going off 
shore, away from it, he would have confirmed that part of their 
testimony, and given high probability to the assumption of their 
correctness in the rest. 

As it was, he left the question in a state so unsettled as to be a 
subject of debate for nearly half a century ; even authorities so 



164 National Geographic Magazine. 

friendly as Dr. Campbell assuming with great confidence that 
Bering's conclusions as to the separation of the two continents 
were erroneous. It was not until the voyages of Captain Cook 
and his associates were given to the world in 1784 that the matter 
was settled beyond controversy. 

Even in regard to the details of his voyage it was only through 
Bergh's publication of Chaplin's logbook of the voyage in 1823, 
that the public were informed as to what Bering did, and it was 
only in 1847 that the unmutilated, but still ambiguous Report of 
1730 was accessible even in Russian typography. 

We find that all the authorities who published in the last cen- 
tury copies of Bering's map and accounts of his expedition 
arrived at what Lauridsen calls an "interesting misunderstanding." 

This misunderstanding was that he had sailed along the Chuk- 
chi coast, as above suggested, and that his farthest point was in 
latitude 67° 18' on the coast of northeastern Siberia. 

How was it possible that men of such exceptional intelligence 
as Du Halde and D'Anville and Mtiller, and Hazius, and Euler 
and Campbell were all so deceived ? 

The facts are as follows : 

(1) The verbatim Report of the voyage, the logbook of the 
expedition, Bering's chart in its entirety, were inaccessible to the 
public for many years; the chart has never been fully engraved 
for publication. 

(2) The fragments of the Report which were circulated in 
print were ambiguous in their language or erroneously modified ; 
while the published reductions of the chart which got into print 
were misleading, or even erroneous. 

(3) Two conflicting versions of the manuscript chart were 
circulated and appear to have been officially sent out. That 
which appears to be the later of the two is in some details quite 
erroneous and at variance with Bering's report as printed and 
with the facts derived from Chaplin's logbook, these two consti- 
tuting the only authentic original information which has. yet 
reached the public in printed form. But these two sources of 
correct data about the expedition were not printed until long 
after the charts had been widely circulated, while the extracts 
from the Report which appeared in print, even under so friendly 
an editor as Dr. Campbell were so modified as to support rather 
than expose the original error. How this arose there may be 
something in the Russian archives to explain, or, if not, the case 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 165 

seems insoluble. Whatever conclusion one arrives at, it is diffi- 
cult to acquit Bering of all responsibility for the misconception, 
if, as Lauridsen claims, he was responsible for the chart of Du 
Halde in the form it was engraved. 

In his report he states that their northernmost latitude was 
67° 18', that "all along the seacoast to this place wind elevated 
mountains." On turning to the Du Halde chart we find the range 
of mountains continued along the Chukchi coast until it reaches 
the latitude of 67° 18' where it stops. If Bering drew the chart 
so, it would have been deception, but it is quite as probable that 
the editor modified the chart in engraving it, to correspond to his 
understanding of Bering's ambiguity. As this would present 
nothing questionable to the reader, in the absence of the details 
omitted by Bering, it would have been nothing surprising if 
Campbell's interpolation of a false longitude for Lower Kam- 
chatka, in his list of positions, might have been, not a typograph- 
ical error, but an attempt to make the position agree with this 
erroneous assumption. If it was a pure accident, the coincidence 
is extraordinary. Of course Bering never was on this coast but 
Du Halde's map is so engraved as to lead directly to the false 
inference that he had been. 

Again Bering says in his Report that at his turning point the 
land no longer extended to the north and that no projecting 
points could be observed in any direction. Since he had deliber- 
ately sailed away from the shores without attempting to follow 
their trend this observation would be absurd unless we suppose it 
addressed to a reader who took it for granted that the vessel was 
still skirting the coast. There is no mention in his Report of the 
fact that he had sailed away from the coast, nor of the still more 
important fact that the soundings showed that the water was 
comparatively shallow and discolored. Of course in the absence 
of direct proof of the separation of Asia and America this last 
evidence would tend to indicate that Bering was only in a bay or 
shallow arm of the sea and that he suppressed it shows, if not a 
want of candor, at least an injudicious reticence. 

The map for the day when it was made (in the earlier version) 
was a good one, and is appropriately praised by Cook, who had a 
copy of Campbell's Harris on his vessel when exploring in the 
same region fifty years later. 

In his report of the trip eastward from Kamchatka in 1729, 
Bering says nothing about the weather being foggy or stormy, 



166 National Geographic Magazine. 

but merely asserts that he sailed nearly 200 versts and saw no 
trace of land. He leaves it to be inferred that he could have 
seen land if it had been there to see, which if the weather was 
foggy was not true. 

The impression which these facts leave upon the mind is that 
Bering did certainly frame his language so as to convey the idea 
that his evidence of the separation of the two continents and of 
the absence of land eastward from Kamchatka was more conclu- 
sive than it was in reality. 

That this was done to avoid criticism seems a natural inference. 
That an examination of his list of positions would have shown 
the location of the point whence he turned back to be to the east- 
ward of the easternmost of his reported land is true, but his list 
of positions was not published with his report, does not agree 
with his maps, and when published by Campbell was garbled, as 
I have shown. 

That the truth, however, did get out and that criticism was 
not successfully avoided, is a matter of history. There can be 
little doubt that Bering's anxiety to undertake the second expe- 
dition, which followed, was stimulated by a desire to set these 
criticisms (which would naturally be magnified by his enemies) 
finally at rest. 

It may be suggested that Bering's report was modified by the 
authorities, though why they should make these particular mod- 
ifications is not very evident. Bering was the only person who 
could profit by them and the natural conclusion is that he should 
be held responsible. 

In pointing out that some of Bering's acts are vulnerable to 
criticism I am far from desiring to sully his memory or give the 
idea that he was not entitled to great praise for what he accom- 
plished, much of which was admirably done. 

I wish merely to apply a gentle corrective to the exaggerated 
and injurious flattery and undiscriminating praise which has been 
injudiciously indulged in by his latest biographer. 

If the interest in the subject be stimulated by discussion from 
these opposing points of view, so as to result in the publication 
of some of the material still hidden in the Russian archives I 
shall be more than repaid for the time I have devoted to the 
question, even if the publication of the original data should show 
some of my conclusions to be ill founded or erroneous. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 167 

Note — The reception of the original work of Bergh while reading the 
proofs of these pages has enabled me to correct several errors of previous 
writers, but it was too late to incorporate here the additional material 
which Bergh's work affords. This will enable me to add, in a future 
publication, some historical data which have never appeared in English 
and which are necessary to complete the record. I desire in this place 
to express my gratitude for and appreciation of the liberality of the 
authorities of that ancient seat of learning, the University of Upsala, 
as exhibited in their willingness to send such a valuable document to a 
foreign student half around the world for purposes of historical research. 



Supplementary Note by Marcus Baker. 

ON THE ALLEGED OBSERVATION OF A LUNAR 
ECLIPSE BY BERING IN 1728-9. 



Bering was in Eastern Siberia, Kamchatka and the adjacent 
waters in 1728 and 1729. Could he have observed a lunar eclipse 
there at that time ? 

According to the ephemeris of Manfred* published at Bonn in 
1725 there were two partial eclipses of the moon visible in Europe 
in 1728, and two total eclipses of the moon in 1729. 

In regard to these four eclipses the ephemeris furnishes the 
following data : 





1728,] 


Feb. 24. 


1T28, Aug. 19. 


1729, Feb. 13. 


1729, Aug. 8. 


Eclipse begins 

Total immersion 

Middle of eclipse- . . . 

Emersion begins 

Eclipse ends 


18 h 

20 

21 


32 m 

"6 

29 


4 h 07 m 
5 35 
"7" 03 


7 h 45 m 

8 46 

9 35 

10 24 

11 25 


12 h 02 m 
13 02 

13 52 

14 42 

15 42 


Digits eclipsed 

Sun rises 

Sun sets . 

Eclipse - 


9 51 S. 
18 36 

Partial 


7 45 N. 

"6" 49 
Partial 


19 46 
" Total 


19 44 S. 
Total. 


Sun's declination . . . 
" hourly motion .. 


-9° 

+ 


38' 
0.9 


+ 12° 42' 
0.8 


-13° 16' 

+ 0.8 


+ 16° 09' 

- 0.7 



* Manfredius (Eustachius). Novissimae ephemerides motuum coeles- 
tium e Cassinianis tabulis ad meridianum Bononiae supputatae auc- 
toribus Eustachio Manfredio (etc.) Tomus 1. ex anno 1726 in annum 
1737 (etc.) 4° Bononiae, MDCCXXV. 



168 National Geographic Magazine. 

In this table the calendar is Gregorian, the time is apparent or 
true sun time, the day is reckoned from noon and the hours are 
counted continuously through the entire 24. 

The present observatory in Bonn is in 

Latitude 50° 43' 45" N. 

Longitude h 28 m 23 3 E. from Greenwich. 

At the date of the first eclipse Bering was on his way across 
the southern end of Kamchatka, from Bolsheretsk to Lower 
Kamchatka. This would make his position somewhere near lati- 
tude 55° N. and longitude 160° or 10 h 40 m E. from Greenwich. 

He was therefore 10 h 12 m east of Bonn for which we have the 
elements of this eclipse as computed by Manfred. "With this 
data together with the latitude and sun's declination we have the 
following data for the eclipse in the region where Bering was. 

Beginning of eclipse 4 h 44 m 

Middle of eclipse. 6 12 

End of eclipse . 7 41 

Sunsets - 5 07 

This means that the sun set, bearing about W. by S. -£ S., and 
the moon rose in partial eclipse, bearing about E. by N. \ N., at 
5 h 07 m after apparent noon or 23 minutes after the eclipse had 
begun. The eclipse lasted for 2 h 34 m after sunset, or until 7 h 41 ra 
in the evening, thus rendering observation of the last contact 
plainly visible. 

At the date of the second eclipse of 1728, August 19, Bering 
was at sea somewhere in the vicinity of the strait which bears his 
name. Assuming his position to have been latitude 65° N. and 
longitude 188° or 12 h 32 m E. from Greenwich, equal to 12 h 04 m E. 
from Bonn, and as before taking the data from Manfred's ephem- 
eris we have as follows : 

Beginning of eclipse . 16 b 1 l m 

Middle of eclipse 17 39 

End of eclipse 19 07 

Sunrises 16 04 

It thus appears that the first contact of this partial eclipse of 
the northern limb of the moon may have been just barely visible 
to Bering. The moon bearing about SW. by W. was entering 
the earth's shadow about five minutes before the sun's rising and 
its own setting. If much importance attaches to determining the 
possibility to Bering of observing this eclipse then a more precise 
calculation is needful. 



Review of Bering's First Expedition, 1725-30. 169 

At the date of the first lunar eclipse of 1729, February 13, 
Bering was at Lower Kamchatka, in latitude 56° 03' N. and 
longitude 162° 15' or 10 h 49 ra E. from Greenwich equal to 10 h 21 m 
E. from Bonn. For this place we have from Manfred : 

Eclipse begins 18 h 06 m 

Total immersion 19 07 

Middle of eclipse 19 56 

Emersion begins .-. 20 45 

Eclipse ends 21 46 

Sunrises. 19 h 21 m 

Thus it appears that this total and almost central eclipse of the 
moon lasting 3 h 40 m began at Bering's station l h and 15 m before 
sunrise of February 14, the total immersion occurring 14 minutes 
before sunrise. It is manifest, therefore, that Bering might have 
observed this eclipse. 

The second lunar eclipse of 1729 occurred August 8, when Ber- 
ing was in or near Okhotsk and about returning to Europe. We 
may assume his position to have been latitude 59° 20' N. and 
longitude 142° 40' or 9 h 31 m E. from Greenwich, equal to 9 h 03 m 
E. from Bonn. This eclipse was also total and almost central, 
but at Bering's station was wholly invisible, beginning at 9 h 05 m 
a. m. and ending at 12 h 45 m p. m. 



180° 



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Vol. II. 



NO. 3. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE. 




PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Price, 50 cents. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

The Arctic Cruise of the U. S. S. Thetis in the Summer and 

Autumn of 1889 : Lieut. Comdr. Chas. H. Stockton, U. S. N., 171 

(Illustrated with view of Herald Island, and one map.) 

The Law of Storms, considered with special reference to the 
North Atlantic : Everett Hayden, Marine Meteorologist, 
NavyDept., 199 

(One View and seven Illustrations. ) 
The Irrigation Problem in Montana : H. M. Wilson, . . . 212 



PRE8S OF TUTTLE, MOREHOU8E & TAYLOR, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



Vol. II. 1890. No. 3. 



THE ARCTIC CRUISE OF THE TJ. S. S. THETIS IN 
THE SUMMER AND AUTUMN OF 1889. 

By Charles H. Stockton. 

A German writer of note once said, in the course of % discus- 
sion upon certain French characteristics, that " the trouble with 
the French people is, — they do not know Geography." 

Whether this is still true of the French, as a nation, or whether 
the authority may be considered a good one, it is not pertinent for 
me here to say ; but I feel that of the nations of the world, this 
country, above all others (England, perhaps, alone excepted), 
should not have the want of knowledge of geography classed 
among its national failings. 

We have, however, very much geography yet to learn, as indi- 
viduals and as a nation ; not only of countries beyond our own 
but particularly of our own continent and our own domain, 
while commercial geography is almost an unknown and forbidden 
study. 

Professional geographer as I am, as member of the naval ser- 
vice, I find that every cruise adds to my geographic knowledge, 
and in giving an account of the cruise during last summer of the 
ship which I had the honor to command, I trust that I may be 
enabled to present some geographic facts as interesting to my 

VOL. II. 12 



172 National Geographic Magazine. 

fellow-members of the Geographic Society as they were novel 
and instructive to myself. 

Before beginning my narrative, however, let me give you an 
idea of the extent of the shore-line of the territory or semi- 
colonial province along which so much of our cruise was made. 

Alaska has an area of about 580,000 square miles, consisting of 
a large mainland with a coast-line 6,650 miles in length, and also 
of more than 1,100 islands, with a coast-line of 2,950 miles, the 
entire coast-line being 9,600 miles. The coast-line of the rest of 
the United States, including islands, is only 6,580 miles, thus 
making the coast-line of Alaska 3,020 miles more than the coast- 
line of all of the rest of the United States. 

Of this great country the part known best and visited annually 
by tourists is that insignificant portion of southeastern Alaska 
which consists of the Alexander archipelago and its neighboring 
main coast-line, differing in its scenery, topography, climate, and 
native inhabitants, from the greater part of this vast territory. 

It is fortunate, however, that this corner of Alaska is so easily 
and comfortably reached by the summer traveler, as, with the 
exception of the coast-line and inlets between Sitka and Kodiak, 
which includes the Fairweather ground and the St. Elias range 
of mountains, this portion contains perhaps the finest and most 
striking scenery and the largest and grandest glaciers in the ter- 
ritory, if not in all North and South America. 

The U. S. S. Thetis was assigned in 1889 to the duty of look- 
ing out for the commercial and whaling interests of the United 
States in Bering sea and the Arctic ocean, to which was subse- 
quently added the duty of assisting in the establishment and 
erection of a house of refuge in the vicinity of Point Barrow, 
the most northerly point of our Arctic possessions. The duty 
assigned to the Thetis did not include the protection of the seal- 
ing interests of the United States, nor of those interests enjoyed 
by the Alaska Commercial Company as the regular lessees from 
the United States of the Pribyloff group of islands. This was 
confided to the Revenue Marine Service of the Treasury Depart- 
ment. 

The Thetis left San Francisco on the 20th of April, 1889, and 
after a detention of a month at Tacoma, upon the placid waters 
of Puget sound, awaiting supplementary orders, reached Port 
Tongass, in extreme southeastern Alaska, on the 31st of May, and 
Sitka, the territorial capitol, upon the 2d of June. After a stay 



Arctic Cruise of the U. S. S. Thetis in 1889. 173 

of six days at the latter place the vessel left for the island of 
Ounalaska, one of the Aleutian chain, which was safely reached, 
after a stormy passage, early on the morning of the 17th of June. 

The revenue-steamer Richard Rush, commanded by Captain 
Shepherd, was found at anchor at this place, having arrived a 
few hours before the Thetis ; she had entered upon the duty of 
patrolling Bering sea, between Ounalaska and the Pribyloff 
group, for the protection of the sealing interests. The seals 
approach the hauling-out grounds and breeding places upon the 
islands of St. Paul and St. George in lanes, as it were, from 
the Pacific, reaching Bering sea by means of the various pas- 
sages between the Aleutian islands, and converging as they 
approach the Seal islands, the position of which seems so well 
known to them. The " marauders," as the men on the sealing 
schooners are called who hunt them on their way north, shoot 
them from small boats, killing the many in order to procure the 
few. 

Ounalaska, or rather the village and harbor of Iliuliuk, upon 
the island of Ounalaska, is the principal and most frequented har- 
bor in the Aleutian islands, and from its position is a most 
convenient port for coaling, watering and provisioning en route 
to the Seal islands, St. Michaels (at the mouth of the Yukon 
river), the anchorages in and near Bering strait, and the Arctic 
ocean. This harbor is the headquarters of all of the districts of 
the Alaska Commercial Company, and is the principal coaling and 
distributing station and rendezvous of their vessels in Alaska. 
The company here affords facilities in the way of buoyage, 
wharfage, etc., which are not only useful to their own vessels but 
of great service to government and other vessels whose duty or 
interests call them to these waters. 

The revenue steamer Bear was to be met by us at Ounalaska, 
in order that we could take from her any portion of the stores 
and material to be used in the constructing and provisioning of 
the house of refuge at Point Barrow that her commanding offi- 
cer desired to transfer to us. 

While awaiting the arrival of the Bear, the Thetis was wa- 
tered and coaled and prepared for the northerly trip before her. 
An opportunity offered me by the delay was availed of to 
inspect the store-houses of the Alaska Commercial Company at 
this point. The most interesting of the store-houses was that 
containing the skins and furs collected in the various parts of the 



174 National Geographic Magazine. 

district of which this place was the depot. The finest of the furs 
was that of the sea-otter, probably the most valuable fur in the 
world, a very superior skin of that animal having been sold at 
the great fur market in London for £170. Such otters are found 
in the vicinity of Ounalaska and the outlying rocks and islands 
as far east as Kodiak, and are becoming more and more difficult 
to obtain, causing greater risk and hardships every year to the 
Aleuts, who hunt these animals as a principal means of livelihood. 

Besides the otters the store-house held the furs of the beautiful 
silver-gray fox, and those of the blue, the cross, and the snowy 
white Arctic fox. There were also black and brown bear skins, 
beaver, and fur-seal, the latter, though the greatest and most 
profitable source of revenue to the Company, being by no manner 
of means among the more valuable of the raw furs. 

To exchange for furs collected, either directly by natives or 
by independent traders, the Alaska Commercial Company has a 
large assortment of stores, provisions, and goods, worthy of a 
large country-store, or a Macy's in miniature, which are sold to 
the natives for money or in exchange for the furs they bring to 
the company. And just here can be seen the commercial aspects 
of civilization : as the natives become used to the luxuries and 
comforts of a civilized and semi-civilized state of life, their wants 
and their purchases increase and the securing of one otter-skin 
will not, as in times past, satisfy their wants or the requirements 
of their wives and families. Hence they become both greater 
producers and consumers, more otters are hunted for, and the 
Company is the gainer. 

The houses in which the Aleuts and Creoles reside at Ounalaska 
were found to be well built of frame, sufficiently large and fairly 
clean. The old houses of earth and sod standing near by show 
the great improvement that has been made of late years in the 
method of living. 

Upon the 2 2d of June the Revenue Steamer Bear came in to 
the anchorage, and the Thetis and the Bear, once companion ships 
in the Greely Relief Expedition, met again in the far north. 

Upon conference with the commanding officer of the Bear, 
Captain M. A. Healy, it was found that he did not consider it 
desirable to break the bulk of his cargo and share the stores for 
the refuge-station with us ; hence, being free to pursue our 
•course, we left on the 24th of June for the island of St. Paul, one 
of the Seal (or Pribyloff) islands. 



Arctic Cruise of the U. S. S. Thetis in 1889. 175 

We arrived at these islands on the evening of the 25th of June, 
after groping around in the heavy and almost constant fog and 
mist that envelop them. During our short stay at St. Paul we 
were able to see a drive of seals from a rookery and the killing, 
skinning, and packing, which followed; but what we found to be 
the most interesting was the visit to the rookeries, both from 
the inshore side and from boats along the sea front. The sys- 
tematic partition of the grounds, the formation of the harems, the 
exclusion of the young males, and the aggressive conduct of the 
older ones, all proved most interesting and novel. This, however, 
has been described so often that I will not here repeat it. 

Leaving these islands, so unlike any others in the world, we 
proceeded to the north and west to St. Mathew Island, a large 
and uninhabited island in the middle of Bering sea. The object 
in visiting this island was twofold, the first being to ascertain 
if there were any shipwrecked persons upon the island, the other 
being to verify the statement made upon the chart we possessed 
that the island was infested with polar bears. Upon our arrival 
and landing upon the island we found plenty of old tracks but 
no recent evidences of the existence of polar bears. This was 
ascertained after honest and fatiguing endeavor to find them by 
parties of officers and men from the ship, who scoured the eastern 
part of the island, both upon the hills and upon the low tundra, 
but without success. 

St. Mathew island is probably the southern limit of the solid 
ice in winter in this part of Bering sea, the ice below it to the 
southward and toward the Aleutian chain being made up of 
newer ice and detached floes of well broken ice. It is surrounded 
by the ice during seven months of the year, and generally envel- 
oped with fog during the remaining five months. Winds and 
rains sweep over it during the summer, the low land being com- 
posed of wet, grassy tundra, while the higher elevations are 
formed of scoriae and volcanic rock. 

A large quantity of drift-wood found piled up upon the steep 
shingle beaches probably came down the Yukon river from the 
interior of Alaska, there being no growth of trees upon this 
desolate land. 

After leaving St. Mathew island we stood over to the Siberian 
side of Bering sea, in order to ascertain the whereabouts of the 
whaling fleet, and, if possible, to gather some news concerning 
the fate of the whaling bark " Little Ohio," a vessel that had 
been missing since the previous autumn. 



176 National Geographic Magazine. 

•Plover "bay, Cape Tchaplin and St. Lawrence bay, upon the 
Siberian side, were all visited in turn, but without success, and I 
then determined to pass through Bering strait and enter the 
Arctic ocean. This was done upon the 3d of July, after a heavy 
snow-storm in the morning, followed, later in the day, by a fog 
so dense that we passed through the straits without seeing land on 
either side, or the Dioniede islands, m the middle. 

Entering the Arctic we pushed on toward Point Hope, to the 
northward of which the "Little Ohio" had last been seen. On 
the morning of the 4th of July the land about Point Hope was 
sighted and soon afterwards we met our first ice, coming out in 
floes from Kotzebue sound, stretching some distance from the 
shore and slowly moving to the northward and westward with 
the current. 

Skirting along this ice with the hope of getting around it to 
the northward of Point Hope, without success, we entered it, and 
after working through it for several miles with considerable 
difficulty we finally cleared it and came to anchor off the native 
village at Point Hope, finding there two whalers who had just 
preceded us, and obtaining the news that the bark " Little Ohio " 
had been wrecked directly opposite the point where we were then 
at anchor. Taking on board, the next day, those survivors of 
this shipwreck who still remained at this place, we left for St. 
Michaels, near the mouth of the Yukon river, there to transfer 
the survivors to the steamer of the Alaska Commercial Company, 
and to send the news of this sad disaster to the Navy Department 
and to the world. In passing through the ice outside of Point 
Hope the first polar bear of the season was sighted, posing upon 
a high floe of ice. A few shots settled his case and his body wa s 
fortunately secured, his skin now forming one of the trophies of 
the cruise. 

On our way back through Bering strait we found the vexa- 
tious combination (to be met with again and again in the cruise) 
of a heavy fog, much drift ice, and an opposing current. 

Reaching St. Michaels we found there two steamers of the 
Alaska Commercial Company at anchor, besides several river- 
steamers, and a summer rendezvous of natives from the coast, 
miners from the interior, and traders and missionaries from the 
Yukon, — all here to meet their annual mails and supplies. In 
addition there was a party of government surveyors to determine 
the boundary-line, an account of whose early journey has been 



Arctic Cruise of the TJ. S. S. Thetis in 1889. 177 

given to the Society by Mr. Russell. There were seventy-three 
tents, by actual count, pitched about St. Michaels at the time of 
our stay, the abodes of these temporary residents. 

St. Michaels is the most northerly settlement and trading post 
of the Alaska Commercial Company. It is the outlet of the 
Yukon river trade and also the source of supplies for the country 
bordering upon the Yukon and its many tributaries, reaching in 
this way a portion of the Northwest Territory of the Dominion 
of Canada, west of the Rocky Mountains. 

In the winter-time the post consists of the offices and store- 
houses of the Alaska Commercial Company, with a few residences 
for their white employees, and a small native village. 

Small, light-draught, stern-wheel steamers ascend the Yukon 
and its tributaries for a distance of 1,700 miles, reaching the mouth 
of that river in part by an inside channel and in part by sixty miles 
of outside coasting. 

After a short stay at St. Michaels we proceeded to Port 
Clarence, where a large number of the whaling fleet were met, 
consisting of seven steam-whalers, six sailing whalers, one trad- 
ing vessel, and a sailing tender. From the tender these vessels 
receive coal, provisions, and supplies, sending back to San Fran- 
cisco the oil and whale-bone of the spring catch. 

Port Clarence is the best, as it is the last, harbor on the Ameri- 
can side before reaching the Arctic, where no harbors exist worthy 
of the name, west of Herschel island. There is no native settle- 
ment of any size on the bay, but natives assemble here from the 
surrounding country and islands to trade with the whale-ships in 
summer. 

Leaving Port Clarence we ran to the southward by King 
island to St. Lawrence island, in search of a sailing tender that 
was long over-due ; returning, after a short stay off the village 
near Cape Prince of Wales, we again entered the Arctic ocean. 
As it was too early to go to Point Barrow we proceeded to Kotze- 
bue sound and Hotham inlet. In the vicinity of the latter place, 
every year, a summer rendezvous of natives occurs for trading 
purposes, the Eskimos from the Diomedes and Cape Prince of 
Wales bringing articles of trade from Siberia, while the Eskimos 
from Point Hope bring articles obtained from the whalers ; these 
Eskimos are met by the inland natives from the rivers that flow 
into Hotham inlet and Kotzebue sound, principally from the 
Kowak, the Noatak and Salawik rivers. The nearest available 



178 National Geographic Magazine. 

anchorage we found was Cape Blossom, from which place we 
visited the rendezvous and were visited in turn by the natives. 
We had now been enjoying for some time twenty-fours hours of 
daylight, the midnight-sun having lighted our way to and from 
Point Hope during our first visit to that place. 

Leaving Cape Blossom upon the 24th of July we stood out of 
Kotzebue sound for the northward, running the greater part of 
the time in a heavy fog. We passed Point Hope on the 25th, 
Cape Lisburne on the 26th, and anchored off Cape Sabine early in 
the morning of the 27th of July. Near by was a very wide vein 
of lignite coal, from which the Thetis had been coaled the previ- 
ous year and to which the name of " Thetis coal mine " had been 
given. This had been worked during the present summer, also, 
and a party of natives who were encamped near by had furnished 
coal to some of the whalers. 

Being now in the vicinity of a stream known to the natives as 
the Pitmegea, I went in a whaleboat to examine its mouth and 
entrance, as this stream was unknown to but few whites and did 
not exist upon any charts or maps. It was found to have but 
three feet of water on the bar at its entrance, but after crossing 
this a depth of six feet was found. The stream was found so 
full of bars and shoals that we could ascend but a short distance 
after entering it. The river and its narrow valley were very 
winding, the general course being northwest from its source to 
the coast. After the spring thaw, and the rains that follow, the 
stream rises to a depth sufficient for the natives to ascend and 
descend it with their light-draught skin-boats for a distance of 
about forty miles. Its length is estimated to be over one hun- 
dred miles. The river had been explored the previous year by 
John W. Kelly, who was this summer employed on board the 
Thetis as the official interpreter, and to him I am indebted for the 
following description of the ice-cliff existing upon the banks of 
the Pitmegea, and also of a peculiarly built stone hut near the 
source of one of the tributaries. 

Ice-Cliff on the Pitmegea. 

This ice-cliff is about twenty-five miles from the mouth of the 
Pitmegea, at a place where the hills run their spurs out to the 
banks of the river, closing the picturesque valley that stretches 
away to the sea-coast in an almost unbroken width of a mile. A 
glacier faces southward, and receives the full benefit of the sun- 



Arctic Cruise of the TJ. S. S. Thetis in 1889. 179 

light during the short polar summer. Gales have deposited par- 
ticles of soil and debris of plants, along with their seeds, upon the 
surface of the ice to a depth of from four inches to a foot. The 
snow-fall of winter soon vanishes before the June sun, while the 
light covering above the glacier preserves it intact. Vegetation 
is warmed into life in a remarkably short time, and the brown 
coat left by the receding snow is almost miraculously transformed 
to a robe of green and studded here and there with bright polar 
flowers, there being buttercups, dandelions, yellow poppy, bright 
astragals, gentians, daffodils and marguerites. The latter are 
small and unobtrusive, making a showing in a modest way 
as if they wished to apologize to their sister flowers for their 
appearance among them. Like beautiful orphan girls, one cannot 
resist a compassionate tenderness of feeling toward them. But 
these innocent little flowers, chaste as the ice field upon which 
they grow, bloom in the polar garden with as much right as the 
glacier's gentian. Besides flowers, there are the hardy grasses 
whose roots penetrate the light covering of soil to the ice-bed, 
whence they derive their nourishment. A few Arctic willows are 
to be seen, but they only grow about a foot in length, and trail 
upon the ground. The Pitmegea river is gradually cutting into 
the glacier, receding from its opposite bank and leaving a bed of 
gi'avel behind. During the summer the ice melts away, leaving 
the protruding soil above it like the eaves of a house; when it 
protrudes too far for the strength of the grass roots, it topples 
over into the river. At the freezing in September, icicles freeze 
from the overhanging sod to the river ice below, forming a narrow 
portico four miles in extent. 

Old Stone Hut. 

On the highest peak at the source of Ikuk creek, a south- 
erly tributary of the Pitmegea, are the ruins of a hut and smaller 
outhouse, the like of which has never been met with in North- 
western Alaska. Above the grass line, past perpetual beds of 
snow, up where wild storms sweep away ice, snow, and soil, where 
only a few gray lichens are to be seen, man, at some former time, 
has placed a habitation. On the crest of the mountain there is a 
ragged limestone comb twelve feet high, cracked and shattered 
into flakes by the vigor of the polar winters. On the south side 
of this comb, sheltered from the prevailing north winds, excava- 
tions have been made into the rock. Taking the comb of rock 



180 National Geographic Magazine. 

for one side of the house, the other side of the semicircle has 
been built up with fiat stones, laid up like bricks in masonry, but 
without mortar. Moss and soil have been in all probability used 
here instead of mortar, but years of fierce winds have blown it 
out from the crevices. The structure is conic in shape, after 
the manner of a Greenlander's snow-hut. This one is about 
seven feet in diameter. Facing its entrance is a smaller house of 
similar construction, most likely used as a shelter for game. 
Winter storms have crumbled away the roofs of both so that 
they have fallen in, and the fragments of stones are partially cov- 
ered with soil. The whole bears the impression of age, and no 
natives have been found who have ever heard of it. From the 
summit of this peak a splendid view is obtained of the surround- 
ing country, the Arctic ocean, and herds of passing reindeer. 

Gold has been found near the Pitmegea, at the head of the 
same creek and tributary, it being contained in sulphurets of 
iron, which exist in large quantities in that vicinity, there being 
from $3.50 to $8.00 worth of gold in a ton ; the country is all but 
impassable, however, and this, together with the shortness of the 
season, would prevent any mining with profit. 

Our party returned from the Pitmegea with a few ptarmigan 
and ducks, and upon our arrival the ship was at once gotten under 
way and we stood to the northward for Point Barrow. Drift- 
ice was constantly passed, but fortunately so scattered as not to 
form any obstruction to free navigation. 

On the next day we enjoyed a superb Arctic summer's day, and 
began to fall in with the whaling fleet on the way north to Point 
Barrow. Fifteen vessels were sighted and passed, most of them 
vessels under sail. Rounding the dangerous Blossom shoals and 
the Icy cape of .Captain Cook, we stood to the northeast, finding 
generally clear water, with scattered drift-ice. Upon the floes 
we found great quantities of walrus, in some cases stretched 
at full length, sound asleep. One huge fellow remained so undis- 
turbed at our approach that he was supposed to be dead, but 
a well aimed Irish potato aroused him so rudely that he 
quickly slid off the floe and disappeared beneath the water. 

Pushing on we passed Pt. Belcher at 9.30 in the evening, in the 
fog and rain, and came to heavy masses of ice over which a low 
fog had settled. With some delay and difficulty we worked out 
of both the fog and the ice and at five o'clock in the morning 



Arctic Cruise of the XI. S. 8. Thetis in 1889. 181 

sighted four vessels — steamers — at anchor off the village of 
Ootkavie at Cape Smyth, 8 miles from Point Barrow, and the site 
of Captain Ray's Signal Service meteorologic station of some 
years ago, the house that sheltered the party being still stand- 
ing. One of the steamers proved to be our old friend the " Bear," 
which had passed to the northward when we had returned south- 
ward from the Arctic with the survivors of the "Little Ohio." 
The other vessels were made out to be steam- whalers, and at seven 
o'clock we anchored near them, off the site determined upon for 
the house of refuge. 

Finding the Bear had commenced to discharge her stores and 
materials, all of our facilities were at once used in tending her as- 
sistance, our steam launch Achilles (now, as of yore, the child of 
the Thetis) being busily at work towing boats to and fro, while 
our men and mechanics, with officers, were busily engaged in 
aiding the construction of the house of refuge. 

Our arrival at Cape Smyth and vicinity of Point Barrow was 
on the 29th of July, the Bear having arrived on the 27th, the 
Saturday previous. While we were lying at anchor engaged in 
the erection of the house of refuge, the rest of the whaling 
fleet, both sail and steam, gradually arrived and came to anchor 
off the coast, reaching from Cape Smyth to Point Barrow. 
After a short stay the steamers went on to the eastward of Point 
Barrow, following along the ice-pack, which was in sight from 
Point Barrow, until they reached the heavier ice off Point Tan- 
gent. When the last of the whaling vessels had arrived, a fleet 
of forty-seven vessels carrying the American flag had assembled 
within sight of the most northerly point of the United States, 
composed of steamers, barks, brigantines and schooners. These 
vessels, manned by about twelve hundred men, I venture to say 
formed the largest assemblage of vessels and men under the 
American flag to be found anywhere during that year. I cannot 
speak too highly of the skill, seamanship, courage, and endurance 
of the whaling masters. They are a fine body of American 
seamen. 

The scene on shore was one of abnormal activity for this 
region, the erection of the house of refuge, the hasty landing 
and transportation of stores (in which the whalers assisted), the 
movements of the Eskimos about their village (which was dotted 
with the white summer tents of the residents and the visiting- 
inland Eskimos), and the clustering and trading about the Whaling 



182 National Geographic Magazine. 

Company's station (Ray's old station), gave a life and movement 
which was as shortlived as the season. Fortunately the weather 
proved most favorable and the heavy ice kept off shore while the 
stores were landed; the wind then freshened, but communication 
could still be kept up and the work of erection went on. 

The site of the house of refuge is within a few hundred 
yards of Ray's old house and near the village, and its keeper, 
Captain Borden (an old New Bedford whaler) was busy in putting 
his house in order before the autumn should come on. During 
our stay at this place we were enabled to make a hydrographic 
survey of the anchorage, which demonstrated that the contour of 
the bottom is constantly changed by the ploughing and planing 
done by the heavy ice grounded and driven up by the pressure 
of the mighty ice-pack, under the influence of northerly winds 
and gales. 

And here let me say a word about the ice of this part of the 
Arctic ocean. The ice in summer consists of floes and fields of 
various sizes, which are cemented together in winter by the young 
or newly frozen ice. No icebergs exist in this part of the Arctic, 
as there are no glaciers near the sea coast to form them. The 
shore along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska shows evidence of 
former glacial action, but the only glaciers to be found are in the 
southeastern part of the territory. 

The Arctic pack, which never melts, consists of hard blue ice, 
made up of fields and floes of comparatively level ice, which are 
surrounded and interspersed with hummocks varying from ten to 
forty feet in height. These hummocks are formed by the broken 
and telescoped ice resulting from the collision and grinding to- 
gether of heavy ice-floes, the hummocks being often rounded 
and smoothed in outline by heavy falls of snow. 

In the spring, under the influence of the prevailing southerly 
winds and northerly currents, the packs break off from the 
shore and move to the north, the position of the southern edge 
varying in latitude with the season and the winds. 

The shore-ice, which remains fast to the coast line after the 
pack moves off, gradually breaks up as the season advances, and, 
becoming scattered, is taken to the northeastward from the vicinity 
of Point Barrow and northwestward from the vicinity of Herald 
island and Wrangel land. 

Sometimes a long line of heavy floe-ice from the pack grounds 
in the shallow water near the shore during northerly winds, 



Arctic Cruise of the U. S. S. Thetis in 1889. 183 

pressed from behind by the force and weight of the entire north- 
ern pack. It is gradually forced up, ploughing its way through 
the bottom, at the same time rising gradually along the ascent 
of the bottom toward the land. The effect of this solid wall of 
cold and relentless blue ice slowly rising and advancing upon 
those imprisoned between the ice and the shore is one of the most 
sublime and terrible things that can be experienced. 

The normal current running north through Bering strait forks 
a short distance to the north, one bi'anch going through Kotzebue 
Sound and thence along the mainland by Cape Seppings, Point 
Hope, and Icy cape, to Point Barrow, at which point it goes off to 
the unknown northeast ; the other branch, to the northwestward 
along the Siberian coast, and thence to the northward toward 
Herald island. The whalers burned by the Confederate vessel 
Shenandoah near Bering strait were found in the vicinity of 
Herald island. 

The only portion of the whalers at the time actively cruising 
had gone to the eastward of Point Barrow. On that day a sea- 
man named Tuckfield returned from the Mackenzie in a whaleboat, 
and reported the ice conditions unusually favorable as far east as 
Mackenzie Bay, in the vicinity of which he had wintered. He was 
a seaman belonging to the whaling station and had been reported 
to me by a missionary I met at St. Michaels as having visited his 
station at Rampart house, upon the Porcupine river, a branch of 
the Yukon. 

Upon the 8th of August the house of refuge was virtually 
finished, and as my orders were to devote my time to the whaling 
fleet, after the completion of this structure, I concluded to cruise 
after and with the vessel to the eastward of Point Barrow, leav- 
ing the Bear to remain with the vessels lying at anchor off Cape 
Smyth and Point Barrow. As Tuckfield wanted to go east with 
his Eskimo guide, I took him and his whale, boat and whaling 
outfit on board, leaving Cape Smyth on the evening of the 8th. 
The ice in sight at the time was somewhat scattered, but plenti- 
ful, and entering it about nine o'clock we slowly stood on a course 
parallel to the land. We were occupied in working through this 
ice all night and all of the next day ; it was not the pack ice but 
shore ice broken off from the vicinity of Point Tangent, Smyth 
bay, and Harrison bay. At times we found it so closely packed 
together by current and wind that we had to turn back and work 
our way closer inshore. Three vessels under sail were sighted 



184 National Geographic Magazine. 

during this time off Tangent point, and by this time we had also 
demonstrated the uselessness of Little Joe Tuckfield as an ice 
pilot or prophet. The winds were very light and we had now 
gotton out of the strong northeast current running off Point 
Barrow. On the night of the 9th we passed off the north of the 
Colville river, the water offshore becoming very muddy. 

The first important error found in the charts and maps of this 
region was found here by the observation of the non-existence of 
the Pelly mountains. This observation was confirmed upon our 
return by the concurrent testimony of the whaling masters who 
had cruised here, and the natives who hunt in the neighborhood. 
The mountains certainly do not exist where placed by the charts, 
and I judge that some small hummocks near the beach were 
mistaken for a far off range of mountains, when Dease and 
Simpson first explored this coast in 1837. 

Early on the morning of the 10th of August we sighted the 
first steam whaler, and as we steamed toward her we skirted along 
some long low islands parallel to the coast line and stretching 
from the Return reef of Sir John Franklin to the mouth of the 
Colville river. The islands, one being about three miles long, 
are not shown upon the charts, and not having any known names 
were designated as the Thetis islands. 

The steam-whaler was found to be the Balaena, commanded by 
Captain Everett Smith, one of the most intelligent of the whale- 
men of the Arctic. He was anchored off Return reef, which he was 
enabled definitely to locate by the traditions of the natives. It 
was at this point that Sir John Franklin, in one of his earliest 
boat journeys, was obliged to turn back while endeavoring to 
explore the coast from Mackenzie bay to Point Barrow. After 
a long interview with Captain Smith, from which I gathered much 
information as to the ice-conditions and the probable positions of 
the steam-whalers to the eastward, he returned on board of his 
ship, and the good ship Thetis once more turned her head to the 
eastward. 

Soon afterwards another steam-whaler was sighted, made fast 
by ice-anchors to an ice-floe ; we did not stop, but, exchanging 
colors, proceeded on our way. The ice seemed to be getting 
thicker, and shortly afterwards a third whaler was sighted, at 
anchor off a small low island, with apparently heavy ice ahead. 
As the weather seemed uncertain I determined to anchor for the 
night in the vicinity of the island. 



Arctic Cruise of the U. S. 8. Thetis in 1889. 185 

The steamer was found to be the whaler Beluga, commanded 
by Captain Brooks, and the island, though nameless, was marked 
by a wooden cross, from which fact it was called Cross island. 
Captain Brooks stated that he had been struggling with the ice 
to the eastward of Cross island, the day before, in company with 
some other steam-whalers who had left him and gone to the east- 
ward, so he had turned back and anchored off Cross island. 
I sounded out the vicinity of the island, finding shoal water to the 
southward, too shoal for the Thetis to anchor in, and so I remained 
upon the west side. The wind shifting, our position became 
insecure on account of the masses of ice drifting toward us ; the 
whaler left the anchorage, stood out into the heavy ice, and made 
fast to a high hummocky floe. Seeing no good place near by, I 
held on with the chain on the steam windlass, ready to leave in a 
moment. Heavy ice coming down and grounding close by on 
both sides, we left and got out the ice-anchors to a heavy floe, 
where we rode out the gale until early in the morning, when we 
were obliged to move on, as the ice packed about our rudder. 
After moving again and again the wind fell away, the day cleared 
up, and the ice began to scatter and disappear about the island, 
the leads to the eastward looking more promising. 

The next day at 5 in the morning, in company with our 
whaling friend, we left the vicinity of Cross island and, entering 
the ice, stood toward the northeast. The ice-floes grew heavier 
and larger as we progressed and the canal-like leads more confused, 
until at 10 o'clock the lead stopped and we both made fast to a 
very large, long, hummocky floe, at least ten miles in length, several 
miles in breadth, and aground in 80 feet of water. The day was 
mild and clear, and, after both of the ice-anchors had been secured 
and the rope-ladders lowered over the bows, a number of the 
officers and men went on the ice, the men playing foot-ball and 
snow balling, while the officers posed for their photographs. This 
is the time that we were reported (by a steam- whaler that we had 
passed) as being in a position of extreme danger, and the news 
was taken to the outside world. 

About 4 o'clock in the afternoon we started ahead with the 
Beluga ; the Thetis, now taking the lead, rammed her way through 
some pack-ice and reached another lead going inshore, the Beluga 
following very slowly after us. We continued forcing our way 
until we got into clear water by Lion reef. At midnight we made 
fast to a small floe and after an anxious night (caused by ice-floes 
vol. ir. 13 



186 National Geographic Magazine. 

setting against our stern and rudder) we proceeded, followed at a 
long distance by the Beluga, which joined us in the afternoon at 
Camden Bay, and we anchored there for the night. We found that 
the Beluga in attempting to follow us had gotten on an ice-foot, 
or protruding spur, and bent her propeller-blades, and had finally 
to seek another lead out, to the westward of where we had ram- 
med through. As we ran from off Lion reef to Camden bay we 
sighted the beautiful ranges of mountains close to the coast known 
as the Franklin and Romanzoff mountains, making an agree- 
able change in the topography of the shore, which had been low 
and monotonously flat since leaving Point Hope and the vicinity 
of Cape Lisburne. We found here that the shore-line was put 
upon the charts too far north, as our position near Flaxman island, 
on the west side of Camden bay, was well inland of the coast-line 
and reefs. Camden bay was the last wintering place of Collinson, 
in the Enterprise, upon his return from his search for Sir John 
Franklin, and here we fell in with the track of this distinguished 
navigator, whose cruise is so little known and whose efforts have 
been so much eclipsed by his fellow voyager, McClure, who has 
the distinction given him of being the actual discoverer of the 
Northwest passage, and who was, indeed, with his little body of 
men in 1850-1854, the first as well as the last to pass from the 
Pacific to the Atlantic, north of the American continent. 

Upon a long point named Collinson point, and upon the neighbor- 
ing island known as Barter island, are to be found, during the 
summer, encampments and rendezvous of Eskimos, who meet there 
for purposes of trade, similar to the same rendezvous in Kotzebue 
sound. Here the Alaskan and the Mackenzie river Eskimos meet, 
also the Lucia or Prat river Indians, who are nomads and come 
from the vicinity of the Porcupine and Prat rivers, and whose 
winter rendezvous and habitation is at the Rampart house, a 
Hudson Bay Company's station and Church of England mission, 
upon the Porcupine. They are mostly professing Christians and 
are related to the Athabascans, or Rock mountain Indians, in 
family. There are no permanent settlements here or elsewhere 
between the vicinity of Herschel island and Point Barrow. The 
country is sterile, affording but little upon which to live, the sea 
also having little or no animal life in its waters. The Eskimos 
give to this part of the Arctic ocean a native name which signifies 
the sea where there is always ice. 



Arctic Cruise of the V, 8. S. Thetis in 1889. 187 

Early the next morning, August 14th, at 5 o'clock, we pushed 
on in company with the Beluga, standing out of Camden 
bay and delaying a short time off Barter island, to communicate 
with the natives. At noon, while off Manning point, the smoke 
of several steamers was seen to the eastward, and when they had 
come up we found all but two of the steam-whalers that had gone 
east. They were led by the steamer William Lewis, commanded 
by Captain Albert Sherman, probably the boldest and most active 
of the Arctic whalers. They were all in the cabin of the Thetis in 
a short time, and I found that they had reached Mackenzie bay and 
the vicinity of the Mackenzie river. The two missing ones, the 
Orca and Thrasher, had last been seen in the vicinity of Herschel 
island. The ice-conditions were reported to be better than those we 
had passed through. After reflection I considered it my duty, as 
it was my desire, to go on to the eastward to ascertain the cause 
of the detention of the two missing whalers, and as time was 
precious I determined to run on, day and night. By this time 
night had assumed the conditions of twilight, and the stars had 
begun to appear in the skies. The threatening appearance of 
the weather detained us at first, but at 9 o'clock in the evening we 
got under way, and with her colors hoisted the good ship started 
again on her easterly course, followed in about half an hour by 
our old friend and companion, the Beluga. Before leaving we 
had hoisted out the whale-boat with Joe and native friends, who 
had been joined at this point by the women of the family. Joe 
was uncertain about his movements here, and as he expected to 
secure stores from some of the whalers I left him in their com- 
pany. 

We found the shore bolder as we progressed, and the moun- 
tains nearer the coast ; as a result, the ice generally sets directly 
and in heavy masses on the shore without grounding, and this 
point has never been passed before by the whalers, but fortu- 
nately a wide lane was open. The sight of the mountains, 
standing in their silent and gloomy grandeur, was peculiarly 
impressive, and our. inability to make a closer examination and 
exploration is to be regretted. So far as I can ascertain, no 
white man has ever penetrated these mountainous regions, which 
are known upon the maps in turn under the varying names of the 
Romanzoff, British, Buckland and Richardson mountains, being 
so named by Sir John Franklin during his boat journey along the 
coast. The British mountains are at the extreme northeastern 



188 National Geographic Magazine. 

corner of our territory of Alaska, reaching also across the boun- 
dary-line into British America. We passed Demarcation point, 
where our boundary-line reaches the Arctic ocean, early upon the 
morning of the 15th of August, and commenced again our cruis- 
ing in British waters. The character of the shore remained the 
same, the mountains, however, showing little traces of snow, tes- 
tifying in this way both to the extreme mildness of the winter 
and our approach to the valley of the Mackenzie. A few Eskimo 
huts were seen as we came up to the shoal ground developed by 
our lead in the vicinity of the mouth of the Malcolm river. The 
lead was constantly going while we were in these waters, and the 
ship was steered by it as much as by our compass. In fact the 
three L's (latitude, lead, lookout) are the great necessities for navi- 
gation in these unknown regions, as the three R's are supposed to 
be in elementary schooling. At 11 o'clock in the morning Her- 
schel island was sighted, this large island forming the western 
boundary of Mackenzie bay, or, as the ancient explorers often 
termed it, Mackenzie sea. At 1.30 in the afternoon we anchored 
off the southwest end of the island inside some grounded ice and 
off a long gravelly spit, thickly covered with heavy drift-wood 
from the Mackenzie river. 

The island is about 500 feet in height and has a rounded out- 
line, sloping gradually down from the center upon all sides. It 
shows the appearance of former glacial action, and appears to be 
an ancient moraine covered with a black vegetable mould. The 
vegetation was confined to grasses and small Arctic flowers, dimin- 
utive in size, delicate in color, and evidently shortlived. 

Soon after we anchored a party was sent on shore to erect a 
sign to mark our visit ; it consisted of a board with the name of 
the ship and the date of the visit in brass letters ; under the staff 
supporting it there are placed in a glass bottle the names of the offi- 
cers and men of the ship. The Beluga joined us soon after our 
arrival, and when the party from shore had returned we got 
under way to continue our look for the two whalers. Captain 
Brooks came on board the Thetis and shared my perch and look- 
out in the foretop, while his ship followed, in charge of his mate. 
As we reached the bluffs at the north end of the island we saw a 
noble expanse of open water stretching to the northward as far as 
the eye could reach. The ice was still heavy to the westward 
and northwestward, but to the north, beyond the light, scattering 
ice through which we were going, was clear sea, the waves leap- 
ing in the beautiful Arctic sunshine. 



Arctic Cruise of the U. S. S. Thetis in 1889. 189 

We looked with eagerness to the sea which stretched, appar- 
ently, to the north pole, and then headed to the southward into 
Mackenzie bay. 

After three hours' steaming from our first anchorage we 
reached the southeast side of the island and found the two miss- 
ing whalers lying quietly at anchor, Captain Brooks giving a 
hearty and relieved cry of Sail ho /, when the vessels were seen, 
and we were all pleased to see them safe and secure. We came 
to anchor close by them and the two captains were soon on 
board. They reported that they had remained behind to watch 
for the return of whales from the northeastward, but so far 
without any success. They had determined to remain until Sep- 
tember, and contemplated the possibility of wintering at this 
place. Soon after we anchored, Eskimos who lived at the 
mouth of the Mackenzie came on board, and they looked at the 
ship with the greatest surprise and interest. They had not seen 
vessels before this summer, though the traditions concerning the 
" Enterprise " and " Investigator," under Collinson and McClure, 
still survived. 

Sleeping soundly that night, for the first time in many days, the 
following morning boat parties were dispatched to complete the 
circumnavigation of the island and to make running surveys in 
the vicinity. 

A small, snug harbor was found and surveyed near-by our 
anchorage, capable of receiving vessels of less than 16 feet 
draught ; this was named Pauline cove. It would prove a fairly 
good place for one of the light-draught steamers going up this 
year to use as winter-quarters. 

The waters between Herschel island and the mainland were 
found after examination too full of shoals and sand- and gravel- 
bars to form a ship-channel. A rise and fall of tide of three feet 
was found, and the ship swung regularly to an ebb and flood. 

While the boats were out sounding I went ashore and, climbing 
nearly to the top of the island, had a beautiful view of the clear 
and open water of Mackenzie bay, to the east and northeast ; while 
to the southeastward were the islands clustering about the shallow 
mouth of the Mackenzie, and directly to the south were the 
British and Buckland mountains, merging gradually into the 
Rocky mountains and the great chains which form the back- 
bone of the American continent. 



190 National Geographic Magazine. 

The temperature of the water and air was found higher upon 
this side of the island, and I have no doubt but that the climate 
of the vicinity of Mackenzie bay is materially modified by the 
comparatively warm water coming out in great volume from the 
Mackenzie river. The strong current running to the northward 
from the river would naturally sweep the ice out of the bay and 
to the northward, as far as the vicinity of Banksland and the 
extreme northern Arctic. 

Where it goes to and where it ceases is now a matter of con- 
jecture. It is to be hoped that the drift-floats which were launched 
by us from this point, and from various points between here and 
Herald island, may contribute something to the solution of this 
question. i 

As the chances of being shut in by the ice were easily among 
the possibilities to the whalers who were in our company, and with 
whose fate our companion the Beluga had joined for the time, the 
whole question of supplies and retreat was gone over with the 
whaling masters. A retreat up the valley of the Mackenzie, the 
Porcupine, and Yukon, seemed feasible, as. reindeer were to be 
found in this vicinity in the winter months. 

As the masters of the whalers would not return with me to the 
eastward, I determined to start back, in order to make my westerly 
cruise with the sailing fleet. Recalling the boats, we got under- 
way, standing first to the northeast to put over our first drift-float 
clear of the tidal influence of the waters immediately about Her- 
schel island, and in the open water and northerly current of the 
Mackenzie. These floats were made of wood about two feet long 
and nine inches thick, with the name of the ship, the date, and 
the words, for drift, cut upon the face. In a cavity at one end 
of the float, plugged with soft wood, there was placed a copper 
cylinder containing a letter requesting the finder to inform the 
U. S. Hydrographic office at Washington, the nearest U. S. Con- 
sul, or the commanding officer of the Thetis, the time and place 
where the float was found. 

After launching the float upon its unknown journey, a lookout 
was sent to the highest masthead : from there it was reported 
that to the northward and northeastward there was nothing in 
sight but open water, neither ice nor ice-blink was visible, and the 
western entrance to the Northwest passage stretched before us 
invitingly, as clear and as free as the waters of our own Chesapeake 
bay. But I had reached my limit, and turning back, to the regret 



Arctic Cruise of the U. 8. 8. Thetis in 1889. 191 

of many on board, faced once more the icy sea that lay before us 
toward Point Barrow and the westward. 

The weather, however, was superb, clear, cold, and sunny, during 
the day, while in the now darkening shades of the evening for the 
first time the moon appeared, silvering most beautifully the chain 
of mountains along the coast and the fantastic shapes of the 
grounded ice. 

On the 17th we began to meet and overtake the whalers, who 
still delayed in the vicinity of Camden bay, waiting for whales. 
Five were passed, some cruising and some fast to the ice-floes. 
After communicating with them and informing them of our prob- 
able movements, we kept on to the westward. The ice-conditions 
were favorable and we made very good headway, making fast to 
an ice-floe, off our old island-friends of the midway group, on the 
evening of the 1 7th of August. 

The wind is always a subject of constant watchfulness and 
anxiety in this part of the Arctic ; it virtually makes the currents 
and brings down the ice, or sends it off and clears a narrow lane 
along the shore-line. A northerly shift of wind caused a desire 
to push on, and passing on we sighted Return reef again and 
skirted along the long and narrow island which now bears the name 
of the Thetis. Passing the mouth of the Colville we steamed at a 
good rate of speed through Harrison bay and found there the 
wind blowing strong from the west, bringing much ice with it 
and accompanied by a cold fog. The outlook being discourag- 
ing I determined to press on for Point Barrow, not very far dis- 
tant. The early morning of the 19th of August opened cloudy, 
overcast, and cold, with a gale and snow from the westward, the 
ice increasing in quantity and size. 

There being no protection from the wind this side of Point 
Barrow, I ordered full speed so as to get to the point and beyond 
it before the almost inevitable shift to the northward which would 
bring the ice down and shut us out. The leads between the ice- 
floes became narrower and fewer in number, and but little better 
outlook was found as we edged inshore as far as the shoal water 
would allow us to go. At this time we sighted as many as eight 
polar bears on the ice, but this was no time to hunt "bear." 
Coming to the end of our lead we rammed through some pack-ice 
into another one, which, however, again led into water too shoal for 
us. Finding from my perch aloft that the ice seemed even heavier 
to the west, I determined to stand back to the eastward into the 



192 National Geographic Magazine. 

more open water we had left by the lead we had come through ; 
but it was too late : this lead had closed and we were prisoners 
in the pack. There being no other place to go, I reluctantly 
selected the largest pool, or pocket, got out our ice-anchors, and 
made fast to a heavy floe, to await further developments. It was 
found to be in slow motion, and four times during the night we 
had to move to avoid the heavy floes closing in around us. 
From this time, the 19th, until the morning of the 24th, we 
were close prisoners in the heavy pack which had set down with 
the wind, now northerly, between Point Barrow and Point 
Tangent. 

In the words of the Ancient Mariner of Coleridge : 

" The ice was here, the ice was there, 
The ice was all around ; 
It cracked and growled, and roared and howled, 
Like noises in a swound." 

By incessant watchfulness, almost constant movement, vigorous 
ramming, faithful working of the engines, and (most important 
of all) a favorable shift of wind, the good ship, under Divine 
Providence, escaped without damage or accident. Fortunately 
within easy reach of land and but twenty-five miles from Point 
Barrow refuge-station, I had no undue anxiety for life ; but I 
have no hesitation in stating that the readiness, endurance, and 
suboi'dination of the officers and men of the ship shown in the 
bringing out of the ship intact from the ice pack, after nearly five 
days' imprisonment, entitle them to great credit from the proper 
authorities and justify their commanding officer in the present 
expression of his high appreciation of their conduct and his 
warm feelings toward themselves. 

About noon of the 25th of August, after a night of hard ram- 
ming, we anchored off the west side of Point Barrow, greeted by 
salutes from the whalers anchored there and by the hearty con- 
gratulations of the masters, who soon came on board and learned 
for the first time that Mackenzie Bay had been reached. 

We found that the sailing fleet had gone to the westward, after 
having been shut in by the ice coming down on Point Barrow 
and Cape Smyth for several days, during our absence. The few 
whalers that remained had been watching us from their crows' 
nests during our imprisonment, but were unable, of course, to 
afford us any assistance, each ship having to work out her own 
salvation : companion-vessels are of great service only in case 



Arctic Cruise of the IT. S. 8. Thetis in 1889. 193 

of damage or abandonment. Fortunately, the steam-whalers 
remaining behind us did not have the pack set down upon 
them in the shallow bights in which they were cruising, and 
the long continued north-easter which aided us in our escape 
enabled them to find leads to get through, not very long after 
we had escaped. We remained at Point Barrow for a week until 
they had all returned, except the two most easterly ones, left at 
Herschel island. As their return was so uncertain, at the end of 
a week I dropped down to the house of refuge at Cape Smyth, 
landing provisions to fill the deficiency in their stores, and went 
to the westward, first going to Icy cape to erect a needed beacon 
as a warning of the vicinity of Blossom shoals. 

Leaving this vicinity on the 5th of September for the north- 
ward and westward, and rounding Blossom shoals, we stood to 
the north, reaching the supposed vicinity of the edge of the ice 
pack that night. As the nights were now dark we lay-to until 
morning, when the rapid fall of the temperature of the water 
and the lessening wind gave indications of its proximity, and a 
half hour's steaming brought us to the rugged white outline of 
the pack. Along this we skirted, having reached our highest 
north (less than 72° N. latitude). 

All of that day and the next we continued our course, sighting 
a portion of the sailing fleet of whalers on the 7th. Communi- 
cating with them of our proposed movements and whereabouts 
during the rest of September and the beginning of October, we 
then stood to the westward. I must not forget to mention an 
interesting incident that occurred. A schooner stood down to 
us from the fleet, and was recognized as the schooner Jane 
Grey, picked up by the Thetis when under the command of my 
predecessor the previous summer in the ice — abandoned. She 
had been righted, pumped out, repaired, and restored to her 
owner, who had literally sold his farm and put his all into the 
vessel. As he came within hail our notification was given 
him, but I noticed that he fairly danced with impatience during 
its delivery, which was accounted for at the end of the message 
by his bringing out his men, who were gathered behind the 
foresail, and giving hearty and prolonged cheers for the Thetis 
which fairly rang in the silent Arctic air. To this we responded 
and then went on our way. 

We now left the pack and steered through open water for 
Herald island, which we sighted at half past twelve the next day, 



194 National Geographic Magazine. 

the 8th of September ; as we approached it closely the bareness 
and forbidding appearance, which had been concealed at first sight 
by the bluish dimness of the outline, became very marked. Its 
sides were almost inaccessible, except from the western end, and 
it was free from ice, an almost exceptional state of affairs. In 
close seasons it is impossible to reach it, and, even more than 
Point Barrow, it may be shut out of the world by ice that refuses 
to move during the short summer. 

We passed the island late in the afternoon within a compara- 
tively short distance, standing on to the west with the hope of 
seeing Wrangel land before dark. At half past five land was 
reported ahead from aloft, and soon the high snowy peaks and 
mountainous outline of Wrangel land was sighted from deck. 
It stood out beautifully in the late Arctic afternoon, and as we 
approached it more closely its outline became more and more 
fantastic and brilliant. At sunset we were a little over ten miles 
distant, and at dark, as we turned to the southeast for Point Hope, 
we exchanged hearty congratulations upon our successful passage 
from Mackenzie Bay to Wrangel land. Arriving at Point Hope 
upon the evening of the 10th of September, we found that many 
of the hunting parties had returned from the interior, and prepar- 
ations were going on for the winter season. 

The natives of Point Hope, like the Eskimos generally of north- 
western Alaska, have no tribal or other form of government 
except what exists by control of the head man, oomalik, or chief, 
whose superiority arises from his wealth and influence. The 
previous chief had lived a life that made him a terror to the 
community. His rule was by force alone and by the influence of 
the rifle, which was his inseparable companion. After a career 
distinguished for license, murder and robbery, he had come to a 
timely end by being assassinated by the brother of a wife he was 
tormenting to death. Since his death, up to the time of our stay 
in September, anarchy had prevailed. On account of the very 
indifferent treatment received by the survivors of the wrecked 
whaler " Little Ohio " from the Eskimos at Point Hope the pre- 
vious winter, I determined to appoint a head man or chief who 
would be charged with the responsibility and duty of caring for 
any shipwrecked persons or destitute whites. Anokolut, who 
was appointed by me and whose appointment was afterwards 
confirmed by the Governor of Alaska, had married the niece of 
the previous chief, and was the best whaleman and hunter of 



Arctic Cruise of the JJ. S. S. Thetis in 1889. 195 

the district. He had heen in the employ of the whaling station 
established the previous year at Point Hope, and had heen satis- 
factory in all his dealings with the whites. His wife was a very 
superior woman, and their desire for civilized usages was so 
great that a bread-pan of tin, some granite-ware bowls, and 
candles, were given and eagerly accepted as contributing to make 
their domestic lives more comfortable and civilized. An urgent 
request was made for a cooking-stove, which I promised to give 
them if I should return the following summer. 

The Eskimo lamp which serves as a light, and to some extent as 
a stove, is a crescent-shaped stone utensil with a shallow trough 
scooped out ; this is a receptacle for the whale-oil, the wick 
being some native moss laid along the edge of the lamp and 
trimmed from time to time, the supply of oil being kept up by a 
lump of blubber suspended over the lamp. The light being 
indifferent, candles are welcomed as a great improvement and 
a marked relief to the over-taxed eyes of the men and women 
during the long nights of the Arctic winter. 

During our stay at Point Hope we found much of interest in 
connection with the Eskimos living there. Their long winters 
give them an opportunity to keep alive their traditions in their 
daily meetings in the council-house, and they give an account of 
their early days in this wise : In the beginning the people had 
heads like ravens, with eyes in the upper part of their breasts. 
All the world at this time was wrapt in gloom, with no change 
of day and night. At that time there lived a powerful chieftain 
on top of the highest peak. In his hut were suspended two balls 
that were considered very precious and were therefore care- 
fully guarded. One day, the chief being absent and the guards 
asleep, some children who had long admired the beautiful balls 
knocked them down with a stick and they rolled across the floor 
of the hut and down the side of the mountain. The noise 
awakened the guards, who hurried after them, while their 
extraordinary beauty attracted the attention of the people, 
who also rushed after them, a wild struggle ensuing for their 
possession ; this ended in the breaking of the balls. Light 
sprang from one and darkness from the other ; these spirits of 
light and darkness claimed sole dominion, but, neither yielding, 
a compromise was made by which they agreed to an alternate 
rule. The violent struggle for the mastery so disturbed the 
world that the anatomy of the people and the surface of the 



196 National Geographic Magazine. 

earth were both changed. Light being upon the earth, men 
began to catch whales in the sea and to carry the flesh and 
bones to their mountain-homes. One family wandering over 
the country recently risen from the sea came down upon Point 
Hope : finding vegetation springing up and whales abundant, 
they built a hut and made it their home. From this originated 
the settlement at Point Hope. Their modern history goes on in 
this wise : Point Hope being favorably situated for whaling 
and hunting the seal and walrus and for obtaining the reindeer, 
it naturally became a center of power and population. In the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, as well as can be deter- 
mined, the village upon Point Hope, known by the natives as 
Tigara, had a population of 2,000 souls, with six council-houses. 
At that time the Eskimos residing upon the Noatok, or Inland 
river, began to encroach upon the territory of the Tigaramutes 
until matters came to the pass that about the beginning of 
this century a great land- and boat-fight took place between 
the Tigaramutes and the Noatokmutes near Cape Seppings, in 
which the Tigaramutes were defeated and forced to yield a 
large portion of the territory formerly controlled by them. So 
crushed were the Tigaramutes that they lost one-half of their 
population, which led to the gradual abandonment of all the out- 
standing villages. Since this time the population has gradually 
decreased, the diminution being materially aided by the contact 
of whites, who are principally represented here by the crews of 
the whaling ships, rendezvousing during the early summer. 

As a rule the Arctic coast Eskimos are short in stature, the 
average height of ten men measured at Point Hope being 5 feet 
5.8 inches, and of ten women, 5 feet 2.4 inches. The legs are 
short in comparison to the length of the body and are always 
much bowed, this being due to the manner in which they are 
carried in infancy upon their mother's back, the legs being 
brought tightly around under the mother's arms. The feet and 
hands of the women are generally well shapen and small. 

All of the Eskimos have good teeth, but as they are subjected to 
severe usage they deteriorate in every way. They are used as 
substitutes for pincers, carpenter's vices, and fluting machines. 
They are used in drawing bolts, untying knots, holding the 
mouth-piece of a drill, shaping boot-soles, and stretching skins. 
When they become uneven from constant use in this way, the 
unevenness is corrected by a levelling down by means of a file 



Arctic Cruise of the TJ. 8. S. Thetis in 1889. 197 

or a whetstone, until they finally reach a level too low for 
mechanical purposes. 

Between sixteen and twenty-two years of age the male natives 
have their lips pierced under each corner of the mouth for 
labrets.* The incision is made and at first sharp-pointed pieces 
of ivory are put in ; when the wound heals the hole is grad- 
ually stretched by inserting larger labrets until half an inch in 
diameter is reached. The poorer natives wear labrets made of 
coal, walrus ivory, common gravel, and glass stoppers which they 
obtain from ships and adapt to this use. The stopper of a 
Worcestershire sauce bottle is very useful for the purpose. The 
richer ones have agate labrets, the most valued one, however, 
consisting of a white porcelain-like disk 1^ inches wide, in the 
center of which is mounted a turquoise nut, hemispherical in 
shape, nearly an inch wide,- fastened with a spruce gum obtained 
from the interior. We could not ascertain where the turquoise 
or porcelain-like disk was obtained. The Eskimos say they have 
always been in the country, and sell them only with the greatest 
reluctance. 

Tattooing is general among the women, and is apparently a 
custom of great antiquity. At the age of six one narrow line 
is drawn down the center of the chin from the lower lip down- 
ward, powdered charcoal being used as coloring matter. At 
twelve years the line is broadened to half an inch, and a narrow 
line made parallel to it on each side. But I will not detain you 
by giving other particulars. 

On the 20th of September the Thetis left Point Hope for the 
south, the rugged season of the Arctic ocean having fully set in. 
Strong winds and gales from the northeast had compelled us to 
move from the northern to the southern side of Point Hope, where 
better protection and anchorage had been found. On the 21st 
of September we passed out of the Arctic ocean and through 
Bering Strait, reaching Ounalaska again on the 26th of 
September. After remaining there until the beginning of 
October the ship returned to Sitka, and after a prolonged stay 
in the waters of southeastern Alaska we finally reached the 
Golden gate of San Francisco, shortly after midnight on the 
7th of December. 

* Labrets is the name used along the coast for the lip-ornaments 
■worn by the natives. 



198 National Geographic Magazine. 

The cruise of the Thetis was remarkable in several respects, 
among others in that, thanks to the open season, her stanch build, 
and successful battling with the ice-pack, she was enabled to reach 
Mackenzie bay, in British North America, the first government 
vessel to carry the American flag in those waters. She also 
made the long stretch from Mackenzie bay to Herald island 
and Wrangel land in one season, never before done, and she 
had the honor of being the first vessel of any kind to follow 
the entire main coast line of Alaska from Port Tongass, in 
extreme southeastern Alaska, to Demarcation point, in the 
Arctic ocean. 



The Law of Storms. 19& 



THE LAW OF STORMS, 

CONSIDEEED WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
NORTH ATLANTIC. 

By Everett Hayden. 

(Abstract of a paper read before the National Geogi-aphic Society, Nov. 15, 1889.) 

In preparing an abstract of this paper it is of course difficult 
to adhere very closely to the original, inasmuch as that was illus- 
trated by forty-five lantern slides, while it is only practicable to 
present a few plates with this abstract. I may therefore be per- 
mitted to give only a general outline of the subject, with perhaps 
a more detailed discussion of one or two of the most notable 
recent hurricanes off our Atlantic coast. 

The term "Law of Storms" is applied to the code of rules 
that should govern the action of the master of a vessel when he 
has reasson to suspect the approach of a dangerous storm. It will 
be seen that this definition, like the code itself, is somewhat 
vague. So many considerations enter as factors in the question 
that it is wholly impossible to lay down any rules that shall be 
applicable alike to a high-powered, well-manned steamship, and 
to a heavily-laden, poorly-equipped and short-handed sailing ves- 
sel. Disregarding such differences of conditions (which are, of 
course, of vital importance in each individual case, but which 
cannot be discussed in a brief general essay), the two grand 
divisions of the subject may be compared to grand strategy 
and field tactics. By this I mean that a broad, comprehensive 
view of the whole subject of ocean storms — their regions, seasons, 
size, severity, and tracks — is one very important part of the navi- 
gator's duty in planning a long campaign, or voyage ; and, secondly, 
the handling of his vessel when actually in the fight — the cool- 
ness, clear-headedness, and trained experience that utilizes every 
resource of the best seamanship and navigation in a fearful strug- 
gle with the fury of a hurricane — all of these are also an essential 
part of the education of the ideal sea-captain. 

Thanks to the progress of meteorologic research it is compar- 
atively easy nowadays for anyone to get a very good general idea 



200 National Geographic Magazine. 

of the great hurricane regions of the globe, and the seasons 
when these dreaded tropic cyclones prevail in each of these re- 
gions. The evidence on this subject is cumulative and practi- 
cally conclusive, so that it is universally known and recognized 
that the hurricane months are the summer months in each hem- 
isphere ; hurricanes originate in the tropics, move westward, then 
poleward into the temperate zones, and finally eastward in higher 
latitudes, receding gradually from the equator ; moreover, the 
essential difference between hurricanes north and south of the 
line is as follows : In the Northern Hemisphere the rotatiqn of 
the cyclonic whirl is against the hands of a watch, and in the 
Southern, with. The noted hurricane regions are the West Indies, 
coast of China and Japan, Bay of Bengal (especially in May and 
October, at the time of the change of the monsoons), and the 
South Indian Ocean (about Mauritius). Less noted regions are 
the South Pacific (East of Australia), the North Pacific (west of 
the Mexican coast), and the Arabian Sea. In planning a dis- 
tant voyage a navigator should therefore consider the hurricane 
regions through which he must pass, just as he considers the pre- 
vailing winds — the trades, monsoons, and ocean currents. 

The handling of a ship in a hurricane is a very different sort 
of a thing from this general survey of the entire field, and, with- 
out the eminently practical qualities that we all associate with a 
good officer of the navy or mercantile marine, no mere theoretic 
knowledge can avail much. And yet this is one of those cases 
where practice and theory should go hand in hand, — not theory 
as something vague and unreal, but theory as based upon a firm 
foundation of observed facts. If a vessel encounter a hurricane, 
certain conclusions can be drawn from observations of the shifts 
of wind, the fluctuations of the barometer, the appearance of the 
clouds, and the direction of the ocean swell ; the master of that 
vessel will undoubtedly draw such conclusions, and store them 
away in his mind as part of his fund of experience upon which 
to base action at some future time. But if he can consider his 
own observations, while fresh in mind, in connection with the ob- 
servations made on board many other vessels that encountered 
the same storm, and modify or verify his conclusions by such 
comparison, there cannot be a doubt but that the lesson will be 
of far greater value. Sailors lead' a rough life, and their train- 
ing is often acquired by experience alone, Moreover, there are 
certain things that tend to discourage effort on the part of junior 



The Law of Storms. 201 

officers, even on board naval vessels : they realize that their duty 
is not to originate orders but to execute them, and sooner or later 
they get out of the habit of reflecting upon the action taken to 
avoid a storm or manoeuver in one, not knowing at the time what 
considerations lead to the action that was taken, and not always 
having anything brought forcibly to their attention to indicate 
with certainty whether the action was well-considered or ill-ad- 
vised. Upon finally attaining command themselves they are not, 
therefore, as well posted as they might otherwise have been. I men- 
tion these things to explain the undoubted fact that comparatively 
few masters of vessels are well posted in certain very important 
additions to the old law of storms, as it was disco-v ered by Red- 
field and enforced by Reid, Piddington, Thorn, and other early 
writers. In fact, of all the navigators of various nationalities 
who have charge to-day of the commerce of the world, probably 
four-fifths are wholly ignorant of the progress that has been 
made in this direction in the past fifty years. That such is the 
case is not, in my opinion, wholly their fault : it is owing to the 
fact that far too little attention has been paid to clear, forcible, 
and convincing explanation ; it is the fault of the teachers, no 
less than the scholars, — of meteorologists who talk over the 
heads of their audiences, instead of stating facts and conclusions 
in a way to command attention and respect from the practical 
men who furnish the data, and who deserve some tangible results 
in return for their long years of voluntary observation. 

It is difficult to put this matter very clearly to those who are 
not familiar with the conditions that govern the management of 
a vessel at sea, and I shall only attempt to do so in a very general 
way. It should be understood, first of all, that a hurricane is an 
enormous whirlwind, so large, in fact, that its circular nature 
was generally recognized only about fifty years ago. At the im- 
mediate center of the whirl there is a calm space, from five or 
ten to thirty or forty miles in diameter, generally with blue sky 
and bright sunlight. Within a short distance of this central 
calm the wind blows with frightful violence, and here a vessel is 
driven along in absolute helplessness, enveloped in midnight 
darkness, buried in a flying mass of foam and spray, with every 
sound annihilated by the roar and shrieks of the elements. The 
core of the hurricane, as this region has been called, is small, rel- 
ative to the entire area, and it thus happens that a few miles may 
make all the difference between shipwreck and safety. The ques- 

VOL. II. 14 



202 



National Geographic Magazine. 



tion is, then, to avoid getting into the core, or heart, of the hur- 
ricane. It is evident enough that if the wind blow in a strictly 




A ship in the heart of a cyclone. From Reid's "Law of Storms.' 



circular direction around the center, the bearing or direction 
of the center must be at exactly right angles (eight points) to the 
right (or left) of the direction of the wind. In other words, in 
the Northern Hemisphere (where the direction of rotation is 
against the hands of a watch) the center bears eight points to the 
right of the wind (that is, to the right of the direction from 
which the wind blows) ; in the case of a hurricane off our coast, 
for instance, if the wind be NE. at Hattei-as the center would 
bear (according to the 8-point rule) SE. Considering, further, 
that the entire whirl has a progressive motion along a path, or 
track, if an observer at Hatteras find that the NE. wind fresh- 
ens rapidly, without any shift or change of direction, it is equally 
evident that the center of the storm is approaching directly to- 
ward that point. In a similar situation at sea, a shipmaster 
would naturally see that his vessel was in a position of great 
danger : evidently the best thing to do would be to run before 
the wind, thus getting out of the way of the approaching hurri- 
cane. This simple case will, explain pretty clearly, I think, how 
rules were at once formulated and adopted, as soon as Redfield 
had proved the approximately circular character of these storms. 
Without going further into this subject, inasmuch as this 8- 
point rule is perhaps the most important of all the rules — indeed, 
all of them follow directly from it, — suppose that subsequent re- 



The Law of Storms. 203 

search, based upon careful observation and the accurate charting 
of hundreds of reports from vessels in similar storms in various 
oceans, proved conclusively that the wind in a hurricane does not 
blow in strictly circular whirls, but rather spirally inward, so that 
with a N"E. wind off Hatteras the center bears probably S SE., 
or even South : evidently this is a matter of vital importance to 
the navigator, and all the old rules should be remodeled to suit 
the discovery. Such is, indeed, actually the fact, and in most 
cases nothing could be worse than to run directly before the 
wind ; in any event it would be dangerous, and in the case of a 
slow-moving cyclone it might readily lead the vessel directly 
into the core of the hurricane. This is known to have been the 
case in many instances, and vessels have thus been drawn into 
the inner whirls of hurricanes and kept there for several days, 
making one or more complete revolutions around the center be- 
fore they could extricate themselves. In fact, they might never 
have gotten out, if the storm itself had not moved off and left 
them. 

The first of the accompanying plates, entitled, 

West Indian Hurricanes, and other North Atlantic 

Storms, 

gives a brief and yet complete resume of what is perhaps the 
best modern practice. In these brief statements the attempt 
has been made to put concisely, intelligibly, and completely (if 
one will but read each and every sentence as carefully as they 
were written), the very latest, most important, and best-estab- 
lished facts, with which every navigator should be familiar. The 
paragraph entitled " Intensified trade-wind belt," for instance, is 
very important. A close consideration of the caution expressed 
in these few lines may prevent a serious mistake that might be 
made by a too rigid adherence to the old rules. The idea is as 
follows : It has been proved by Meldrum, from his studies of 
Mauritius hurricanes, that the SE. trade-winds blow toward a 
part of the track of a hurricane, rather than at right angles to 
the direction of its center, and it is therefore unsafe to assume 
that the center bears at right angles to the wind, or that, because 
the trade wind increases in strength without any decided change 
of direction, the center is approaching directly toward the vessel. 
This principle might naturally be expected to hold for similar 
storms in other regions, and Abercromby, in a thorough study of 



204 National Geographic Magazine. 

the whole subject, has shown that such is the case, although he 
states that " the position of this belt [of intensified trades] dif- 
fers in every hurricane region, so that a special set of rules are 
necessary for each country." It seems to me, I must say, that in 
the absence of such special rules the law may safely be assumed 
to be general ; its importance to navigators is certainly very 
great, and its principal effect must be to urge the greatest cau- 
tion in making any attempt to cross the track of a hurricane,, 
from the dangerous to the navigable semicircle. 
The next plate, 

The Hurricane of November 25, 1888, 

is a very instructive illustration of an actual hurricane, and one 
of the most severe on record off our Atlantic coast. The spiral 
lines have been added to bring out conspicuously the wind-circu- 
lation, and several features will at once attract attention : the 
elongated shape of the storm, along a north and south line (the 
direction of motion) ; the wide region where there is a southeasterly 
gale (exactly analogous to the belt of intensified trades) ; the 
long sweep of northeasterly winds along the coast; and the marked 
variation from a strictly circular whirl. The right-hand side is 
the dangerous semicircle, and it is here that the navigator is 
called upon to decide whether he shall dare make the attempt to 
run before the wind and cross the track of the storm ; the left- 
hand side is the navigable semicircle, — not very navigable in this 
particular case, we may well believe, with no sea-room to the 
westward, a fearful N NE. gale, and a terrific sea. This is a 
case where every resource of seamanship and navigation may 
fail to save a ship, as the loss of the steamship " Samana " and a 
dozen other strong vessels, with all on board, bears sad testimony. 
Let me quote a few lines from a thrilling report by Captain Drew, 
of the American ship " Sea Witch " (this vessel's position is 
plotted on the chart about lat. 32°N., long. 75° W.): " Nov. 24 : 
Hurricane from NE. ; our position a perilous one, the ship roll- 
ing heavily and filling the decks with water ; an awful gale, the 
worst we have ever had, — how will it end ? At 3 p. m., the sun 
out a moment through the thick sky. Nov. 25 : Still blowing a 
hurricane, with awful squalls of rain ; the seventh day of the 
gale. No side-lights can burn ; the binnacle-light goes out as 
fast as we can light it. One blast from the north blew our brand- 
new lower-maintopsail away like brown paper. We performed 



The Law of Storms. 205 

the critical manoeuver of wearing ship, which saved the vessel : 
we were foundering." Verily, this was " out of the jaws of 
death," and probably there were few more sincere thanksgiving 
services than those held on board this vessel on Nov. 29th, 1888, 
as recorded in her log. One other report may be referred to 
here, as it is of especial interest. It is from the British steam- 
ship " Effective," whose position is plotted about half way be- 
tween Bermuda and New York. At this time the wind was 
S SE., force 8, and the storm center was moving directly toward 
her. We learn from Captain Crosby's report that by noon, local 
time, the wind was strong from south ; at 4:30 p. m., a hard gale 
from east, moderating until midnight, barometer falling very rap- 
idly. Nov. 26th, very heavy gale from NE., ship heading bow 
to sea ; noon, wind east, barometer 28.60; 5 p. m., wind N NE., 
28.20 ; 10 p. m., SW. ; midnight, W., 28.20. This report illus- 
trates the experience of a vessel close to the line of sudden shift 
of wind from SE. to N NE., and sustains very well the spiral 
lines drawn on the chart, just where there is an absence of data 
on the chart itself. 

Lack of space does not allow of further details, and I must go 
on to the next plate, 

The St. Thomas-Hatteras Hurricane of Sept. 3-12, 1889. 

This plate is copied exactly from a Supplement issued with 
the Pilot Chart for October, 1889 (published Sept. 27th), with 
only the addition of the tracks of the two storms (as indicated 
by later data) and the tracks of a few vessels (see small charts 
dated Sept. 3, 4-7, 10). Considering the early date of publica- 
tion, the wide expanse of ocean covered by the charts, and their 
essential accuracy (as indicated by later data), it must be ac- 
knowledged, I think, by anyone who is at all acquainted with the 
difficulties incident to this sort of work, that this supplement to 
the Pilot Chart hit more closely to the truth in this matter than 
would probably be possible under similar circumstances in one 
case out of ten. Had later data materially modified conclusions 
drawn at such an early date, it could not have been a matter of 
surprise, although this prompt publication would still have served 
a most valuable purpose in interesting navigators to contribute 
data likely to help us in establishing the facts. Indeed, the fol- 
lowing quotations from the Pilot Chart and Supplement illustrate 
exactly what was desired, and what was actually accomplished 



206 National Geographic Magazine. 

by this publication : " This preliminary publication, issued two 
weeks after the storm reached our coast, well illustrates the cor- 
dial support this office receives from masters of vessels in its ef- 
forts to collect and utilize data regarding marine meteorology. 
It is desired to collect as complete data as possible regarding this 
storm, in order to publish a final report, and the present publica- 
tion will be useful as a good working basis for a more complete 
detailed study of the hurricane." Also, " Special attention is 
called to the fact that this preliminary publication is only in- 
tended to give a brief outline of the facts as indicated by data 
received up to date of publication." Moreover, the name, nation- 
ality, and rig of every vessel whose report had been received in 
time to be used was published, and every statement made in the 
accompanying text was based on an exhaustive study of all the 
data. 

It is interesting to note how slightly the very complete data 
now at hand have modified this hastily-prepared history, and all 
the circumstances urge similar quick work and prompt publica- 
tion in every case, before other storms and other conditions have 
dulled public interest and directed attention elsewhere. The 
track of the easternmost of the two storms, as plotted on the first 
little chart, shows that it moved more rapidly than was antici- 
pated, and recurved farther north : the fact is, its very exist- 
ence was not even suspected till two hours before the final draft 
of the maps was made, and then only because the German steam- 
ship " Savona," from Baltimore for Brazil, suffered such damage 
from the hurricane on Sept. 5th (see chart dated Sept. 3rd for 
position) that she , was obliged to run in to St. Thomas for re- 
pairs, and our consul, Mr. M. A. Turner, forwarded her report by 
the first steamer to New York. The following is a brief extract 
from this report, beginning at 10 p. m., Sept. 4th : " Full hur- 
ricane, ship lying in trough of sea, laboring heavily and shipping 
much water. Cargo shifted ; jettisoned 600 barrels of flour 
and 60 tons of coal. Broke steam steering gear and wheel, found 
rudder adrift, 3 feet of water in the hold, foundations of engines 
seriously loose and getting worse. Bore up for St. Thomas." 

It is impossible, in the space at my disposal, to refer even 
briefly to the reports of the few vessels whose tracks are plotted 
on the charts : the stanch steamship " Earnmoor," foundering 
in the heart of the hurricane on Sept. 5th, eleven of her crew of 
thirty escaping in an open boat, and of these only seven surviv- 



The Law of Storms. 20 7 

ing that fearful drift of twenty-three days ; the " Sepet," be- 
tween the two storms and escaping both ; the " Lassell," from 
the tropics to Block Island, all the way in the grasp of the 
hurricane, without a sight of sun, moon, or stars, to lix her 
position; the "Ada Bailey," rolling in the long swell off Hatteras 
and watching the early indications of the approaching storm for 
nearly a week before it struck her; the "Hernan Cortes," forced 
to stand off into fearful danger by the still greater danger of a 
lee-shore at Hatteras; and the " City of New York," " Teutonic," 
and " City of Rome," starting on their Titanic race from Liver- 
pool for New York the day after this great hurricane swept 
past St. Thomas, and reaching their goal with it, and in spite of 
all its fury. I must dismiss this whole interesting history with the 
following abstract of the report of Capt. Simmons, of the British 
brigantine " Victoria," whose original report is brief and to the 
point, like all the rest (see track of the " Victoria," northwest 
from St. Thomas, on the first small chart) : 

I passed through the cyclone, resulting in the total loss of the 
spars, sails, etc., of niy vessel. The SE. sea became so heavy that I 
was obliged to heave-to. The sky was one sheet of dark gray, at times 
approaching black. The lightning was excessive only during the latter 
part of the storm ; it appeared as a continuous quivering sheet around 
a great part of the horizon, extending about 10 J above it and lasting 
many seconds, unaccompanied by thunder ; the compass could not be 
read, the card spinning so that the points were indistinguishable. 
The lowest barometer reading was 27.86 (aneroid, corrected by com- 
parison at Boston shortly before and at Halifax the following month). 

The importance to navigators of a true appreciation of the law 
of storms — not the mere memorization of a set of rules, but an 
intelligent comprehension of the subject — is now perhaps clearly 
evident to the reader: at any rate, that is the object I have aimed 
at, rather than a mere formal statement of generally accepted 
principles and an abstruse discussion of isobars and gradients. 

It will be seen that the probable bearing of the center, as indi- 
cated by the direction of the wind at a single station, is the great 
question, so far as the navigator is concerned. There are men who 
want and must have a hai'd-and-fast rule, — an 8-point, a 10-point, 
or a 12-point rule — something to act on without thought, while 
every nerve is strained to save the ship's spars, sails, boats, 
engines, and cargo, from damage or destruction. Under such 
circumstances, I think that perhaps the safest general plan is to 
use the old 8-point rule, but applied to the low clouds, instead of 
to the wind. This is equivalent, generally speaking, to a 1 0-point 



208 



National Geographic Magazine. 



rule, applied to the wind. That any such rule, if intended for 
general application, is only roughly approximate, goes without 
saying, or ought to do so, at least. The angle of bearing 
changes in different parts of the storm, it varies with the 
quadrant, with the latitude, with different storms, and with 
various other conditions, too numerous to be mentioned or even 
wholly known. One good general rule is that in rear of a hurri- 
cane the wind blows somewhat decidedly toward it; and yet that 
there are marked exceptions is well illustrated by the chart of 
the hurricane of November 25, 1888^ already referred to. As a 
good example of the wind circulation in a hurricane in the tropics 
the accompanying diagram is of interest. This represents two days 




The Cuban Hurricane of September, 1888, illustrating the surface wind-circula- 
tion on September 3d and 5th, at noon, Greenwich mean time. 

(the 3d and 5th) of the great Cuban hurricane of September, 
1888, the intervening day (September 4th) being omitted, for the 
sake of clearness. Its severity is sufficiently indicated by the 
fact that it caused the loss of fully a thousand lives in Cuba, and 
destroyed property of the estimated value of $5,000,000 in the 
single province of Sagua. Now take any point on any one of 
these spiral lines, and observe the bearing of the center : in 
rear of the storm, especially, the 8-point rule is hardly applicable, 
and action based upon it might result disastrously. 



Expl 

atlanti< 

TRACK, 



N.N.wV. 



\ 
N.N.W 







WEST INDIAN HURRICANES, AND OTHER NORTH ATLANTIC STORMS. 

From the Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean, August, 1889, with Additional Paragraphs. 




June and October, 
tsE lat. 23" to 55° 
July and Sept., 
lat. 29° to 55°. 
August, 
lat. 33° to 55°. 
Stoem track, 
N NE. to E NE. 
Motion of storm 
center along track, 
miles per 



Explanation — These diagrams are for practical use in West Indian hurricanes. The upper one will also answer for ordinary storms alono- the trans- 
atlantic route. The small arrows fly with the wind, the direction being stated at the end of each dotted line; the long arrow on each diagram is the storm 
track, that is, the probable path of the cyclone through the belt of latitude to which the diagram applies. 

Use of the Diagrams — When a falling barometer, freshening rain squalls, &c, indicate 
a hurricane, select the proper diagram (according to the month and latitude), plot your position 
upon it by means of the direction of the wind, and thus ascertain the approximate bearing of the 
storm center. The probable storm track is indicated by the long arrow. If the wind shift, plot 
your position by means of the new wind-direction (nearer the center if the wind has freshened 
and the barometer has fallen). In this way you can readily observe every change of position 
relative to the storm center, and decide what action to take, according to the character of your 
vessel, the lay of the land. &c. These storms vary greatly in size, but are smallest and most violent 
in the tropics, where the cloud ring averages about 500 miles in diameter and the region of stormy 
winds 300 miles, or even less. You can therefore only roughly estimate the distance of the cen- 
ter, although its bearing can be obtained from the diagrams with a high degree of probability. 
There is also considerable variation in the direction of motion and the velocity of the storm along 
its track, but the general tendency is as stated herewith. 

Cyclonic Circulation — One of the most important indications that an approaching storm 
is of hurricane violence is the marked cyclonic circulation of the wind, lower and upper clouds, 
etc. This may be easily appreciated by remembering that a cyclone of any great intensity is an 
ascending spiral whirl, with a rotary motion (in the Northern Hemisphere) against the hands of 
a watch, as shown on the diagrams The surface wind, therefore, blows spirally inward (not 
circularly, except very near the center); the next upper current (carrying the low scud and rain 
clouds), in almost an exact circle about the center; the next higher current(the high cumulus), in 
an outward spiral — and soon, up to the highest cirrus clouds, which radiate directly outward. 
The angle of divergence between the successive currents is almost exactly two points of tho com- 
pass. Ordinarily, with a surface wind from N., for instance, the low clouds come from N., also; 
on the edge of a hurricane, however, they come from N NE., invariably. In rear of a hurricane, 
the wind blows more nearly inward; with a SE. wind, for instance, the center will bear about 
W., the low clouds coming from S SE. (two points to the right of the wind), etc. Great activity 
of movement of the upper clouds, while the storm is still distant, indicates that the hurricane is of 
great violence. If the cirrus plumes that radiate from the distant storm are faint and opalescent 
in tint, fading gradually behind a slowly thickening haze or veil, the approaching storm is an old 
one. of large area; if of snowy whiteness, projected against a clear blue sky, it is a young 
cyclone of small area but great intensity. 

Intensified Trade-wind Belt. — Another very important fact (established by Meldrum, at 
Mauritius) may be stated thus: When a hurricane is moving along the equatorial limits of a 
trade- wind region, there is a belt of intensified trades to windward of its track: not until the 
barometer has fallen about six-tenths of an inch it is safe to assume that, because the trade- 
wind increases in force and remains steady in direction, you are on the track of the storm. By 
attempting too early to cross its track, running free as soon as the wind begins to freshen, you 
are liable to plunge directly into the vortex of the hurricane. 

General Information — Hurricanes are especially liable to be encountered from July to Octo- 
ber inclusive in the tropics (north of the 10th parallel), the Gulf of Mexico, and Gulf Stream 
region Earliest indications: Barometer above the normal, with cool, very clear, pleasant 
weather- a Ion"-, low, ocean swell from the direction of the distant storm; light, feathery cirrua 
clouds r'ldiatin"- from a point on the horizon where a whitish arc indicates the bearing of the 
center' Unmistakable signs: Falling barometer; halos about the sun and moon; increasing 
ocpan 'swell' hot moist weather, with light variable winds: deep red and violet tints at dawn 
and sunset; 'a heavy, mountainous cloud bank on the distant horizon; barometer falling more 

la Brief Rules 3 *)* Action.— If "the squalls freshen without any shift of wind, you are on the 
of „„ m t ,. an i-. run off with the wind on the starboard quarter and keep your compass course 
? 2 m w?nnir Paragraph entitled ■• Intensified Trade-wind Belt"). If the wind shift to the right 
(see caution 111 < * is i , t(>rm t k t the snip on the starboard tack and make as much 
f ou , 81 !i°* *£J3 hie until Obliged to lie-to. If the wind shift to the left, you are to the left of the 

f obliged 



June and October, 

E lat. 20° to 23°. 

July and Sept., 

lat. 27° to 29° 

AUGUST, 

lat. 80° to 33. 

; Storm track, 

NNW. to NNE. 

Motion of storm 

center, along track, 

5 to 10 miles per hour. 



,,,/ 



~iu 



% 



NNW V\. ; '"-ra^ 



June and October, 
lat. 10° to 20°. 
>>^ S ' E July and Sept., 
# T j*^ lat. 10° to 27° 

\u/^v\\V ACGUST> 

lat. 10° to 30°. 

Storm track, 



"*vs.v 



r 



.A~ W. by N. 

' \ SSE to N NW. 
Motion of storm 
center along 
track, about 17 
miles per hour. 



you are in tiic i »,,"■< — - 
headway as possible, until 



[Edition of July, 1S90.] 



1 t™*. hrins the wind on the starboard quarter and keep your compass course; it obliged 
storm tiackh in t ^ ^ gcuddi £ w&ys keep the wind weU on the ?ta xboard quarter, 

in order to run out of the storm. Always lie-to on the coming-up tack. L se oil to prevent heavy 



ill uruei iu iu" «"• — - ■, 

seas from breaking on board. 



100° 



401 



list or vjiau 

PLOTTI 



Alene(Br. S. S.).. 
Arab Steed (Swed, 
Arizona (Br. S. S. 
Armenia (Am. Sp. 
Barrowmore i Br. t 
Barraeouta (Br. S 
Benito Eatenger (J 
•Blucher (Ger. Bk 
British Princes* 1 (] 



20°L 



Circassian (Br. S. 
City of San Anton 
•Claribel (Br. S. S 
Colon (Br. S. S.).. 
Comet (Am. Sen.) 
Constellation (TJ. 
Crown Prince (Br 
Denmark (Br. S. ! 
Dorian (Br. S. S.) 
Dryden (Br. S. S.; 
E. C. Knight (P1I< 
Eclipse (Am. Sp.) 
Edam (Dntch S. S 
•Effective (Br. S. 
Elbe (Ger. 9.8.)., 
Elbrldge Souther 

Engineer (Br. S. S 
Ethiopia (Br. S. i 
Etrnrla (Br. S. S 

Exeter City (Br. i 
Explorer (Br. S. ! 
Fanlta (Am. S. S 
Port William (Br 
France (Br. S. S.; 
Frieda Grampp (< 
Gedney (TJ. S. C. 
Grecian (Br. S. S. 
H. B. Hnssey (An 
H. 0. Sibley (Am. 
Henry HUliard (i 
L L. Skolfleld (Ai 
Jamaican (Br. S. 
J. F. Lonbat (P1H 
Kepler (Br. S. 8.] 
Konoma (Br. Bk.| 
Lady Llsgar (Br. ! 
Lampasas (Am. 8 
Letlmbro (It. S. S 

Lord Clive (Br. S. 
Lorenzo D. Bakei 
Loulelana (Am. S 
Luther A. Roby (, 
Maggie Abbott (A 



I0| 



Marmlon (Br. 8. 1 
MarteUo (Br. S. S 
Messenger (Am. i 
•Miranda (Br. S. ! 
Monsita (Br. Bktl 
ftedjid (Br. S. S.) 

Oregon (Br. S. 8.) 



100' 



The Uttrrica 
to call special atte 
this particular hm 
careful considerat: 
evidence can be pi 
better, although tl 
when there is a hi 
that the center bei 
this steady SE. wii 
has fallen about I 
of the storm; by 



100° 



4-01 



SYMBOLS 



WIND 
° cahn 
V variably 
° KU forced 
>»-o W « 6 
y> SW m 8 
<*««< E. " 22 



HA~ 


Po™. 




Lo/ U*j 


l ** Ul *i Br - 8 ' S ' 


34 7° 74 6* 


Al«n« (Br. B. 8.). 


87.1 74 8 






































0«pun(nr.8.8) 


♦IS BS.4 


Ch^ta.Mm.B.6.) 


Biom* 


City or 8an Antonio (Am. a a) 


30 74 8 


•ClfcrtboHDr. B. 3.) 


TIB 74 U 














EZr^'s R^ 


« I mJ 






E.C Knim.1 n-um-boM. 


3*S 745 


r.fl*,,. ■linu-t.8 P 8.) 


UU WO 


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a:.* «* 














Et" '''""'f^ 


Ms mo 


Bzmlstor(Ain.B.a) 


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Gedwj <H. 8. 0. A 0. a 8.) 


I*.* m« 






































Uil? LllgU (Br- Bfc) 


si * mi 










Lllll, CtLTU* IABL Dk.1. 


«.« m4 


LoroojoD Uakor (Am. a 8.) 


IRS t" 


















MainlOOT.a&l 


a* a oi. ? 


UTmlon.Br.ae, 


u« m 


M, WWI (Am S.b i 


Wtt ^o 



























WEATHER 
•' Rain 

*Srww *Hcril 
=Fog ^Hcvza 

° cloudless 
9 i covered &C. 
• overcast 




100" 



The lli'RHU'ANE SEASON.— June may be fairly said to lie the first of the five hurricane months in the North Atlantic, and the above diagram ih presented in order 
to call special attention to the Law of Storms, especially to certain important modifications of the old laws. The spiral lines indicate the general wind-circulation in 
this particular hurricane, and the complete data presented on the Chart must convince any one that conclusions based upon such evidence must be worthy ol the most 
careful consideration. This hurricane was one of the most severe on record off our Atlantic coast, and, though much larger than a hurricane in the tropics, similar 
evidence can be presented to show that the 8-point rule is seldom a safe guide for obtaining' the tearing of the center ; a 10-point or even a 12-pnmt rule is generally 
better, although the 8-point rule is fairly correct if applied to the direction of the low clouds, rather than the wind. The long sweep of NEly winds along the i oa it. 
When (here is a hurricane below Hatteras, is a verv characteristic and important feature. With a NE'ly wind off Block Island, for instance, it should not hi; assumed 
that the center bears SE. : the Chart shows that it maybe almost duesouth. There is likewise a wide region where the wind is from the SB,., and a vessel running Berore 
•Ins steady SE. wind would plunge deeper and deeper "into the hurricane. Similarly in the trades, to windward of the track of a hurricane: not until the barometer 
has fallen about 6-tentbs of an inch is it safe to assume that, because the trade-wind increases in force and remains steady in direction you are on the track 
of the stown; by attempting too earlv to cross its track, running free as soon as the wind begins to freshen, you are liable to plunge directly into the vortex. 



THE ST. THOMAS-HATTERAS HURRICANE OF SEPTEMBER 3-12, 1889. 




i juuwcl mcr St OI)ri*Ui|ilio»'» uImjuI midni^M. tin i-luinl Ui join Ihc (rreo! hurricane— poasililr a 



y nnrtfieosteilv Hive 1 1 nt .luui.iio: 
da and northern Florid n; von 






The abov 
during the pre 
hurricane (No 
notice is that t 
the wind. Aj 
speaking, in tl 
center may be 
Perhaps the bi 
the right of th 
and the angle 
It will hi 
departure fron 
storm in this . 
case. In the 
be noted, .how 
Masters • 
G. M. T., are 



[From the Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean, July, 



1890. 




_r.w:27«^^r60* 



HURRICANES IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC— TYPICAL CIRCULATION OP THE WIND, FROM ACTUAL OBSERVATION. 

The above diagrams have been prepared from a large number of observations in order to illustrate the actual circulation of the wind in hurricanes, as a practical guide for navigators 
during the present hurricane season. The small chart that was presented on the Pilot Chart last month gave all the observations upon which the spiral lines were based for that particular 
hurricane (Nov. 25, 1888), and the same method has been followed here, only the observations themselves are omitted, for the sake of clearness. Perhaps the most important point to 
notice is tliat the surface wind blows in an inward spiral curve, and not circularly, except very near the center. The center therefore generally bears more than eight points to the right of 
the wind. Another very important point is the fact that although the 8-point rule is nearly true when the wind is anywhere from North to South by way of Wast (that is generally 
sneaking, in the navigable semicircle), it is liable to be a very poor guide when "the wind is from any point in the first or second quadrant. With the wind from NE for instance the 
center may bear anywhere from South to SE.; with the wind East it may bear from SW. to South; and with the wind SE. it may bear SW., West, or even (in the tropics) W NW 
Perhaps the best general rule is that the center bears about eight points to the right of the direction from which the low clouds come, or, what is praotically the same thing, eight points to 
the right of the wind at the moment of a sudden shift in a heavy squall; after such a shift the wind will remain steady in direction for a time, but the center is meanwhile moving along 
and the angle of bearing changes until the next shift, when it goes again to eight points, and so on. 

It will be noticed that the northernmost of these two hurricanes was moving very slowly during the two days selected for illustration : had it been moving faster, the in-draught (or 
departure from the circular direction) would -no doubt have been somewhat less in advance and considerably greater in rear than what is indicated. It is exceptional also to find a 
storm in this .region growing smaller, as this seems to have done on Sept. 10th ; it died out altogether in a few days, instead of continuing its motion toward E NE., as is usually the 
ease. In the tropics the usual progressive motion is about W. by N., and this, together with the steady increase in size, is well illustrated in the case of the Cuban hurricane ; it should 

be noted,. however, that the interval is here two days, and not one, as in the upper diagram. 

Masters of vessels are earnestly requested to keep tegular observations for this Office during the hurricane season, even if only position, wind, weather, and barometer, at noon, 

6- M. T., are noted. A single additional report often adds greatly to the completeness of the data used in preparing these diagrams. 



■sph 







The Law of Storms. 209 

The next and last plate, entitled, 

Hurricanes in the North Atlantic. — Typical Circulation 
op the Wind, from Actual Observation, 

gives a still more complete illustration of the wind-circulation in 
hurricanes, with a brief discussion of the application of the 
8-point rule. Especial attention is called to the statement made 
thereon (referring, of course, to hurricanes in the North Atlantic, 
but no doubt true for the entire Northern Hemisphere) that 

" although the 8-point rule is nearly true when the wind is anywhere 
from north to south by way of west (that is, generally speaking, in the 
navigable semicircle), it is liable to be a very poor guide when the wind 
is from any point in the first or second quadrant." 

Also to the following, which is applicable to the Southern 
Hemisphere by the substitution of "to the left" for "to the 
right :" 

" Perhaps the best general rule is that the center bears about eight 
points to the right of the direction from which the low clouds come, or, 
what is practically the same thing, eight points to the right of the wind 
at the moment of a sudden shift in a heavy squall ; after such a shift 
the wind will remain steady in direction for a time, but the center is 
meanwhile moving along and the angle of bearing changes until the 
next shift, wben it goes again to eight points, and so on.'' 

Such diagrams, carefully prepared from complete and reliable 
data, are of far greater practical value to navigators than vol- 
umes of explanation : they appeal to the eye and will live in 
memory long after ideas conveyed by printed words have been 
forgotten. 

Finally, let us look for a moment at two sketches that I 
have made to give a graphic and I hope not incorrect idea of 
the cloud formation and the internal structure of a hurricane. 
In both sketches the vertical scale is of course greatly exagger- 
ated. The first illustrates particularly the great cloud bank 
(with the •" bull's eye," or clear central space, shown in cross- 
section); the storm-wave or general elevation of the surface of 
the ocean caused by the spirally in-blowing winds and low bar- 
ometric pressure (the cause, oftentimes, of fearful floods along 
low-lying coasts); and the probable, or possible, circulation of 
theupper atmosphere over the whirl, together with the direct 
and reflected rays of a vertical sun as they pottr into the central 
calm. The second sketch is to aid a clear mental conception of 



it 







1 Mjm^ 




6> 






» " m \ * - 



2 "« * 

3 -a- m 

iS £* # 



o 3 



>1 



- J I 3 



4.1 ») ^J 






€ -8 
4 %1 












* * 



*UJ^ 







210 



National Geographic Magazine. 



the actual motions of the particles of air as they flow inward 
below, whirl about the central core and flow outward above ; 
this may help to free the mind from an ei-roneous idea that may 
be suggested by thinking of or seeing the enormous, piled-up, 
apparently stationary mass that constitutes the barra, or cloud - 
bank of the hurricane, but which is really only the stationary 
and visible locus where the conditions are such that the whirling, 
rushing masses of humid atmosphere condense their tons of 
aqueous vapor and leave it, as they pass upward and outward. 




Sketch, in cross-section, to illustrate the cloud-formation, storm-wave, etc.. in a 
hurricane. The dotted lines represent the probable circulation of the upper 
atmosphere. 




Sketch, in perspective, to illustrate graphically the lower-atmosphere-wind- 
circulation in a hurricane. The inward spiral at the base is the surface wind. 

It is analogous to the cloud-cap, or banner, that hangs stationary 
over a lofty mountain peak, although if you visit the peak you 
may there find a living gale of wind. 

In both of these sketches my object has been to try to convey 
an idea of the marked individuality, symmetry, and intensity of 
a tropic cyclone, and its grasp upon and intimate connection with 
the ocean, which it joins to the upper atmosphere by a huge, 
hollow trunk, with widely extended roots and spreading branches, 
— no doubt an enormous and effective conductor of atmospheric 
electricity, too, whose power is quickly shattered and destroyed 
by contact with the land ; the notable absence of thunder (illus- 



The Law of Storms. 211 

trated by the report of the " Victoria," quoted above) is of inter- 
est in this connection. If I have succeeded in this, and thereby 
given a clearer idea to the casual reader or suggested a fertile 
train of thought to any physicist, I shall feel more than repaid 
for the effort. 

I have thus attempted little more than to touch upon the prac- 
tical side of this great question, and this in a popular way, to 
induce my readers to follow me to the end. The many other 
interesting questions that might be raised and discussed must 
here be left untouched. Our efforts in the Hydrographic Office 
must be primarily to help the navigator, and only secondarily to 
try to collect and publish facts for the scientist to study at his 
leisure. The causes of these terrific storms are of interest to us 
as they may help us to predict their coming, rather than for the 
proof of any theory, or the gratification of any pet idea. And if 
Science will but improve the Law of Storms, as practical men 
use it for the guidance of their vessels and the safety of the lives 
and cargoes intrusted to their care, it will be one more welcome 
proof that theory and practice go hand in hand. 



212 National Geographic Magazine. 



THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM IN MONTANA. 
By H. M. Wilson. 

The development of the irrigation resources of a region under 
the supervision of the Government, requires study of the social 
and political conditions and of the industrial occupations of its 
inhabitants. 

The determination of the best plan for the utilization of its 
waters and agricultural lands is a problem in irrigation en- 
gineering. The solution of this problem calls for an intimate 
knowledge not only of the best methods of construction, but 
also of the values of its various agricultural products and soils ; 
for a knowledge of its rainfall, evaporation, and steam volumes 
and of the duty of water. It further requires such an under- 
standing of the topography of the region as will enable the 
engineer to determine the area of the catchment basin of each 
stream, and to intelligently select sites for the construction of 
canals and storage reservoirs and to determine from what source 
of water supply each district may be best irrigated. 

Experience and practice in various parts of the world have 
already proven that irrigation enterprises, undertaken on a large 
scale by private capital have seldom been remunerative invest- 
ments, in fact, have frequently been financial failures. This 
is due to many causes among which may be mentioned the fact 
that, though all the irrigable land may be finally settled and 
the works made to do their highest duty, taxes must be paid for 
many years and considerable sums expended annually for main- 
tenance before the entire amount of available water is utilized, 
and interest is realized on the whole expenditure. 

Most of the successful irrigation enterprises undertaken in the 
United States owe their prosperity to the ownership and sale of 
lands under their canals. In order to secure a proper remunera- 
tion to the capital which provides the water, and an efficient 
water service to the farmer who uses it with justice to both 
interests, State legislation must fully define the rights and 
responsibilities of appropriators, the units and methods of meas- 
uring the flow of streams, granting the right of way and 
appointing proper officers to see that the various laws are enforced. 



The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 213 

That irrigation enterprises will have great and rapid develop- 
ment in Montana in the near future will be readily perceived from 
the facts shown later on in this article, while I am fully convinced 
that it is now entering on that period. The histories of both 
California and Colorado have shown that great mining activity 
have brought to them a large population who were enabled to 
gain a livelihood by mining pursuits, while the demand for farm 
products created by the miners, caused these people to turn their 
attention to agriculture, which is now rapidly surpassing in money 
value the output of the mines. 

In California in the " fifties " mining was the supreme and only 
occupation, to-day agriculture is her mainstay ; in the early 
" seventies " the same was true of Colorado, and now agriculture 
is rapidly becoming her most important industry. While Mon- 
tana is to-day in the van in mining resources and output, the 
time for the supremacy of agriculture within her borders has 
received an increased impetus by her recent accession to State- 
hood. 

In Montana the irrigation problem presents some features which 
are scarcely encountered in any other country. 

Usually irrigation is practiced in semi-tropic and desert regions 
where though water is scarce, the climate is such that a great 
variety of agricultural products usually of the better paying 
varieties can be raised, in consequence of which enormous sums 
may be spent in irrigation works, thus imposing a heavy tax per 
acre on the land for their construction, and still, such is the pro- 
ductiveness of these regions, that the lands will yield fair profits. 

In Montana the reverse is the case, water is generally abundant 
though sufficiently inaccessible in the larger streams to require 
extensive works in order to render it available, while the land 
though equally abundant also, will owing to the climate admit of 
the cultivation only of the less profitable crops, mainly hay, grain 
and potatoes, in consequence of which the cost of construction of 
the irrigation works becomes a question of vital moment, since a 
tax of a few cents per acre one way or the other will render the 
pursuit of agriculture a success or a failure, and decide the fate 
of the irrigation enterprises. 

It is probable that $10.00 per acre for a water right in per- 
petuity, or $2.00 per acre per annum for the use of water is the 
maximum charge which the crops will bear. 



214 National Geographic Magazine. 

Agricultural and Mineral Resources. 

It will be advisable now to take a hasty glance at the State of 
Montana, and see what are her agricultural capabilities and what 
need exists for irrigation as a factor in their development. 

According to the report of the State Auditor for 1888 there 
were in that year 143,700 horses and mules valued at 14,900,000 ; 
488,500 cattle valued at $9,060,000 ; 1,153,000 sheep valued at 
$2,165,000 ; 3,741,000 acres of improved lands, valued inclusive 
of improvements at $12,300,000 ; 55,000 town lots valued with 
improvements at $14,940,000 ; and including all kinds of personal 
and real property a total assessment for the State of $67,500,000. 

There were raised in the State during the same year 770,000 
bushels of wheat on 26,000 acres, an average yield of about 30 
bushels per acre ; 3,u00,000 bushels of oats on 85,000 acres, an 
average yield of over 35 bushels per acre ; 843,000 bushels of 
potatoes on 3700 acres, or 230 bushels per acre ; and 6,000,000 
lbs. of all other vegetables on 450 acres ; 235,000 tons of hay 
were cut, and 7,500 bushels of apples and other fruits were 
raised, while 4,500,000 lbs. of wool were sheared. 

The gross receipt of the quartz mills were $20,300,000, the 
value of the product of the reduction furnaces was $15,900,000 in 
bullion, and the coal mines produced. 500,000 bushels of coal. 

The wool product for the present year, 1889, exceeded in 
amount that of any other State west of the Missouri River, and 
its quality was such that it brought a higher price per pound than 
that of any other western State, the price paid in California 
ranging from 15 to 17 cents per pound against 20 to 23 cents 
paid in Montana. 

The accompanying table will show the relative value of the 
production of precious metals in the three leading States during 
1887, from which it will be seen that Montana led Colorado by 
$4,200,000, and California by $15,580,000. 

18.87. Montana. Colorado. California. 

Silver $15,500,000 $15,000,000 $1,500,000 

Gold 5,230,000 4,000,000 13,000,000 

Copper .... 8,970,000 400,000 180,000 

Lead 630,000 6,730,000 70,000 

Totals $30,330,000 $26,130,000 $14,750,000 

Since 1887 Montana has been rapidly gaining in its lead, espe- 
cially in the production of copper, and it now leads not only in 



The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 215 

the total value of the precious metals produced, but also in the 
values of the silver and copper products separately, and is only 
Surpassed by California in the production of gold. 

While as shown above Montana produces large quantities of 
vegetables and grain, its heavy mining population and vast herds 
of live stock furnish a home market for all of its present product, 
in fact, during this year many hundreds of tons of hay and car- 
loads of grain are being imported from the eastern States to feed 
the range stock during the coming winter. 

Topography. 

The topography of Montana is very different from what is 
generally supposed by those who are not familiar with it, and 
this erroneous impression is largely due to the fact that the 
country is very mountainous in the older inhabited and better 
known portion of the State, which lies in its southern corner near 
the Idaho and Wyoming lines ; this region was first inhabited by 
those pioneers of western civilization, the prospector and miner, 
and in consequence of this and of the wild grandeur of the 
Yellowstone National Park, the generally preconceived notions of 
the topography and resources of the State are of forests and 
streams teeming with game and fish, and rugged mountains 
occupied by a few isolated mining camps and cattle ranches. 

On the contrary there are scattered over various parts of the 
State many large towns, two of which, Butte and Helena, have 
each about 20,000 inhabitants, while only one-fourth of the area 
of the State is over 5,000 feet in altitude, and at least two-thirds 
of it is below 4,000 feet. 

The mountainous district of the State, which occupies but two- 
fifths of the total area, is in the southwestern portion ; these 
mountains are in fact but the last remnants of the great rockies 
breaking down from Wyoming and Idaho and terminating in the 
broad flat plains of the Saskatchewan River on the north, and of 
the Missouri River on the north and east. 

It is in these great mountain ranges that the Clarke's Fork and 
Snake Rivers, two of the principal branches of the Columbia, 
after rising in the western and southern portions of the State 
join the Columbia on its way to the Pacific Ocean ; among these 
mountains in the northern portion of the State the Saskatchewan 
River rises and flows thence to the Arctic Ocean ; while the 



216 National Geographic Magazine. 

great Missouri and one of its principal branches, the Yellowstone 
River, rise in these mountains and after flowing northward 
nearly to the British line turn and flow eastward and join the 
Mississippi on its way to the Atlantic. 

The highest mountains in Montana are in Park, Gallatiin, 
Madison and Beaver Head Counties, in which latter the further- 
most branches of the Missouri, the Beaver Head and Big Hole 
Rivers, which form the Jefferson river, have their sources at the 
summit of the Rocky mountains, and it was here that those 
intrepid explorers, Lewis and Clarke, first crossed the Continental 
Divide in 1805 to the headwaters of one of the branches of the 
Snake river. 

In these counties a few of the highest peaks reach an elevation 
of 11,000 feet, and from here the main range of the Rockies bears 
off to the north in a long, continuous and rugged ridge of sand- 
stone and porphyry, with extensive beds of limestone north of 
the headwaters of the Dearborn River, and gradually falling off 
in elevation, until near the British line the highest peaks are less 
than 7,000 feet above the sea. 

From this same axial point in the southwest corner a main spur 
or branch of the Rockies, called the Bitter Root Mountains, bears 
northwesterly and falling away in height, gives out with an eleva- 
tion of 2,200 feet in northern Missoula County where the Clarke's 
Fork river leaves the State, cutting across the foot of this range. 

East of Madison and Jefferson Counties, and along the 
southern border of the State, are numerous short mountain 
ranges, often 10,000 feet and sometimes 11,000 feet in elevation, 
which have generally a north and south trend and fall off near 
the middle of the State to a continuous, broad, and nearly level 
high prairie, or as it is locally called " bench land," which con- 
tinues to fall slowly in the same direction. 

Do not imagine that these great ranges of mpuntains are wild 
and uninhabited for such is not the case ; they are merely great 
mountain masses, and between, among and on top of them are 
other minor ranges of mountains, usually having symmetrical 
and regularly sloping sides, which are separated by broad, level 
and very fertile valleys, everywhere inhabited and cultivated by 
the aid of irrigation, while herds of cattle, horses and sheep graze 
on the hillsides. 

Even among the roughest mountains a man may travel alone 
on horseback sure of finding shelter and food somewhere in the 



The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 217 

course of a day's journey, as was done by the author during the 
past summer, when he rode over 2,000 miles in various parts 
of the State. In the more rugged places mining camps may be 
met with when everything else fails. 

At present these mountain valleys are the more thickly inhabi- 
ted portions of the country, both because of the mines and because 
farming pursuits are more cheaply and conveniently followed 
owing to the greater abundance of small and easily controlled 
streams of water, which render irrigation possible even by the 
poorest settler. Only in the southern portions of Gallatin and 
Park Counties are the mountains so forbidding as to be uninhab- 
ited, and then in limited areas only. 

One of the remarkable characteristics of the Montana moun- 
tains is their great regularity and smoothness of contour. It is 
probable that ice action during the glacial pei'iod may have 
planed off the irregularities, so characteristic of the elsewhere 
rugged outline of the Rocky Mountains. Between these symmet- 
rical ranges of mountains lie the broad and fertile valleys before 
referred to. These are generally valleys of construction, and 
in some former geologic period were occupied by lakes whose 
beds have since been drained by the streams, as they cut their 
way out of the mountains. 

It is the extensive deposits from the ancient lakes which give to 
these valleys their fertile soils, while the unusual mildness of their 
climate is largely due to the fact that they are seldom over 5,000 
feet in altitude, and the high mountains surrounding them shelter 
them from the severe winds which, sweeping over the plains of 
Dakota, become the much dreaded " blizzards." 

East of the Tongue River and north of the Yellowstone and 
Missouri Rivers, the level bench lands are everywhere below 3,500 
feet in elevation, and often below 2,500 feet, and are very diy 
and devoid of water, though covered by an abundant growth of 
fine bunch grass. These bench lands are traversed by a few nar- 
row, deep " coulees " or " washes " having bluff banks 50 to 300 
feet high, dry during most of the year, though roaring torrents in 
the early spring months. 

It is on these bench lands that irrigation will find its greatest 
field, for here is a comparatively mild climate owing to the low 
altitude, and here the soil is fertile, warm and deep. 

VOL. II. 15 



218 National Geographic Magazine. 

Area and Kinds op Lands. 

The total area of Montana is 146,080 square miles, or 
93,491,200 acres. Of this vast empire 31,373,000 acres or about 
one-third of the whole is agricultural land, while of this 
18,157,000 acres or a little less than one-fifth of the entire area is 
irrigable land, so classified not only because it will, if provided 
with water, raise profitable crops, but also because, in my opinion, 
water can with proper management be provided for it. 

Of the total area of the State only about 1,200,000 acres or less 
than one-sixteenth of the irrigable area may be easily cultivated, 
by this I do not mean that this whole amount is now reclaimed, 
but that it may with the means liable to be employed by private 
parties with limited capital, be readily brought under cultivation 
by the same methods by which most of the lands in Montana are 
now irrigated. 

The amount of land actually under cultivation, according to 
the assessment of 1888, was 348,070 acres, and this should prob- 
ably be increased by about one-half, since the farmers doubtless 
greatly underestimated the amounts of their cultivated lands to 
the assessor : perhaps then, 500,000 acres under cultivation would 
be nearer the truth. 

It is estimated that three-fourths of the remaining 75,000,000 
acres not classed above as irrigable, or say 55,000,000 acres, which 
is nearly two-thirds of the total area of the State, will, with the 
increased facilities for watering live stock and for domestic use 
offered by the highest state of irrigation development, become 
valuable as grazing land, since it is naturally covered with an 
abundant growth of bunch grass, and only needs better facilities 
for watering and for the establishment of home farms, to cause it 
to be entirely occupied for grazing purposes. 

Nearly, or quite all, of the lands above classified as agricultural 
and pasture lands, are now covered with an abundant growth of 
bunch grass, occasional patches of sage brush or prickly pear, 
and devoid of any timber other than patches of willows and cot- 
tonwoods along the streams, or a few isolated clumps of scrub 
pines and junipers on the highest lands. 

About 10,000,000 of the remaining 20,000,000 acres are excel- 
lent timber lands and are situated on the slopes and sides of the 
higher mountains, though west of the Continental Divide the 
valleys and flat bench lands are sometimes covered with timber. 



The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 219 

The remaining 10,000,000 acres may be classed as barren and 
rugged mountain peaks and some little barren " bad lands " near 
the southeastern corner of the State, and the broken and rough 
cut banks of rivers, " coulees," etc. 

It is in these more rugged mountain regions that the great 
gold, silver and copper deposits are found. 

Climate. 

The climate of Montana is far more moderate and agreeable 
than is generally supposed, the spring and fall months in the val- 
leys, which are the principal inhabited and cultivated portions, 
being delightfully mild and pleasant, with frost generally only at 
night, though these last till May and begin in early October. 

The accompanying table shows the dates of the first and last 
killing frosts at Helena, also the mean monthly temperature at 
Helena, which place is chosen as a typical station, its altitude 
being 4,262 feet. From this table, which extends over a period 
of ten years, from 1880 to 1889, inclusive, with few interruptions, 
it appears that the earliest killing frost occurred on September 
6th, 1881, and the latest killing frost on May 3d, 1888, but these 
were very exceptional frosts, the average dates for the same 
periods being September 26th and April 26th. The maximum 
temperature during the same period occurred in July, 1886, and 
was 103 degrees in the shade, while no other year showed a higher 
temperature than 97 degrees ; and the average maximum tem- 
perature for the ten years was 94 degrees. The minimum 
temperature for the same period was -40 degrees, occurring in 
February, 1887, while the average minimum for ten years was 
-29 degrees. Great ranges of temperature are sometimes expe- 
rienced, however, especially in local areas in the higher mountain 
valleys, where unusual frosts and snow flurries have occurred, 
though rarely, killing potatoes and other tender crops even in 
July and August. 

On September 5th of this year in the upper Madison Valley 
above 6500 feet of elevation, a temperature was experienced in 
the forenoon of 70 degrees, while at about 8 o'clock on the same 
evening, a snow squall occurred during which the thermometer 
must have fallen several degrees below the freezing point ; by 9 
o'clock on the following morning all of the snow had disappeared 
and the temperature had greatly moderated. 



220 



National Geographic Magazine. 



The summer months in these mountain valleys are always agree- 
ably warm during the day time, while the nights are cool and 
pleasant. In the winter the climate is very cold, though not so 
uncomfortable as the temperature would indicate, owing to the 





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The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 



221 



dryness of the atmosphere and the absence of very high winds in 
the mountain valleys. The more exposed plains to the north 
are subject to the frequent and agreeable visits of the famous 
" Chinook " winds, which blow from the west, and under whose in- 
fluence heavy falls of snow disappear in a single day. 

The following table shows the mean annual rain-fall at various 
Signal Service stations in Montana, and from these it will be seen 
that during a period of ten years the maximum rain-fall for the 
entire State has only been 20.33 inches in 1880, while the minimum 
has occurred during 1886 and was but 12.52 inches ; the average 
precipitation for this period was 15.25 inches. 



Mean 


Precipitation 


in Montana during Growing Season. 








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Growing season of "80 




7.33 12.82 


9.77 8.87 


2.63 










8.28 


<k i 


" '81 




7.05: 5.81 


3.90 5.67 


7.15 




3.70 




5.78 


5.58 


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" '82 


4.47 


1.29 5.01 


3.64 


1.96 




2.78 




4.23 


3.00 


a t 


" '83 


2.63 


4.25 3.94 






2.27 




1.65 


4.17 


3.16 


it . 


" '84 


17.22 


5.69 3.46 


6.31 


8.09 


2.90 




5.80 


4.30 


6.72 


tt i 


" '85 




9.57 10.33 


6,07 


6.29 


5.98 




7.14 


6.49 


7.41 


a ( 


" '86 


2.52 


2.94 2.65 


5.13 


1.91 


3.56 




2.67 


2.87 


3.03 


tt t 


" '87 


12.13 


8.00 


2.96 


5.88 


9.47 




8.67 




7.85 


a i 


" '88 


7.10 


10.16 


8.22,7.28 


4.37 


10.54 




8.16 




7.98 


it i 


" '89 


5.03 


3.48 


2.902.27 


2.00 

448 


7.47 
6.03 


1.74 

2T74 


2.23 
5Tl9 


1.91 
4.25 


3.23 




7.21 


5.45 6.57 


5.66 5.55 


5.23 



Growing season, May 15 to August 15. 



Annual Rainfall in Montana, 1880-1888. 



1880. i 1881. 



1882. ! 1883. 



1884. 



1885. 



1886. 



1887. 



Ft. Assinaboine... j 12.7615.10 25.67 11.4818.9413 

Ft. Benton. . : 16.00 16.81 10.18 13.01 13.13 14.94 1 J14.00 

Ft. Buford, N. D .23.2513.9012.7310.82 7.3715.5610.2415.4314.70 

Ft. Custer 19.65 11.88 il6.60 9.3413.25 12.1814.00 

Ft. Keogh ..15.6411.4410.13 

Helena 19.9410.32 



Ft. Maginnis.. 
Ft." Missoula . . 
Poplar River. . 

Ft. Shaw 

Ft. Ellis 

Virginia City. 



13.29 
20.5643.24 

I 

14.7714.21 
30.16 17.55 19.28 15.72 
17.29 



19.18 10.99 12.63 14.05 10.14 
9.0013.9615.44 26.0025.70 



10.2511.93 
12.6413.6412.56 
22.02 32.63 



7.41 



20.30 16.01 12.93 13.69 15.73 15.41 12.79 15.67 15.45 



15.51 



222 National Geographic Magazine. 

Moreover, from the first table, showing the average monthly- 
precipitation at the Helena station, it will be seen that but 4.48 
inches fall during May 15th to August 15th, inclusive, which is 
the growing season when the crops require moisture. 

The information regarding evaporation is as yet very meagre, 
but from four stations observed in different parts of the State 
during August, September and October, it appears that the total 
average evaporation for the three months was 18 inches, and 
from the best information obtainable it appears that the total 
annual evaporation is 36 inches, that is to say, the surface of the 
water in a lake or reservoir will be lowered by evaporation 3 feet 
in a year. 

Why Montana is an Arid Country. 

It has been stated by Major J. W. Powell, that in a general 
way the line between the humid and arid regions, or the amount 
of precipitation below which irrigation becomes necessary for the 
cultivation of crops, is from 24 to 28 inches per annum. This of 
course depends largely on the distribution of the rainfall, the 
proportion falling during the growing season, the humidity of 
the atmosphere, the character of the soil, etc. 

The average annual precipitation in Montana is 14.92 inches, 
while the total average precipitation during the growing season 
is but 5.23 inches ; from these considerations alone it is evident 
that the State lies wholly in the arid region. 

This statement is further born out by the fact that no native 
farmer will settle a ranch or undertake to raise any kind of crops 
without facilities for irrigating, since experience has taught them 
all, that, though there may occasionally be an exceptionally wet 
season in which they can raise good crops without artificial aid, 
still, the years when crops depending wholly upon rain-fall for 
their moisture would be entirely lost, are so frequent as to render 
farming without irrigation very hazardous and unprofitable. 

Soil. 

The soil along the stream bottoms at a slight elevation above 
their beds is usually a heavy, black, clayey loam, and though rich 
and fertile is soon clogged by water, and then in drying, cakes on 
the surface, killing the young plants. On this account the irriga- 
tors seldom water these bottom lands until after the crop has 
acquired a healthy growth, preferring to trust to the early rains 



The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 223 

to force the young sprouts above the surface, rather than run the 
risk of its crusting and thus preventing them from breaking 
through. 

These bottom lands though really the poorest for irrigating, 
are nearly the only lands now cultivated, because of the greater 
ease and cheapness of supplying them with water. From two to 
three tons of hay and from 35 to 50 bushels of grain per acre are 
raised even on these inferior soils. 

The best, and by far the more abundant agricultural lands, are 
the " bench lands," these are situated high above the stream beds 
and the soil is usually a warm open, rich, sandy-loam, several 
feet in depth and usually underlain by a deep bed of gravel. 
Though in irrigating, this soil at first requires more water, it 
will, owing to its excellent natural drainage, last for all time and 
will neither clog with water nor cake on the surface. 

It is these bench lands which will be rendered irrigable by 
government aid and surveys, though to develop them will require 
large amounts of capital ; still, they are so extensive in area that 
the work can generally be conducted on a grand and economical 
scale. 

Duty of Water. 

From the meagre information now obtainable it is probable 
that in average soils and for the staple hay, grain and vegetable 
crops in Montana, about one cubic foot of water per second, flow- 
ing during the irrigating season, will be sufficient for 100 acres ; 
this quantity is known as the " duty of water." 

The irrigating season lasts about three months. While the 
crops are maturing during part of May, June and July, they will 
receive two or three waterings, and in early September the hay 
lands are again watered in order to start the growth of grass 
before the frosts. 

In case all the surplus water of a given stream is stored, the 
duty of that stream will be increased by the amount of water 
now flowing to waste during the remaining nine months, and as a 
portion of this time is the flood period, owing to the melting of 
the snows in the mountains and to the spring rains, this storage 
water will increase the duty of the stream at least five-fold ; that 
is, five times as many acres may be irrigated by the stream as at 
present, provided that storage capacity can be found for all of its 
waste waters. 



224 National Geographic Magazine. 

In considering the duty of a stream it must be remembered 
that there is a great loss of water by seepage through the sides of 
a canal and evaporation from its surface, between the headworks 
and the irrigated lands, this loss may amount to from 25 to 35 
per cent., according to climate, soil, and the length and cross- 
section of the canal. 

Present State of Irrigation — Progress and Laws. 

The earlier stages of irrigation development are better illus- 
trated in Montana than in any other State in the Union. 

There irrigation practice and laws are exceedingly crude and 
remain so chiefly because of the abundance of water, and the ease 
and facility with which it can be diverted to the land ; as a con- 
sequence of this latter fact the laws were framed in the most 
liberal spirit, declaring right of eminent domain, acknowledging 
the right of priority in appropriating the waters, and further 
stating, that any person having a ditch leading to irrigable lands 
may use the waters of the territory for irrigation. 

The latest law, framed in 1885, is a very slight improvement ; 
it requires persons appropriating water, to post the usual notice in 
a conspicuous place ; to file with the county recorder a notice of 
appropriation, with names and proper description of place, 
stream, etc., and that work must be commenced within forty 
days of the posting of the notice and be prosecuted with due 
diligence until completed. 

Persons who have heretofore acquired title to the use of water, 
may within six months from the passage of this law file a state- 
ment of the above facts in the office of the recorder, but failure 
to do this shall not forfeit his rights. 

Provision is made for the measurement of water, using that 
very uncertain and elastic unit, the miner's inch, and defining the 
same. 

The difficulties arising under these laws will be appreciated, 
when I state that it is impossible to construct a rating flume that 
will measure the number of inches of water flowing in a large 
stream, by the method provided in the law. 

Then, because previous appropriators are not compelled to 
record the amount of water appropriated, and those acquiring titles 
under the first law now invariably claim much more water than 
they need, in fact often appropriate and even record more water 
than there is flowing in the stream. This is owing to the fact that 



The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 225 

they were not at first compelled to construct their works, " with 
due diligence until completed," nor to make ditches of capacities ca- 
pable of carrying the volumes claimed, and above all because there 
is no officer having the power to measure the quantities of water 
diverted or to see that the works are prosecuted with due dili- 
gence. Endless and unsatisfactory litigation results, hastened by 
the occupation of lands lower down on some stream which in a 
very dry season may not flow sufficient water for all the appro- 
priators who have acquired titles, whereupon the later settlers 
who have recorded their appropriations claim the water, while 
those who diverted water before the passage of the last law claim 
the right to it, though unrecorded, and as a consequence the case 
is carried to the courts, often with unjust and always with expen- 
sive results. 

During the past exceptionally dry season these conditions led 
to much bitter litigation, often to bloodshed, and equally often to 
financial ruin owing to the supply of water being insufficient to 
mature the crops planted. 

Water being very abundant in the smaller mountain valleys has 
led to great wastefulness in its use, the irrigator after applying 
what water his crops needed, instead of turning it back into the 
stream for the use of settlers lower down, generally turns his 
ditch loose on the open prairie and allows the water to run to 
waste. Then wasteful methods of applying the water to the crops 
are employed, and owing to the cheap and hasty construction of a 
vast number of small ditches the loss by seepage is very great ; 
it has been estimated that there is on an average a ditch for every 
200 acres of land cultivated, making a total of about 2500 irri- 
gating ditches in the State. 

In the last two years there has been a marked increase in the 
interest taken in irrigation enterprises, and though this has re- 
sulted in the formation of several large companies, which intend 
to take water by long and expensive canals to sections now uncul- 
tivated, yet in these cases are universally seen the same crude 
methods employed in first beginnings, without the aid and advice 
of experienced engineers. Large canals are being constructed 
at great cost, capable of carrying many times the amount of 
water flowing in the stream appropriated, whereas a much smaller 
and less expensive one would have carried the entire water supply. 
Again small canals have been constructed to carry small vol- 
umes of water very long distances, often 50 to 80 miles, while in 



226 National Geographic Magazine. 

reality owing to the great percentage of loss by seepage and 
evaporation, little or none of the water entering at the headgates 
will ever reach the irrigable lands. 

Such illy advised projects are to be even more deplored than 
the smaller operations before spoken of, since the certain ulti- 
mate failure of this class of enterprise will result in discouraging 
capitalists from investing in even well-planned irrigation pro- 
jects, and will retard the construction of valuable and necessary 
works. 

Possible Irrigation Enterprises. 

During the past season the author made an extensive though 
hurried reconnoisance of Montana, in the progress of which he 
rode on horseback 2,200 miles and traveled 3,700 miles by rail, 
examining with some degree of detail all of the central counties 
and making a few hasty trips into Choteau, Dawson and Custer 
Counties. In the course of this reconnoisance the sites for sixty 
storage reservoirs, having a combined storage capacity of about 
3,250,000 acre feet Were carefully examined, and lines of ten 
great irrigating canals approximately decided on. It may be 
well to state here that an acre-foot of water is a very convenient 
unit of measure adopted by the U. S. Geological Survey in speak- 
ing of the contents of large reservoirs, and refers to a body of 
water one acre in superficial area and one foot in depth. 

In every case these proposed reservoirs are so situated, that 
their storage water will be convenient to large bodies of irrigable 
land, which, without some such provision for water supply must 
forever remain uncultivated, but which with irrigation from these 
reservoirs will ultimately become thickly inhabited and very pro- 
ductive regions. The same statements apply to the canals pro- 
jected, though of course detailed surveys may prove the imprac- 
ticability of some of these works as financial investments. 

Mention will be made of a few of the more important of these 
projects ; those which appear most likely to prove financial suc- 
cesses. 

North of the Yellowstone and between it and the Musselshell 
and Missouri Rivers is an immense high bench land, traversed by 
a few long coulees, dry excepting in the times of melting snow 
or heavy spring storms, and then raging torrents for a period of 
a few days or hours. This bench land between the coulees is 
flat topped and has a regular and gentle slope to the eastward, 



The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 227 

falling about six feet per mile, a little more rapidly north of 
Big Timber, and decreasing in grade to the eastward. The gen- 
eral elevation of this bench above the Yellowstone River varies 
from 600 feet north of Stillwater, to 300 feet north of Miles City, 
and includes about 11,000,000 acres, of which at least 5,225,000 
acres are of the best quality for agricultural purposes and readily 
accessible by the great canal. In all this vast area there is not 
even sufficient water for the few horses and cattle which range 
on it, and they are compelled to congregate near the occasional 
pools and springs scattered at long intervals over it. 

From numerous examinations made hastily with aneroid and 
hand-level, it seems likely that a great canal can be taken from 
the Yellowstone, somewhere in the neighborhood of Livingston, 
or lower down the river, and led upon the summit of the bench 
with a diversion line not over 100 miles in length. Taken out at 
Livingston the canal would encounter no difficult construction, 
and would chiefly consist in earth excavation with very little 
rock work. It would require a few fills and flumes in crossing 
the larger side streams, such as the Little and Big Timber, Otter 
and Sweet Grass Creeks. It would reach the summit somewhere 
north of Merrill at an altitude of about 4,400 feet and thence 
could be conducted with an easy alignment eastward, with occa- 
sional falls to loose grade. 

The water flowing in the Yellowstone River at Livingstone 
during the irrigating season this year averaged 2,300 cubic feet 
per second, which, with an allowance of thirty per cent, for loss 
by seepage and evaporation in the canal, would leave about 
1,600 second feet at the point of utilization or sufficient to 
irrigate 160,000 acres. 

The average normal discharge from Yellowstone Lake is 700 
second feet, and a dam about 300 feet long and less than ten feet 
high, constructed below the outlet of the lake, would store the 
outflow from October to May, inclusive, eight months, a total 
including flood discharges of at least 600,000 acre feet, an 
amount which, allowing for loss by evaporation in the lake, and 
by seepage and evaporation in the canal, would irrigate 425,000 
acres, in addition to the 160,000 acres previously mentioned. 
Besides this volume probably half as much more can be readily 
stored on the Lamar and Gardner Rivers, and the other branches 
of the Yellowstone which join it above Livingston, bringing the 
total area of reclaimed land to nearly 1,000,000 acres. 



228 National Geographic Magazine. 

There are many similar and even better opportunities for 
irrigation development, such as the construction of a canal from 
the West Gallatin River near Bozeman. This canal would require 
no expensive diversion line, as its waters would become immedi- 
ately available at the headworks, and by appropriating the 500 
second feet of water flowing in the river, would reclaim at a 
minimum cost 50,000 acres, or twice the amount of land now 
cultivated there. Storage on the Upper Gallatin River would 
greatly increase the amount of reclaimed land. 

Storage reservoirs can be easily constructed on the headwaters, 
of the Beaver Head River, whereby at least 150,000 acres could 
be added to the 25,000 acres now under cultivation in the Beaver 
Head Valley near Dillon. 

A canal requiring no diversion line can be taken out on the 
east side of the Missouri River near Toston, which will irrigate 
all of the good land in the Missouri Valley, at least 100,000 acres, 
This canal would require some fills and aqueducts in crossing the 
various side steams such as Deep and Duck Creeks, and Confed- 
erate Gulch. 

Detailed surveys have been made during the past summer on 
the Sun River which indicate that storage will add some 250,000 
acre feet to the amount of water in that stream now available for 
irrigation. There are at least 600,000 acres of good agricultural 
land between the Dearborn, Sun, and Teton Rivers, which must 
forever remain barren of cultivated products unless provided 
with water by means of storage on these streams, and the 
surveys above alluded to indicate that by this means 160,000 
acres of this land can be reclaimed by the Sun River alone. 

Mention might be made to many more similar px-ojects, such 
as the construction of a simple canal from the Missouri River 
to irrigate Chestnut Valley, south of Great Falls, whereby 
120,000 acres would be reclaimed ; or one from the Upper 
Madison River whereby 230,000 acres of the Madison Valley 
might receive water, but the foregoing will suffice to show the 
possibilities of irrigation development in Montana. 

It would be doing the resources of a great and vast area of 
Montana injustice if reference were not made to the Milk River 
country, the great Indian reservation of 17,680,000 acres in the 
northern part of the State which has recently been open to 
settlement. This region has not been examined by the author, 
but from conversations with a number of its well-informed inhab- 



The Irrigation Problem in Montana. 229 

itants it appear that the soil is very fertile, and that during 
average moist years excellent crops can be raised there without 
irrigation. This last statement, however, should not be too 
readily accepted. It is probable that some storage water may 
be retained in the hills along the British line, though its develop- 
ment will doubtless involve international questions. 

A Glance at the Future. 

This interesting subject cannot be passed by without a little 
castle building, and accordingly an attempt will be made to 
show what the future of Montana may owe to irrigation. 

It has just been shown how and where 1,750,000 acres may be 
added to the area at present under cultivation ; many times this 
amount, however, can be reclaimed. Settled as closely as a large 
irrigated district would naturally be, these 1,750,000 acres will 
be increased by about 15 per cent, or 262,500 acres, the area 
which will be occupied by roads, buildings, and towns ; that is 
to say over 2,000,000 acres will be rendered capable of sus- 
taining the highest degree of settlement, though in reality this 
amount will be much greater since a large portion of the land 
will not be directly irrigated, since it will indirectly receive 
sufficient moisture from the neighboring fields to render it ser- 
viceable for pasturage. 

It has been claimed by various authorities that a homestead of 
forty acres is abundant for the support of a family, assuming this 
estimate to be correct, then 2,000,000 acres will support 50,000 
families ; at five persons each this would give a farm population 
of 250,000. This number of farm workers would require a town 
and village population of one and one-half more, or our 2,000,000 
acres would add in all 375,000 people to the State. 

On the same basis the 18,000,000 acres which have been classi- 
fied as irrigable land, (and this estimate is below that of the 
Montana Society of civil engineers and other authorities), would 
support 3,120,000 inhabitants. 






Vol. II. 



No. 4. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE. 




PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Price, 50 cents. 






CONTENTS. 



Page 

Korea and the Koreans : Ensign J. B. Bernadou, U. S. N., . . 231 
(Illustrated with three maps.) 

The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain— its history and object : 

Josiah Peirce, Jr., 243 

Geographic Nomenclature : Herbert G. Ogden, Gustave Herrle, 

Marcus Baker and A. H. Thompson 261 

Appendix : Rules for the Orthography of Geographic Names : 
Contributed by G. Herrle. 

British System 279 

French System, . 281 

German System, 282 

Alphabets : Russian-English, 284 

English-Russian, 285 

Published, August, 1890. 



PRE88 OF TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE A TAYLOR, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



Vol. II. 1890. No. 4. 



KOREA AND THE KOREANS. 
By J. B. Bernadou. 

(Abstract of lecture, with the addition of some new material.) 

The Koreans are to be noted among nations for the possession 
of two very different vehicles for the expression of thought, 
which they put to nearly parallel uses for general needs of com- 
munication : a simple and very perfect alphabet, and a complex 
system of hieroglyphics. The alphabet they owe to the Buddhist 
priests, missionaries, who took the idea of letters from their sacred 
books, and developed the Korean symbols for the writing of 
tracts and prayers ; the hieroglyphics came from the mother 
country and civilizer, China. 

The needs of a simpler mode of writing for the intelligent, non- 
literary classes of Japan, had led in that country to a similar 
development ; but there progress stopped at a syllabary, and the 
alphabetic stage was not reached. 

Until within the past few years the development of accurate 
maps and charts of Korea has been retarded, partly from a lack 
of reliable information concerning Korean proper names, and 
partly from the absence of systematic surveys of the coast. Very 
recently, however, the difficulties of map making have been con- 
siderably lessened through the efforts of students of the Korean 
language, who have developed exact systems of transliteration, 

VOL. II. 16 



232 National Geographic Magazine. 

by the application of which the sounds of Korean proper names 
may be correctly expressed in our own letters. At the present 
day it would seem possible, therefore, to fix, by common consent, 
upon a general, systematic orthography for Korean proper names, 
to be used upon the charts prepared by all those nations employ- 
ing Roman letters ; and this without serious danger of clashing 
with previously developed national systems, or having to undo 
much work done by others. 

The system of transliteration developed by Mr. E. M. Satow, of 
the British Diplomatic Service, which has been put to practical 
use by that gentleman in his work entitled "List of Korean 
Geographical Names," would seem well adapted to meet future 
needs. It gives a simple series of equivalents for Korean sounds, 
and is remarkably free from diacritical marks. Mr. Satow's sys- 
tem has recently been employed by English and German authors, 
while efforts to extend its application would seem to have met 
thus far with no opposition. 

The French system of transliteration, which antedates the one 
above referred to, was developed by the French Roman Catholic 
Missionaries in Korea, and has been employed by them in their 
admirable works the " Grammaire Coreenne" and the " Diction- 
naire Coreen," by far the most important yet prepared upon the 
language, and the first given to the outer world. The mission- 
aries aimed at reproducing native speech, and to this end faith- 
fully copied symbols representing shades of sound that are not to 
be appreciated by the foreign ear, and which in fact are often 
neglected in conversation by the Koreans of the present day — for 
the On-mun, or native alphabet, has long since lost its purely 
phonetic character. The simplicity of the French system is 
marred, therefore, by the use of a multiplicity of letters, which, 
appearing in the form of aggregations of consonants or of vowels, 
are more apt to mislead than to guide. 

Inasmuch as the proper names upon native maps, which are 
invariably written in the Chinese, may be correctly rendered into 
English, whereas attempts at the systematic transliteration of 
Chinese characters have generally failed, it may be well to allude 
to the points of difference in the two cases. The possibility of 
the transliteration of Korean depends upon the following : (1) 
that the Korean pronunciation of Chinese characters is indepen- 
dent of the pitch of the voice or tone ; (2) that the native alpha- 
bet is especially constructed with a view to the easy reproduction 



Korea and the Koreans. 233 

of the Korean pronunciation of the same ; (3) that the Korean 
pronunciation of these characters is quite uniform throughout the 
whole extent of the country ; (4) that the Korean equivalents 
may be readily transliterated into English. All that is necessary, 
therefore, in fixing a geographic name is to have it * written 
correctly in Chinese and in the On-mun. From the latter the 
English equivalent may be readily obtained. The need of the 
Chinese form arises from the fact that but few of the natives 
spell correctly, while many of them write Chinese well ; so that 
it becomes necessary to refer both writings to some authority, by 
whom the native spelling may be verified. 

Wide spread as is the use of the Chinese nomenclature, it is 
none the less evident that the system is an artificial one, and that 
its employment must end somewhere. In those parts of the 
country that are the least explored, and where educational facili- 
ties are wanting, in the mountain fastnesses of the north, and 
among the many islands of the Yellow Sea, important geo- 
graphic names occur that possess no Chinese equivalents : native 
words capable of being written only in the On-mun and which 
derive their origin from local peculiarities. To ascertain these 
correctly the services of an educated Korean are required ; and 
it may be added here that no surveying party on the Korean 
coast should be without the services of a native guide, capable of 
speaking a few words of English. Such a man may be picked up 
at an open port. He would be useful in many ways : in prevent- 
ing the destruction of signals from superstitious motives by the 
natives ; in ascertaining from fishermen the existence of dangers 
in the intricate coast waters ; in marking the position of towns 
and villages not to be seen from their sea approaches ; and in 
securing supplies of fresh provisions. 

The preliminary study of the geography of an eastern country 
necessitates the comparative examination of data gathered from 
widely different sources : the early partial surveys of the coasts 
by mariners, and the rough maps made by the natives themselves. 
Inasmuch as large sections of the Korean coasts are as yet hardly 
examined, and since it is only within the last few years that for- 
eigners have been allowed to penetrate into the interior, it follows 
that no accurate map of the land exists. In selecting bases for 
future developments it becomes necessary, therefore, to examine 
the vai*ious approximate representations, and to determine which 
of them is best adapted to aid the work in hand. 



234 National Geographic Magazine. 

Many writers upon Korea seem prone to attribute the mapping 
of the country to the result of explorations and observations 
made by foreigners. I believe this assumption to be erroneous 
and think it can be readily proven that, although the Koreans 
may have known practically nothing of the outside world up to 
the time of the treaties, some twenty years ago, they had, never- 
theless, long before this formed an excellent idea of the configu- 
ration of their own country. The first important work accom- 
plished by outsiders was the survey of the common boundary of 
Korea and China by the Jesuits, acting under the orders of the 
Chinese Emperor Kang-hsi, in the year 1709. Severity of climate 
and roughness of country prevented the party from making more 
than a preliminary examination of the districts that they passed 
through, but a few fair determinations of latitude and approxi- 
mations to longitude were obtained, and the general direction of 
the boundary determined. With the aid of these data, supple- 
mented by information from native sources, a map was constructed, 
in which the Korean peninsula was connected with the general 
system of the world's coordinates and proper names were given 
in our own alphabetic characters. This map, which forms the 
basis of most of the representations of Korea in use at the 
present day, shows its origin in the transliteration of proper 
names in accordance with the Mandarin Chinese and not the 
Korean pronunciation of the Chinese characters employed to rep- 
resent them. 

The information from Korean sources which the missionaries 
must have utilized in completing their work was doubtless 
attained by them in the form of native maps. Of these there are 
several good ones in use at the present day, two of which would 
seem especially worthy of notice : (1) the large map of twenty 
sheets dividing the peninsula into sections by parallel lines drawn 
from east to west, and (2) a map giving the country in eight 
sheets, by provinces. The key to the latter, showing the entire 
kingdom, as well as one of the expanded sheets showing the 
Kyongsang province in the southeast, and the Nakdong river, 
the most important stream of the land, are appended to this 
paper, and will seiwe to indicate the progress independently 
attained by the Koreans in the art of map making. These plates 
have been reproduced from a copy of an original now in the pos- 
session of Mgr. J. G. Blanc, the French Missionary Bishop of 
Korea, to whom it served as an accurate guide at the time of his 



Korea and the Koreans. 235 

perilous entry into the country, fifteen years ago, during a period 
of severe persecutions. 

The preface of the Korean geographer, which is written in 
Chinese upon one of the sheets, is of interest, as it illustrates the 
object of the work, enumerates the classes of data utilized and 
alludes to difficulties contended with. I therefore quote it here. 

" The geographies of my country are quite numerous, but all 
maps are influenced to a certain extent by the limit of the paper 
employed in their construction, and so distances are very incor- 
rectly given. Thus ten or more ri (Korean unit of distance — 
about |-mile) are sometimes represented as two or three hundred 
ri ; while sometimes two or three hundred ri are represented as 
two or three. The bearings given are also incorrect. Such a 
map offers great disadvantages to people who attempt to learn 
about their country. Therefore I have taken all care in con- 
structing this one, both as to direction and distances of places, as 
well as to the situations of mountains and rivers. For distances 
I have made a scale in which one hundred ri are taken as one ja 
(Korean foot), and ten ri as one poun (Korean inch, ten to the 
foot). I have laid off distances in all directions from the capital, 
so that the general shape and jjosition of the eight provinces are 
correctly represented. The islands, however, are only placed in 
direction with reference to the provinces to which they belong, 
without regard to actual distances. Where mountain ranges and 
rivers are represented as boundaries, they are necessarily re- 
peated upon the sheets of adjoining provinces. In the measure- 
ment of distances one ja represents one hundred ri in level places, 
and from one hundred and twenty to one hundred and thirty 
ri where the mountains are high." 

The assumption that the unit of scale represents an increased 
distance in mountainous regions is a peculiarity of Chinese as 
well as of Korean maps. Travelers who employ either are 
obliged in estimating days' journeys to consider the character of 
the country ahead before applying the unit of measurement. 

An examination of the various conventional features of Plate 
I and II will afford much information concerning the official sub- 
division of the country for governmental purposes, and will serve 
to indicate the facilities of communication that exist in a country 
where there are no railroads, and where almost every important 
route extends in a direction normal to that of the flow of the 
greater number of rivers. The eight provinces of the kingdom 



236 National Geographic Magazine. 

are exhibited upon Plate I as groups of towns, each group being 
displayed upon the original in a different color, all of which, as 
shades of various intensities, are fairly well reproduced upon the 
photo-lithographs. Each town is denoted by a circle of very ex- 
aggerated dimensions, large enough to allow its name to be writ- 
ten in Chinese characters in the enclosed area. The apparent 
multiplicity of characters upon the present map is due to the fact 
that all names are given in the native On-mun, as well as in the 
Chinese. The employment of the former is unusual and in the 
present case was resorted to at my own instance, in order to ren- 
der the map more generally useful to foreigners. Each town is 
the seat of government of an officer who is subordinate to a pro- 
vincial governor. The strength of any portion of Korea may 
therefore be reckoned in the native way as so many " cities," by 
the word " city," being understood both the seat of government 
and the adjacent lands over which the governor holds sway. The 
walled towns, which are quite uniform in type throughout the 
whole extent of the country, deserve especial mention. They 
are represented on the map as circles with serrated edges, and a 
glance at the provincial sheets will show that they are quite nu- 
merous, each province possessing from six to twenty of them. 
The number is greatest along the coast of the Yellow Sea and to 
the southward, facing Japan. 

As secondary fortifications may be mentioned the San-song, or 
mountain walls, as they are called, built at the least accessible 
points of the interior ranges, generally in 'proximity to some 
thickly settled district. The more ancient are relics of the 
feudal period, when Korea was governed by petty princes each 
with his castle upon a rock; the more modern, witnesses of the 
Japanese invasion of two hundred years ago, when they were 
either pillaged by the enemy or else held by the people as places 
of refuge. A number of the San-song are marked upon the 
present map ; those of lesser importance are omitted. 

Not the least curious among Korean institutions is the system 
of communication maintained at the present time. At the yok, 
or post stations, represented on the map by diminutive circles, are 
kept numbers of the small active native horses, well fed and in 
good condition, attended by staffs of native couriers who are 
ready to receive orders from the station-master and spring into 
saddle upon a moment's notice. The service is well patronized 
and the couriers frequently employed, partly at the instance of 



Korea and the Koreans. 237 

the government, who desire to promote the efficiency of the sys- 
tem, and partly owing to the general accumulation of private 
needs of various kinds. A letter or parcel is thus rapidly trans- 
mitted from relay to relay, moving onward by day and night — 
except in certain mountainous districts of the north, where the 
fear of the tiger prevents night travel. Supplies of fruit and 
game for the royal table are forwarded in this manner to the 
capital from the most distant parts of the kingdom. 

The pong-wa, or signal-fire stations, are indicated upon the map 
by small squares placed at the summit of the mountains. They 
are especially numerous in the coast districts, where their sites are 
chosen with great care, in such manner that the fires that are 
lighted at each station at night-fall may be observed at some ad- 
vanced point of the interior, whence a single fire may be again 
Hashed on, to form a member of a more extended group. And 
so the lights proceed, re-collected and re-forwarded until the final 
combinations are gathered into a final group at the capital, to 
show that all is well throughout the kingdom. 

The faint network of lines extending over the whole country, 
as shown in the map of the southeastern province, represents the 
chief public highways, upon the determination of whose length 
and relative bearing the development of the map is based. In 
general, roads in Korea are well maintained, and during the 
greater part of the year are in fair condition. It would be found 
impossible to take a wheeled vehicle of any kind over them, how- 
ever ; for such use they are not intended, travel in Korea being 
performed afoot, or Avith the aid of horse or sedan. -During the 
summer rains the streams rise rapidly ; the waters pour down from 
the mountains, each rivulet becomes a torrent and the bridges are 
swept away. When the floods subside the local authorities com- 
pel the peasants to turn out in force and make the necessary re- 
pairs ; delays of travel are thus reduced to a minimum. 

Korea is preeminently a mountainous country. With the ex- 
ception of the alluvial plains at the mouths of the rivers, low 
ranges of mountains with narrow intervening valleys are found 
everywhere, and are characteristic. The mam chain, forming the 
back-bone of the peninsula, is not clearly defined, as it is formed 
principally by the overlappings and intersections of minor chains, 
so that it is quite irregular as to direction, but a glance at the 
sources of the rivers, considered with reference to the intervening 
line of water-sheds, shows that it springs from the mountains 



238 National Geographic Magazine. 

of Siberia at the north, follows for some distance the line of the 
eastern coast and then strikes inland, trending to the southward 
and westward until it reaches the shores of the Yellow Sea. 
The loftiest ranges, therefore, are in the northern and eastern 
provinces. At the centre of the northern boundary is Paik-du- 
san, the "white-headed mountain," in whose slopes rise the Yalu, 
Tuman, and Songari rivers, the two former defining the western 
and eastern sections of the frontier, the latter a tributary of the 
Amur, an important stream of southern Siberia. According to 
Messrs. James, Younghusband, and Fulford, of the British Indian 
and Consular services, who visited it in May, 1886, Paik-du-san is 
" a recently extinct volcano with a lovely pellucid lake filling the 
bottom of the crater, surmounted by a serrated edge of peaks 
rising about 650 feet above the surface of the water. The 
height of the loftiest of these was found to be about 7,525 feet 
above the level of the sea. 1 ' 

Besides the rivers of the frontier are others of the interior that 
deserve a passing mention. The mountainous nature of the 
country, as well as its proximity to the sea, implies the existence 
of numerous secondary water courses, but these as a rule are in- 
significant in size and so shallow as to permit of navigation only 
throughout limited portions of their extent. Among the larger 
streams that lie wholly within the country is the Taidong, flowing 
through Phyong-an-do, the northwestern province, rising in the 
central ranges of the peninsula and flowing into the Yellow Sea. 
During the greater part of the year it is navigable as far as the 
city of Phyongyang for native craft of the largest size. In mid- 
summer its waters rise rapidly during a short rainy season ; then 
quickly subside, the river resuming its former limits. To this 
sudden shoaling may be attributed the loss of the schooner Sher- 
man, captured by the Koreans in 1871, the vessel going aground 
without warning at a place where a few hours before abundant 
water had been found. 

The Han, the river of the capital, lies about one hundred miles 
to the southward of the Taidong, and flows westwardly in a 
nearly parallel direction thereto, from the central ranges of the 
peninsula into the Yellow Sea. Its many branches join in a com- 
mon estuary near the centre of the Yellow Sea coast, and their 
collective drainage area comprises a large portion of central 
Korea. Still farther to the southward is the Keum, traversing a 
fertile rice-growing country, while at the extreme south is the 



Korea and the Koreans. 239 

Nakdong. The latter is one of the most important streams of 
Korea, and the facilities that it affords for communication and 
interchange have done much towards rendering the district 
through which it flows one of the most fertile and prosperous of 
the land. 

The coasts of Korea are forbidding to the mariner and seem 
well adapted for the preservation of the seclusion that it has been 
so long the national policy to maintain. On the east, facing 
Japan, unbroken lines of steep hills, void of harbors, bend ab- 
ruptly into the deep waters of the Japan Sea. To the westward 
countless outlying islands extend seaward many miles, liberally 
interspersed with rocks and shoals, between which eddy swift 
streams of tide-water. The terrors of the Maelstrom would find 
their counterpart in many a Korean whirlpool, which, forming in 
the vicinity of some submerged ledge, will cause a large vessel to 
heel suddenly well over, and will swing her many points off her 
course in a way to make the stoutest hearted captain tremble for 
the safety of his charge. 

The climate of Korea exhibits wide ranges of temperatures and 
hygroscopic conditions. In the northeast province, Ham-kiung- 
do, the winter is as rigorous as that of Nova Scotia ; at the 
extreme south, on the island of Quelpaert, it somewhat resembles 
that of Louisiana. The warmth of Quelpaert is due to the 
proximity of the Kura-siwo, or Black Stream of Japan, the Gulf 
Stream of the Pacific, part of which is here turned into a cul-de- 
sac, from which it escapes with difficulty. One result of this is 
the creation of a stormy region near the island, where the mariner 
may at all times look for a hard blow. A characteristic feature 
of Yellow Sea coasts are the Chang-ma, or mid-summer rains, 
which set in with fair regularity in July and during their month's 
duration resemble in phenomena and general effects the periodic 
rains of the tropics. The winters, in all but the southern parts of 
the country, are long and severe and set in with great suddenness. 
As an illustration of the rapidity of this change I remember that 
on one occasion I was ferried across the Han river near the capital 
at a time when the only indication of cold weather was a film of 
ice along the river banks, and that within forty-eight hours after- 
wards I rode back across the river ice on horseback, over the line 
of the former ferry. 

Careful meteorologic records have now been kept at the open 
ports for more than five years ; at Che-mul-po, on the Yellow 



240 National Geographic Magazine. 

Sea (the seaport of the capital, Soul) ; at Fusan, to the south; and 
at Gensan, to the northeast. Stations are needed on the Yellow 
Sea coast farther to the northward, at the extreme northeast, at 
points in the interior, and especially on the island of Cheju, or 
Quelpaert, whose weather reports may some day prove as valuable 
to the Japanese as those from Bermuda would now be to the 
navigator of the western waters of the Atlantic. All the above 
mentioned places are easily accessible and doubtless soon will 
receive attention. In fact, to the navigator of these regions this 
island of Quelpaert is almost of the importance that Hatteras is 
to the navigator of our own coast. 

As an important factor of Korea's future prosperity, and one 
that will enter largely into the determination of her future posi- 
tion among the nations of the east, may be mentioned her 
mineral resources. These yet remain in an almost undeveloped 
condition. The most easily accessible deposits and out-croppings, 
which are worked by the natives in primitive ways, afford evi- 
dence of an abundant and varied supply of the useful ores and 
minerals widely distributed throughout the whole extent of the 
land. Many localities, moreover, are well known to the people 
for their especial products. Thus the Phyongyang province, in 
the northwest, facing China, possesses abundant deposits of coal, 
iron, and lime. Samples of this coal, which is but little used 
by the people, were collected several years ago from twelve 
different localities, and I remember that some of the Phyong- 
yang gatherings were tested on board the U. S. S. Alert, but 
were found to have suffered so greatly from exposure to the 
weather as to be comparatively valueless, even for experimental 
purposes. Limestone is common in this district, and in. the town 
of Phyongyang I have noticed the use of caustic lime in the 
streets as a disinfectant. The iron produced at Yongpyon, fifty 
miles to the northward of this city, which is reduced in the 
native way with charcoal, is remarkable for its malleability and 
purity. Inasmuch as all these deposits are of very great extent 
and lie near the sea coast, and in proximity to waters easily 
navigable by larger craft, it may be assumed as probable that 
the time will soon arrive when the iron of Korea will largely 
supply the ship-yards and machine shops of northern China. 
Silver is found in at least four localities ; copper is worked in 
paying quantities in two ; galena is widely distributed; and zinc- 
blende has been found near the capital. Sulphur is said to occur 



Korea and the Koreans. 241 

in Kyong-sang-do ; no ore of mercury is known to the Koreans, 
who import their supplies of the metal and its preparations from 
China. 

At the time of the opening of Korea by treaty, 1870-80, an 
impression seems to have prevailed quite generally that the 
country was extremely rich in gold, that great quantities of the 
precious metals were soon to be exported, or that mines of great 
richness would be found and worked. The years that have 
elapsed since this date have partly served to prove the fallacy of 
these assumptions, yet the doubt is not yet fully removed. Gold 
is now known to occur in many places in moderate quantities : in 
alluvial deposits, from which it may be washed by simple me- 
chanical process, and in quartz veins, from which it is extracted 
in small quantities by crude and laborious methods of rock- 
pulverizing and washing. A small constant demand for the 
metal has always existed, for jewelry and gilding — the latter 
quite a common decorative process, which up to the present 
seems to have required the use of pure gold even for the crudest 
applications. The mines remain for the greater part un worked, 
however, for three reasons : (1) the native dislike for altering the 
geomantic conditions of any locality by digging holes in the 
ground ; (2) the laws forbidding the search for the metal, for 
gold mining in Korea is a government monopoly ; (3) the in- 
ability of the peasants to find a market for the gold that they 
surreptitiously work. There has always existed a chance of dis- 
posing of it by crossing the border into China, and there has 
probably long been a small steady export in this way ; and a 
port has been opened near the capital where reside Chinese and 
Japanese merchants who must find a way of converting the 
Korean copper cash into some medium of exchange easily nego- 
tiable abroad, and who for this purpose have been known to 
purchase gold from the Koreans at a considerable premium. I 
have examined a number of specimens of Korean gold which had 
been brought to Che-mul-po and had passed into the hands of 
foreign merchants there. In several cases I found small pieces 
of quartz clinging to flat laminated grains of the metal of con- 
siderable size. 

In answer to inquiries that I made from time to time during a 
residence of more than a year in Korea I was told by the 
Koreans of a number of localities where gold was supposed to be 
abundant. I have endeavored to show these collectively upon 



242 National Geographic Magazine. 

a small map (Fig. Ill) giving the Korean names of the towns 
and districts with their English equivalents and the names of the 
provinces of the kingdom in which the places are situated. I 
was told repeatedly that the metal was most plentiful at Tan- 
chhon, in the Ham-kiung province. Concerning this locality our 
Korean geographer says, "at Ma-un, west of Tan-chhon, much 
gold is found. The mountains there are lofty and precipitous.'* 



3laM 







The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 243 



THE ORDNANCE SURVEY OF GREAT BRITAIN— ITS 
HISTORY AND OBJECT. 

By Josiah Pierce, Jr. 

I. The Institution of National Surveys. 

The earliest surveys were not laid down as maps but consisted 
of catalogues of property which are called ■" terriers ;" of these 
the Domesday Book is the earliest extant. Had the art of survey- 
ing been properly understood at the time of the Norman conquest 
there would probably have been a Saxon cadastre along with 
the Domesday Book, which was ordered by William the Con- 
querer in the year 1085. 

" After this had the king a very large meeting, and a very deep 
consultation with his council about this land, how it was occupied, 
and by what sort of men. Then sent he his men all over Eng- 
land, into each shire, commissioning them to find out ' how many 
hundreds of hides were in the shire ; what land the king himself 
had, and what stock upon the land, or what dues he ought to have 
by the year from the shire.' Also he commissioned them to re- 
cord in writing, 'How much land his archbishops had, and his 
diocesan bishops, and his abbots, and his earls ; and though I 
may be prolix and tedious, what and how much each man had, who 
was the occupier of land in England, either in money or in stock, 
and how much money it was worth.' So very narrowly indeed 
did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not a single 
hide nor a yard of land (the fourth part of an acre), nay, more- 
over, (it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do 
it) not even an ox, a cow, or a swine was there left, that was not 
set down in his writ, and all the recorded particulars were after- 
wards brought to him." — Saxon Chronicle, by Ingrain. 

The publication of the Domesday Book was ordered first by 
George III. in 1767, and completed in 1783. After the discovery 
of the art of photozincography it was reproduced " in facsimile '' 
in 1864-5, under the direction of Lieut. -Gen'l. Sir Henry James, 
then director of the Ordnance Survey. 



244 National Geographic Magazine. 

Little change (in the art of mensuration or surveying) seems to 
have been made until the early part of the 17th century when 
simple boundary line maps accompanied the terriers of the sur- 
veys made in Ireland in 1634, by order of Lord Stafford, then 
viceroy. Great improvements were introduced about that time in 
Sweden by Gustavus Adolphus, which must have become known 
to Cromwell, for in 1654, the "Down Survey," as it was called, 
comprised maps of the townlands, and baronies over two-thirds 
of the surface of Ireland, that is, comprehending about 20,000,000 
of English acres. 

It may not be uninteresting or irrelevant to bestow a few re- 
marks upon the development and methods of surveying in the 
seventeenth century, many of which have descended with little 
modification to the present day. 

When man first conceived the idea of owning real property the 
art of geometry or surveying became a necessity. Interest in 
other worlds than our own, and the measurement of time, led to 
the development of the science of astronomy, and of graduated 
instruments for measuring angles. Many of the most refined 
modern instruments are but slight modifications of original Ara- 
bian models, and the practice of linear surveying, or the subdi- 
vision of land into triangles, and geometrical figures, whose area 
could be computed, has been carried on without modification for 
centuries. 

The greatest development took place after the introduction of 
artillery in the methods and instruments used for trigonometrical 
surveying or range-finding. Every principle which is to-day 
known and applied in the construction and use of modern trigo- 
nometrical surveying instruments can be traced in a modified 
form to the construction and application of the instruments of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

In the practice of artillery, the first important question is the 
distance or range of the enemy. As in war it was clearly impos- 
sible to obtain the same by direct linear measurement, instruments 
were devised for measuring the range trigonometrically, all based 
on the calculation of a single triangle, the base and two angles of 
which could be measured. These instruments were simply modi- 
fied to the extent of furnishing in the instrument itself a constant 
base or ano-le so that only one or at most two measurements were 
necessary. 



The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 245 

The one instrument that has received the greatest develop- 
ment in the modern type is the quadrant, a simple graduated arc 
from whose center was suspended a plumb-line, or which carried 
a movable arm with raised sights for measuring horizontal or in- 
clined angles. This arm has retained the name alhidada derived 
from the Arabic. 

Such was the trigonometrical instrument used by the earliest 
navigators and astronomers for determining latitudes, and by 
surveyors and artillerists for finding ranges. 

In the latter part of the 16th century Thomas Digges, surveyor 
and author, conceived the idea of combining two such graduated 
arcs in one instrument, the one placed horizontally and the other 
in a vertical plane, the whole supported on a rigid stand or tripod, 
and he called the same his Theodolitus, which is said by DeMor- 
gan to have been the origin of the name of the modern instru- 
ment. 

In the earliest books in the practice of artillery and of survey- 
ing, the crescent of the dreaded Moor appears in the woodcuts 
illustrating range finding or trigonometrical surveying generally 
floating over the tower of some captured castle or town, which 
it is desired to bombard. This clearly demonstrated that the 
chief use of trigonometrical instruments was for military pur- 
poses. 

Among the instruments of surveying of this period which 
became practically obsolete in England in the present century, 
but which is most widely used elsewhere, is the plane-table, 
unquestionably one of the earliest instruments invented for 
measuring or recording angles. 

At the period 1570, when the Germans claim that it was 
invented by Pretorius, a professor of the University of Nurem- 
burg, it was unquestionably in use in England, and it is men- 
tioned by Thomas Digges, in his Pantometria, published in 1590, 
as a platting instrument for such as are ignorant of arithmet- 
ical calculations. On the relative merits of the theodolite and 
plane table authorities still differ. 

Throughout Europe great activity in the development of the 
practical applications of geometry soon followed the exchange of 
ideas brought about by the introduction of printing. 

Side by side with the important geographical discoveries of 
the age came the minor improvements in scientific instruments 

VOL. II. 17 



24:6 National Geographic Magazine. 

which rendered national surveys and geodetic operations possible 
at a later period. 

With trifling modifications the instruments devised by Durer, 
Newton, and Gallileo are in common use to-day. 

Gradual improvements can be traced in the application of 
surveying to military and civil purposes, to mapping the cam- 
paigns of Louis XIV. and Marlborough, and laying down the 
forfeited estates in Ireland by William III., until in 1729 the 
first national survey on a large scale, for public and private 
purposes, was commenced in Savoy and Piedmont by Victor 
Amadie II., whereon nine years were occupied. 

The method of large surveys obtained the name of Cadastre 
(Terrier map). It was suggested for France in 1763, but was 
only commenced in that country in 1793. The exact derivation 
and meaning of the French term " cadastre " are not free from 
dispute. Some authorities refer it to the verb "cadrer" to 
square or correspond with, all objects on a large scale, plan, or 
cadastre being shown in their true position and proportions, 
whereas in a mere topographical map similar accuracy is impos- 
sible, and certain features must need be exaggerated for the 
sake of distinctness. 

The Dictionaire des Dictionaires on the other hand derives 
cadastre (formerly capdastre) from the mediaeval-Latin word 
capitastrum (from caput "head," because formerly people were 
taxed, and afterwards property) and defines it as " a public regis- 
ter, containing the quantity and value of landed property, names 
of owners, etc., and which serves for the assessment of the tax 
on property in proportion to its revenue." 

In the Recueil des Lois et Instructions sur les contributions 
directes, the cadastre is defined as " a plan from which the area 
of land may be computed, and from which its revenue may be 
valued." 

This, there is no doubt, is the sense in which the word is used 
on the Continent, while in England it is taken as denoting gen- 
erally a survey on a large scale. 

It was not until long after the organization of the Ordnance 
Survey that it became a cadastral survey. Its organization at 
first was distinctly for military purposes, and the extension of its 
operations to cover all national needs only attained after years of 
discussion, and struggle for existence. 



The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 247 

The credit of originating and carrying into execution the first 
tangible project for a systematic topographical survey of part of 
the kingdom is divided between two engineer officers, both at the 
time holding distinguished positions on the staff of the British 
army. The idea would seem to have followed close upon the san- 
guinary termination at Culloden of the " forty-five " rebellion, by 
which the fate of the house of Stuart was decided, in the reign 
of George the Second. 

It was doubtless the outcome of that unhappy rising for it con- 
templated a general map of the Scottish highlands, precisely 
those parts of the country in which the heart and soul of the 
insurrectionary movement had all along centered. The difficul- 
ties of moving troops through these wild mountain districts, and 
without any clear knowledge of the passes connecting the glens 
and fastnesses, or of the correct distances intervening, would have 
been enormously lessened by the possession of good maps. 

The survey of this wild and inaccessible region was under- 
taken in 1747 by Lieutenant-General Watson, an engineer, ably 
assisted by William Roy, who afterwards played a distinguished 
part in the earlier geodetic work of the Ordnance Survey. 

The map, at first intended to be confined to the Highlands 
only, was at last extended to the Lowlands and thus made 
general in what related to the mainland of Scotland, the islands 
(except some lesser ones near the coast), not having been sur- 
veyed. 

It is spoken of by Lieutenant-Colonel White, in his excellent 
book on the Ordnance Survey, as a " piece of work which appears 
to have been excellently carried out as far as it went, qualified by 
the remark of Roy that owing to the comparative inferiority of 
the instruments used and the inadequacy of the annual grants 
provided for the survey it is rather to be considered as a magnifi- 
cent military sketch than a very accurate map of the country." 

The survey of Scotland was interrupted by the breaking out in 
1755 of another of England's intermittent wars with France, that 
which gained her Canada, and the work was never completed. 

" On the conclusion of the peace of 1763," writes General Roy, 
" it came for the first time under the consideration of government 
to make a general survey of the whole island at the public cost." 
But, for reasons not assigned, the twelve years' interval of peace 
before the outbreak in 1775 of the American War of Independ- 
ence was allowed to pass away without anything being done. 



248 National Geographic Magazine. 

There the matter remained in abeyance until, after renewed hos- 
tilities with France and Spain, peace was negotiated in 1783. 

The trigonometrical survey of Great Britain may be said to 
have been begun one hundred and six years ago. 

Astronomers of that day were desirous that the difference of 
longitude between the Greenwich and Paris observatories should 
be ascertained by trigonometrical measurement ; and under the 
auspices of the king and of the Royal Society, General 
Roy, R. E., in April, 1784, began the task by the measurement of 
a base line on Hounslow Heath which was to serve us the start- 
ing point of a series of triangles to be extended to Dover and 
across the channel. 

This work was carried out, a connection with the French trian- 
gulation being established in 1786. 

Soon after this the government decided on having a general 
survey made of the entire kingdom, on the scale of one inch to 
one mile for military purposes, and General Roy's triangulation 
in the southeastern counties became the basis of the Great Tri- 
angulation, which was gradually extended over the whole of the 
British Isles and finished in 1853. 

The one-inch survey was carried northward through England 
and Wales under the successive superintendence of artillery and 
engineer officers, and by 1824 had reached the southern borders 
of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. 

At this time it became necessary that a survey of Ireland 
should be made on a large scale as a basis for general land valua- 
tion. On the recommendation of Colonel Colby, then director, 
the scale of six inches to one mile was agreed upon ; the work in 
England was suspended and the force transferred to Ireland. 

It appears from a report of Colonel Colby, in 1840, that the 
purposes for which the English and Irish surveys were designed 
were gradually developed and not all originally known. 

The principal triangulation, on which the survey of South 
Britain had been based, was partly designed for astronomical 
purposes, and partly for a map on small scale. 

The detail plans were commenced by officers of the Royal 
Engineers, partly for the purpose of practicing them in military 
drawing, and partly for the purpose of making plans for the use 
of the Ordnance. 

The publication of some parts of this map on the scale of one 
inch to one mile created a desire among the public to possess 
better maps than had formerly existed. 



The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 249 

This led to the employment of civilian surveyors to advance 
the progress of the map, and it was found necessary at great 
additional expense, to revise and correct these contract plans. 

The work did not possess the accuracy demanded hy the 
admiralty in forming the basis of their coast surveys for the Geo- 
logical Survey or the civil engineers. As a military map its 
publication during war was suspended, and its continuance be- 
came a matter of doubt in time of peace. 

At one time the gentlemen of Lincolnshire and Rutlandshire 
proposed to the government to proceed with the map of their 
district out of its regular turn, upon condition of their becoming 
subscribers for a certain number of copies. These gentlemen 
partly wished for the map for their use in hunting, and partly 
for the improvement of the country in marking out the drainage 
of the fens. 

Prejudices existed, which could be traced back to the Norman 
conquest and Domesday Survey — against the right of a surveyor 
to enter a private estate, and in the early contract plans for the 
English maps the surveyors neglected the survey of the lesser 
streams, to obviate the inconvenience of trespassing and to save 
themselves trouble. 

These were some of the causes of delay, expense and insuffi- 
ciency which had operated against the earlier surveys. 

The survey of Ireland began in 1825 under far more favorable 
circumstances than the Ordnance map of England and Wales. 
The triangulation commenced from a more accurate baseline 
than any preceding triangulation, and was designed to serve as a 
basis for any future survey in any scale, however large. 

The House of Commons passed an act defining its principal 
object, prescribing a legal mode for ascertaining the boundaries 
which were to be surveyed, granting the surveyors power to enter 
lands for the purposes of the survey, and preventing the removal 
of the objects used. 

The earlier methods of military surveying were abandoned, and 
new instruments and a system were devised for its execution. 

It is important to note that the organization of the Irish survey 
marked an important epoch in the history of the Ordnance Sur- 
vey, viz : its change from a topographic to a cadastral survey. 

In Ireland, subordinate to the parishes, there is an internal 
division of smaller denomination called townlands, which are very 
frequently, but not uniformly, conterminous with property. 



250 National Geographic Magazine. 

The townland was the lowest unit of taxation for country pur- 
poses, of an average size of 200 or 300 acres, and originally the 
map was to be simply a topographic map, containing the bound- 
aries of the townlands, the roads, the streams and the houses, 
with a view to the valuation of Ireland for the county assessment. 
The six inch was considered to be the smallest scale that could 
be available for that purpose. 

There was no intention in the original Irish survey to insert the 
fields, but when the valuation began, it was found by the valua- 
tors that additional minuteness was necessary to enable them to 
subdivide the townlands into the qualities of lands of which they 
consisted, and more especially that the boundary between the 
cultivated and uncultivated portions ought to be inserted on the 
maps with great accuracy. 

This rendered necessary a very extensive revision which was 
undertaken in 1830, and it became a survey by fields instead of 
townlands. 

This was clearly a. wide and most important departure from the 
original intention of the six inch survey in Ireland, and it is not 
to be doubted that General Colby, who would not trust to paper 
measurements for the areas of entire townlands, would have 
adopted at the very outset, for his manuscript plans of these 
minute subdivisions, a scale much larger than that of six inches 
to one mile. 

The engraving of the six inch survey appears to have resulted 
from a demand for six copies of one sheet for valuation purposes 
when it was found that it would be as cheap to engrave it as to 
make that number of copies. 

So valuable did the six inch map of Ireland prove for many 
purposes over and above that for which it had been originally 
designed, that, in 1840, Avhen the Irish survey was completed, and 
that of England resumed, the Government gave their consent to 
the adoption of the same scale for the unsurveyed parts of Great 
Britain. 

By 1851, Yorkshire, Lancashire, the Isle of Lewis, and several 
counties in the south of Scotland were finished on the six inch 
scale. 

Then began that long controversy which has been well termed 
the " battle of the scales " and which for eleven or twelve years 
retarded the progress of the survey and led to a large waste of 
public money. 



The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 251 

During the time that the Ordnance Surveyors were engaged in 
making their six inch map of Lancashire and Yorkshire they 
were called upon and employed to make, at the expense of the 
land owners, twenty-three plans of parishes and townships on the 
scale of twenty-six and §• inches to one mile for tithe commuta- 
tion. 

It was even found that the plan of London, made for the 
Metropolitan Commissioners of Sewers, on the scale of sixty 
inches or five feet to one mile was inapplicable to house drainage 
within the area. 

Between 1851 and 1852 no fewer than three select committees 
and one royal commission deliberated on the scale for the survey, 
and fourteen blue books were presented to Parliament. 

The main point of the controversy was whether the six inch or 
some larger scale was best fitted for the national map. A host of 
persons eminent in science were consulted on the subject, and a 
great diversity of opinion was found to exist, the weight of 
evidence, however, inclining by a majority of four to one, to a 
scale of from 20 to 26f inches to a mile. 

In 1853 a statistical conference held at Brussels and attended 
by twenty-six delegates from the chief States of Europe con- 
sidered the question of national maps or cadastres, and pro- 
nounced unanimously in favor of a scale of 2 J th of nature equiv- 
alent to about 25^ inches to a mile, recommending at the same 
time that the cadastre on this scale should be accompanied by a 
more general map on the scale of y^.^o-o equivalent to about six \ 
inches to a mile, and thus very nearly corresponding to the six 
inch scale of the Ordnance Survey. 

The scale finally adopted of 8 £$ , on which the whole of 
England ha£ at last been surveyed, is one which corresponds with 
that adopted for the national maps and plans of the chief coun- 
tries for Europe. Lastly it possessed the incidental advantage 
that a square acre is to all practical intents represented on the 
plans by a square inch. 

Among the many public purposes which the national map was 
expected to subserve are the following : the valuation of property 
for the equitable adjustment of taxation and assessment; the sale 
and transfer of land and the registration of title; railway and 
other civil engineering work, such as the construction of roads 
aad canals, large sanitary and drainage schemes, military engineer- 
ing works, hydrographical, geological and mineral surveys; the 



252 National Geographic Magazine. 

reclamation and improvement of waste lands, and of land from 
the sea ; transactions affecting land as between landlord and 
tenant ; statistical surveys, the setting out and adjustment of 
parochial and other public boundaries and so forth. 

It has been amply proved on the best evidence that a map, 
with levels, on a scale of something like twenty -five inches to one 
mile is the smallest which can properly fulfill all these require- 
ments. 

In the organization and equipment of the Ordnance Survey, as 
it exists to-day, no pains are spared to secure the utmost precision 
and economy in its methods of field work and publication. 

After more than a century of development and the completion 
of the cadastral map, let it not be supposed that its mission is at 
an end, for it is proposed to make a complete revision of all the 
cadastral work at least once every twenty years. 

This is rendered necessary by the constant changes in property 
boundaries, and the growth of population — which may be gathered 
from the fact that the city of London increases in population at 
the rate of about 50,000 a year, and that eighty or more miles 
of new streets are added in the same time. 



II. 

The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain as it exists to-day is a 
remarkable Publishing Bureau, from whose presses are given the 
most elaborate and accurate series of maps which any country 
possesses. 

Maps not alone confined to the representation of the physical 
features of the country, but containing every detail of interest or 
value for civil or military purposes. 

It has justly gained the commendation of the French that it is 
" a work without precedent, and should be taken as a model by all 
civilized nations." 

The principal scales of publication adopted by the Ordnance 
Survey are : (1) A general map on the scale of One mile to one 
inch. (2) County plans on the scale of six inches to one mile. 
(3) Cadastral or Parish plans for the whole country on the scale 
of g^Vo" or about 25^ inches to one mile, on which one square 
inch on the plan represents an area of one acre. (4) For towns 
of over 4000 inhabitants a scale of jfa of actual length on the 
ground or 10|-| feet to one mile. 



The Ordnance Survey of G?*eat Britain. 253 

On the latter scale the city of London with its environs could 
not be well shown on a sheet of paper less than 300 feet long by 
200 wide. 

When the facts are taken into consideration, that the Ordnance 
Survey is a cadastral one, in other words, that one of its many 
objects is the measurement and definition of all existing boun- 
daries, political, municipal, parochial or private, and a survey and 
valuation of property for assessments, that its maps are accepted 
in courts of law as authoritative on such questions, then the 
problem of the scales of publication is the most important one to 
be considered. 

As an illustration of the relation of the scale of a map to the 
amount of detail, which can well be represented on it without 
confusion, assume for a moment that an observer is stationed 
in a balloon, which can be raised or lowered or placed at any 
desired height above the ground, and in addition that he is pro- 
vided with a horizontal screen on which he is able to trace the 
details of the landscape below. The eye of the observer well 
represents the lens of a camera, and the screen the focussing 
plate. Therefore to produce a perfect image or map of the ground 
below it will be necessary to assume that all parts are stationary, 
balloon, plate and eye. For convenience assume that the eye 
remains over the centre of the screen at a distance of two feet. 
At a height of four miles above the ground the scale of the 
image on the screen would be exactly six inches to one mile, or a 
reproduction of the popular county map, on which every detail 
of importance such as houses, roads, paths, and fences is shown, 
and the smallest scale on which any attempt is made to preserve 
the relative proportions of such details. 

On such a scale the 1/1 00th part of an inch represents a dis- 
tance of very nearly nine feet on the ground and consequently 
however accurate the map might be in its projection, as an image 
showing the relative positions of all objects of importance on the 
ground, the scale is clearly too small for the measurement of 
areas for valuation purposes, and it is but a reproduction of the 
larger cadastral map. 

Again assume that the balloon is stationed at a height of 
twenty-four miles above the ground, and that the observer 
places his eye at the same distance of two feet above the screen 
and attempts to construct a map from the image on the screen, 
which is now reproduced at a scale of one mile to one inch, or 



254 National Geographic Magazine. 

the exact scale of the general map. It 'needs but little imagina- 
tion to foretell that houses would be mere specks, roads, faint 
lines, and forests, masses of color, in other words, that it would 
be more instructive to consult the general map, on which all 
details are magnified to be clearly visible and topographic 
features brought out with great distinctness than to attempt 
to trace with unaided eye, from the image of objects at a dis- 
tance of twenty-four miles, the course of streams or roads 
through forest or moor, or to judge of the relative elevations 
or modeling of the ground from the values of light and shade. 
Without an intimate local knowledge of the county there would 
be nothing to indicate the name or boundaries of villages, or 
estates or the political and other subdivisions of the land, which 
are most clearly indicated on the map, in unmistakable styles 
of lettering. 

Another and more serious problem which would be lessened as 
the balloon receded from the earth would be the distortion in 
perspective produced by the irregularities of the surface. The 
higher points being nearer the balloon would appear in the image 
on larger scale than the lower, and only in the case of a perfectly 
level country, would it be possible to produce a map without dis- 
tortion by the method proposed, and then only for a limited area. 

As the balloon receded, the relative differences of elevation 
would bear a smaller and smaller proportion or ratio to the dis- 
tance, in other words, the distortion would grow less until at an 
infinite distance it might be neglected. 

We might conceive that the observer was stationed at an infi- 
nitely great distance, and provided with a series of magnifying 
lenses of suitable powers to produce maps of any desired scale, 
yet, beyond a limited area, he would still be confronted with the 
problem of eliminating the distortion produced by the curvature 
of the earth. 

Such is the conception of an accurate map which is an attempt 
to produce on a plain surface or sheet of paper, a horizontal pro- 
jection of objects on the ground, which will show the relative 
positions of every detail on any desired scale with as little dis- 
tortion as possible, and on which distances may be measured in 
any direction, and areas computed with a degree of accuracy only 
limited by the scale. 

When a survey of a small area is made, such as an estate or 
parish, which bears but a small proportion in area to the surface 



The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 255 

of the earth, curvature is neglected, distortion due to this cause 
being imperceptible, but in the survey of a large country it is of 
primary importance. 

Returning to the conception of an observer stationed at an 
infinite distance his position with refer nee to the new general 
one-inch map of England and Wales would be in the plane of a 
meridian passing through Delamere in Cheshire, and the published 
quarter sheets would be a series of rectangles each 18 miles by 12 
miles, containing an area of 216 square miles whose edges were 
parallel to, and at right angles to the central meridian. 

Those of Scotland and Ireland have for each country a central 
meridian and projection. 

In viewing the county maps of six inches to one mile and 
larger scales, it would be necessary to assume that the observer 
was stationed over the center of each county except that, where 
two or three counties lie so well north and south of one another, 
the same meridian serves for more than one. 

In the reproduction by photography of the maps on the scale 
of one mile to one inch from those of larger scale, these facts, 
that diffei'ent planes of projection are used for the latter, have to 
be taken into consideration. 

In countries of larger areas than England it is more customary 
to assume a central meridian for each sheet, in other words, the 
observer would be stationed in the zenith of the center of each 
sheet and would sketch but a limited area. The successive 
planes of projection, represented by the maps, would resemble 
the facets of a diamond, and it would be impossible to 
combine with any degree of precision a large number together 
in one plane surface. On the other hand, the whole of the one- 
inch series of England and Wales of Scotland or Ireland register 
perfectly, and the distortion due to curvature cannot be great, as 
the combined area of the three countries bears but a small ratio 
to the whole surface of the globe. 

Attention has been called to the fact that viewed from a balloon 
in ordinary sunlight the minor features of topography become 
flattened and indistinct. 

If, therefore, we regard a sheet of the one-inch map held at a 
distance of two feet from the eye as the picture of a country 
seen at the distance of twenty-four miles, we see that details, 
that would be invisible from above, are brought out with great 
distinctness on the map and every detail of topography is shown 



256 National Geographic Magazine. 

in bold relief. In other words the map is a diagram rather than 
a picture. 

In the representation of relief on the one inch series, two sys- 
tems are common, contours and hachures. Contours represent 
the successive shore lines which water at rest would form 
in following the modelling of the ground at successive stages 
or elevations. If now we assume that the water, having reached 
the highest point, is allowed to retreat steadily to sea level the 
paths which the particles of water would take from all points of 
the surface are those which the engraver would endeavor to re- 
produce in the shade lines of a hachured map. In addition he 
would adopt an arbitrary scale of shade increasing with the steep- 
ness of the slopes, from white on a horizontal surface to dead 
black on slopes of forty -five degrees, or greater, to produce the 
effect of a model of the surface illuminated from above. 

In the Irish maps this effect is bolder and more artistic, an 
illumination from the northeast quarter having been carried out. 
The shade lines still preserve the paths of particles of water in 
motion on the surface, the color values being deeper on the 
eastern and southern slopes, shadows have even been projected 
across valleys and horizontal surfaces are in half tone, producing 
much the same effect as the illumination of the country at sunset 
in midsummer. 

The Irish maps exhibited are considered the finest specimens of 
careful hill shading and will bear critical examination. For com- 
parison with these, other topographic maps are exhibited of 
many scales and countries. 

So far attention has simply been drawn to a few of the problems 
of map -making, which are, briefly : 

1st. The reproduction on a finite scale on a plain surface, 
of the natural features of the terrain, with all the artificial boun- 
daries and objects added by man, so far as the scale permits. 

2d. The extension of such a series of maps to cover a large 
area of country still carried out with as little distortion as pos- 
sible. 

3d. The reproduction of such maps on suitable scales to meet 
all demands. 

If the conception is still carried out that the map, at a distance 
of two feet, is but the image of the ground viewed from above, 
then the cadastral map of England, from which areas of fields 
and estates are measured for valuation purposes, would represent 



The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 257 

a view of the country from above at a range of 5,000 feet or 
nearly one mile, and a town plan, an image at 1,000 feet or a pos- 
sible view from a series of Eiffel towers. 

This suggestion of an observer stationed in a balloon will not 
have been valueless if it draws attention to the fact that vastly 
more information is given on the map than it would be possible 
for any single observer to discover from an elevated station with 
an unobstructed view, the map being the compilation of the re- 
sults of hundreds of observations by many workers, and that its 
scale and the amount and character of the detail shown have been 
specially designed to meet definite ends. 

It is beyond the limits of the paper to enter into the theory or 
practice of surveying, or to say more than a few words of the 
delicate and refined operations necessary in carrying out the 
geodetic or trigonometrical work of a national survey which 
binds together the many parts to make a complete whole. 

The principal triangulation of the British Isles was begun in 
1784 and finished in 1852. Two magnificent 3-feet theodolites 
made by Ramsden, one for the Royal Society, the other for the 
Master General of the Ordnance, an 18-inch theodolite also by 
Ramsden, and 2 -feet theodolite by Troughton and Simms were 
used in these observations. 

In the principal triangulation of Great Britain and Ireland 
there are 218 stations, at 16 of which there are no observations, 
the number of observed bearings is 1554 — and the number of equa- 
tions of condition, 920. 

In order to avoid the solution of this enormous number of 
equations, containing 920 unknown quantities, the network cov- 
ering the kingdom was divided into a number of blocks, each pre- 
senting a not unmanageable number of equations of condition. 
These calculations, all in duplicate, were completed in two 
years and a half, an average of eight computers being employed. 
Many of the sides of the principal or primary triangulation are 
of great length, 66 of them exceeding 80 miles, while 11 measure 
more than 100 miles, the longest being 111 miles, that from Sea 
Fell to Sheir Donard. So great, however, had been the accuracy 
of the observers' work, that the average amount of correction 
of the observed angles was no more than 0".6, and the measured 
length of the Salisbury base differed from its length as com- 
puted from the Irish Base, 350 miles distant, by a difference of 
only five inches. 



258 National Geographic Magazine. 

TJ(je secondary triangulation interpolates points at shorter dis- 
tances apart ranging down to five miles, the observations being 
made with theodolites of 12-inch circle. These triangles again 
are broken up into smaller ones of sides from one to two miles 
in length, for the use of the surveyor who is to follow and measure 
between the stations with the chain ; and a further subdivision of 
the trigonal spaces is made in towns to points about 10 chains 
apart, where the survey is to be made on the very large special 
scale. In the two last cases, 7 inch instruments suffice for the 
measurement of the angles. 

Levelling. 

From 1839 to 1855, lines of initial levelling extending all over 
England, Scotland and Ireland were run, and the observed alti- 
tudes of the bench marks were reduced by the method of least 
squares. 

In England and Scotland, these levels are based on the Ord- 
nance Datum at Liverpool, which is approximately the mean tide 
level of that place ; in Ireland, they are based on the low water 
level at Dublin, which is about 8 feet below the mean level round 
the coast of Ireland. 

The detail levelling is carried out contemporaneously with the 
progress of the cadastral survey. Starting from the marks on the 
initial series, lines are run along nearly all the turnpikes and 
parish roads, and bench marks cut at intervals of about a quarter 
of a mile. 

The whole of the bench marks of the initial levelling are 
shown in position on the 25 -inch manuscript plans, and their 
heights given to the nearest tenth of a foot. Surface heights, 
to the nearest foot are also marked on the plans, at frequent in- 
tervals between the bench marks. 

CoNTOUKING. 

Contrary to the custom in other countries, the contours of the 
English survey have all been surveyed and levelled on the ground, 
checked by the numerous bench marks, the standard of accu- 
racy demanded in levelling being two-tenths of a foot. 

Owing to the expense of the process, about $1.25 per lineal 
mile, only the 100 foot contours have been surveyed, except where 
greater detail is required for military purposes,- which information 
is not furnished to the public. 



The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 259 

Hill Shading. 

The hill features for the one inch maps are first sketched in the 
field by the military method of slopes and sketch contours or 
proof impressions of the contoured sheet. 

Finished drawings from the field sketches are then made on 
cardboard impressions from the one inch outline plates, and 
finished as guides for the engraver to work by. 

Beautiful and delicate in finish as is all the work of the copper- 
plate engravers on the Ordnance Survey, there is perhaps no 
branch in which they so peculiarly excel as in their delineation of 
hills on the one inch maps. 

III. 

It is impossible in the limits of a single paper to attempt to 
describe the methods and processes of publication which are car- 
ried at the headquarters of the Ordnance Survey at Southampton. 

Carefully prepared treatises on the subject have been written 
by officers engaged in the work, and for clear and concise descrip- 
tion none are better than the series of articles by Captain H. 
Sankey, R. E., published in Engineering, in 1888. 

There are two points of great interest in connection with the 
Ordnance Survey which cannot be neglected. The one its mili- 
tary organization, and the other the economy of its methods of 
publication. 

Of its military organization, which has continued since the 
first surveys were made for military purposes, it may be said 
that the conservative precision of its methods of field work 
are best adapted for military control and discipline. Under 
the successive superintendence of highly educated officers of the 
Royal Engineer Corps, whose patriotic efforts have been to 
secure efficiency and economy in the service, the country has 
greatly profited. 

Many of the improvements and inventions that have made 
possible the publication of maps of all scales at the lowest pos- 
sible cost, are the results of experiments made by these officers. 

It should not be forgotten in addition that as a branch of the 
War Office and the Publishing Department of the Intelligence 
Branch, military supervision is essential. Its offices are therefore 
not open for public inspection except on proper introduction. 



260 National Geographic Magazine. 

The author had the rare privilege of spending three months at 
the Southampton office in 1888, through the introduction of the 
director of the Geological Survey, and the request of our recent 
minister in London, Mr. Phelps. 

Nothing could have exceeded the courtesy and hospitality of 
the director of the survey, Sir Charles W. Wilson, and the offi- 
cers in charge of the various departments, not alone in granting 
the necessary authority to inspect every branch of the work, but 
in lending personal aid and men for that purpose. 

Great interest was also expressed in the topographic surveys of 
this country which differ so essentially from the Ordnance Sur- 
vey. In the former, field work and methods are directly adapted 
to the scale of publication ; in the latter, the largest scale of 
publication governs the operations of the survey, and the smaller 
scales are reduced by photography, with a gradual elimination of 
unnecessary details from the larger to the smaller scales until 
finally the topographic map of the country, on the scale of one 
mile to one inch is produced, which possesses an accuracy and 
character that could be obtained by no other method. 

To illustrate this important subject there are exhibited a 
series of experimental and complete maps and diagrams which 
will well repay careful examination. They were prepared and 
collected at the Ordnance Survey at Southampton expressly for 
this purpose and with the kind permission of the present director, 
Colonel Sir Charles W. Wilson, R. E., C. B. 

The author desires to state that many of the paragraphs of the 
paper, particularly those relating to the history of the Ordnance 
Survey, have been extracted from the following works and re- 
ports on the subject : 

1. The Ordnance Survey of the United Kingdom, by Lieut. - 
Col. P. Pinkerton White, RE. 

2. The Ordnance Survey of the. Kingdom, by Capt. H. S. 
Palmer, R.E. 

3. Methods and processes adopted for the production of the 
maps of the Ordnance Survey, by Lieut.-Genl. Sir Henry James, 
R.E., F.R.S. 

4. Reports of Col. Colby and others in the Blue Books presented 
to Parliament— 1850-1860. 



Geographic Nomenclature. ■ 261 



GEOGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE. 

Eemarks by Herbert G. Ogden, Gustave Herrle, Marcus Baker, 
and A. H. Thompson. 

Mr. Ogdek : It was expected that Professor Mendenhall 
would be with us this evening to address the society on the sub- 
ject of Geographic Nomenclature but he is unavoidably absent, 
having been called to Philadelphia, and has requested me to 
represent him, and present to you an apology for his absence. 

Professor Mendenhall has been greatly interested in this ques- 
tion since he assumed charge of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Questions of orthography and nomenclature have been before 
him almost constantly, and the variety of views elicited in 
response to his inquiries confirmed him in the opinion that the 
subject is of serious import. He has had, of necessity, to decide 
a great many cases for publications which were being made : 
finally a long list relating to Alaska came from the Hydrographic 
office, which led to a discussion and the suggestion that a board 
should be formed consisting of representatives from the different 
departments and bureaus in Washington that were interested in 
this matter, and that were issuing maps, charts and other publi- 
cations requiring geographic names. It is too true that the 
different bureaus are now using the same names spelled in differ- 
ent ways, sometimes different names for the same place, and 
the same name for different places ; indeed, the confusion is so 
great you may even read publications relating to the same 
locality and at first not realize the fact. 

The object that Professor Mendenhall had in view in organiz- 
ing a board was to secure harmony ; that all might come 
together ; and that when a question arose between different 
bureaus it might be referred to this board to settle, with the 
concurrence of all. Such a board would also secure stability, as 
no bureau would undertake to make changes in names that have 
been accepted, as may now be the case when a bureau falls under 
new management, or the determination of the questions is re- 
ferred to new officers without experience. This board, as proposed, 
was to be formed by representatives from the Hydrographic 
Office, Smithsonian Institution, War Department, Geological Sur- 
vey, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Light-house Board, The National 
Geographic Society, Post Office Department, and the General 

VOL. II. 18 



262 National Geographic Magazine. 

Land Office. All these bureaus or departments gave their assent 
except the Post Office Department and the General Land Office ; 
but we may hope that these departments will eventually be rep- 
resented, when the practical usefulness of the board has been 
demonstrated by its decisions. 

There are three, perhaps four classes of cases that cause the 
most trouble in geographic names. In the first class, those cases 
where we are certain of the name itself — that is, we agree in the 
pronunciation, but disagree in the orthography ; in the second 
class, where there is no question as to the orthography, but where 
there is a question as to what name should be used — that is, 
several names are given to the same point, to the same body of 
water, or to the same island ; in the third class, where there is no 
question as to the name or the orthography, but a question as to 
the place to which the name applies — that is, there is no dispute 
as to the name, but it is applied to different places ; this class is 
sometimes modified by questions as to the geographical limits to 
which a name applies — that is to say, the area to be indicated by 
the name ; for instance, some body of water or a- range of moun- 
tains, and may be designated a fourth class. 

To cite a few instances of these classes : we have the question 
of Wood's " Hole " and Wood's " Holl ;" for many years it was 
called Wood's Hole, recently it would seem to be the conclusion 
that it should be called Wood's Holl ; we formerly had " Hurl " 
Gate, and now " Hell " Gate ; " Princess " Bay was at one time 
spelled " Prince's " Bay, the error arising, doubtless, from the 
pronunciation ; we also have " Body's " Island or " Bodies " 
Island ; we have a peculiar case on the North Carolina coast, 
" Pamplico " Sound has generally been used, now we have 
" Pamlico " Sound, legalized by the State legislature ; on the 
coast of Virginia we have the case of " Metomkin," which has 
frequently been written " Metompkin " and " Matomkin ;" in 
California we have Point Conception, whether it should be 
spelled with the " c," or with the " t," in the last syllable ; we 
also have " Point Boneta " or " Bonita ;" should Yaquina be 
spelled with one " n " or two (" nn ") ; Coos Bay, with " k " or 
"c." This name, I understand, is sometimes pronounced "Co-os," 
as though it had two syllables ; if the spelling of this name was 
governed by the rules of the Royal Geographical Society the 
" K " would be used for the hard " C," but " Coos " has been 
adopted by the State legislature and will probably be retained. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 263 

One of the most singular perversions is found in " Bering Sea ;" 
the explorer wrote his name " Bering," and yet we find it is 
customary, almost everywhere, to spell it " Behring." 

In the second class of cases, where we have different names for 
the same place, we may cite Bangs Island, at the entrance to 
Portland harbor ; an effort was made not long ago to change 
this name on the Coast Survey charts to Cushing's Island, the 
evidence was so strong that an order was issued to effect the 
change, when the supporters of " Bangs " produced additional 
evidence and secured the retention of that name. On the coast 
of Florida we had two Saint Joseph's Bays, and a comparatively 
modern name, " Anclote Anchorage," was presented to take the 
place of a part of one of them, which led to designating the rest 
of the bay " Saint Joseph's Sound," Sound being more appropri- 
ate for the locality. We have also some notable instances on the 
Pacific coast, as " Cape Orford " or " Blanco ;" " Cape Gregory " 
or "Arago;" "South Farallon " or "Southeast Farallon ;" and 
in Alaska there are instances too numerous to mention. 

In the third class of cases, the locality to which the name 
applies, we may cite " Isle-au-Haut " Bay and " East Penobscot " 
Bay, on the coast of Maine ; " Hempstead " Bay, on the coast of 
Long Island, a bay which is almost filled with small islands, ren- 
dering it most difficult to satisfactorily define the limits; " Chinco- 
teague " Bay, on the Jersey coast, is an instance of growth ; it 
was at one time called " Assateague," and although " Assa- 
teague " was retained for many years as applicable to the upper 
part of the bay, it has finally been restricted to a very small cove 
in Assateague Island. On the Pacific coast there are a great 
many instances, possibly one of the most difficult relates to the 
limits of Admiralty Inlet, how far it extends into Puget sound ? 
Again, to the northward, is what for years has been called 
" Washington " Sound, an effort is being made to change it to 
" Possession " Sound, the latter name, I believe, was once applied 
to a portion of the area ; perhaps we shall eventually see both 
names on the chart. The difficulty of defining the limits to 
which a name applies may be experienced in dealing with 
" Hampton Roads," or " Tybee Roads ;" apparently simple 
problems, but who will undertake to define the exact limits of 
these famous roadsteads ? 

These questions, even when stated in their simplest form, are 
oftentimes very complex, for several of the general classes I have 



264 National Geographic Magazine. 

referred to may be included in one question, and when we attempt 
to determine that which is best they become very perplexing. In 
seeking advice we are met with a variety of views ; some will 
maintain that we should take the nick-names given by the fish- 
ermen ; some prefer names that have been recognized independ- 
ent of nick-names ; some will abhor corruptions, while others 
prefer the corruptions, if expressive and in general use. The ex- 
perts are very prone to hunting up the root, or, if necessary, to 
constructing one, and throwing out everything that will not con- 
form with it. The fact that our country was settled by French, 
Spanish, and English, and that many names are derived from the 
Indian dialects, also causes peculiar difficulties in treating some 
sections. The rules of the Royal Geographical Society can be a 
great help, so far as they are applicable ; they seem to have been 
used in the modern spelling of " Dakota" — for the man-of-war we 
had of this name some years ago, it was spelled " Dacotah," but 
in the name of the States recently admitted to the Union, " k " 
has been substituted for the hard " c " and the final " h " has been 
dropped. There is also great disagreement as to the propriety of 
the use of the possessive case ; some will not admit it at all, 
others would like to drop the apostrophe and retain the " s " in 
certain cases for euphony: this is a question that requires special 
consideration in each case, as the omission of the possessive will 
sometime give the name a descriptive meaning not at all appli- 
cable to the locality or feature. The propriety of personal names 
is also questioned by many, and may lead to continued discus- 
sion in Alaskan nomenclature, where explorers and surveyors 
have been so liberal in bestowing new names on the same places. 
It would seem to be a good rule in selecting a new name to fol- 
low the old Indian custom of describing the place. An oppor- 
tunity for an expressive nomenclature seems to have been lost 
in the north-west in transferring so many of our eastern names, 
instead of selecting new names from the rich native vocabularies. 
As different bureaus may be governed by different principles, 
and may not even be consistent in their own rulings, through new 
principles that may come in by the frequent change of personnel, 
it has heretofore been impracticable to secure uniformity, and dis- 
puted questions have been carried along for years. The board 
that has been organized is in the direction of developing uni- 
formity in the practice of all. It is no easy task, but if guided 
by a generous spirit, willing to yield a little here and there, its 
object may be successfully accomplished. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 265 

We cannot foresee to what extent the board will be called upon. 
It has not power to take the initiative ; but we hope its rulings 
will prove acceptable ; that it may establish a reputation that 
will be recognized by the people as well as by the departments 
interested in its organization ; and that eventually rules may be 
recommended for the nomenclature of our own country that may 
be an acceptable guide in the determination of new names, as 
well as in the interpretation of those now in question. 

Me. Heeele : Any one conversant with the state of geo- 
graphic nomenclature of a large part of the world cannot fail to 
appreciate the difficulties in the way of the establishment of a 
comprehensive and uniform system of writing geographic names, 
that would be acceptable to all nations using the Roman alphabet 
in their literature. But while some advance towards international 
uniformity has been made within the last five years, we are still 
very far from it ; we may, however, at least rejoice in the pros- 
pect of the general acceptance of a uniform system in geographic 
orthography by all writing the English language. 

I refer to the action of the British Hydrographic Office and of 
the Royal Geographical Society in 1885, when they adopted certain 
main principles to guide the orthography of geographic names, 
and thereby took an important and far-reaching step in the line of 
a reform which had already been too long delayed. 

In France a reform in geographic nomenclature had been ear- 
nestly agitated by Edouard de Luze since 1880, and soon after 
the publication of the system adopted by the Royal Geographical 
Society, the Societe de Geographic appointed a commission which, 
in 1886, reported a system for the guidance of French geogra- 
phers. 

In Germany, we also find individual attempts made (Egli, 
Kirchhoff, Ewald and others) to bring system into the orthog- 
raphy and pronunciation of geographic names, primarily with 
a view to secure uniformity in text books and in the teaching of 
geography in schools. 

No doubt influenced by the action of the British and French 
geographic societies the Imperial German Hydrographic office in 
1888 also established rules for guidance in its future publications. 

We thus see three of the principal nations of Europe inaugu- 
rate a reform, the beneficial effects of which will not, however, 
become apparent until a sufficient time has elapsed, that is, until 



266 National Geograghic Magazine. 

the British, French and Germans have had time to apply the 
rales in their publications, and particularly in the construction of 
new and in the correction of old charts. No reform of this nature 
can be carried through by the stroke of a pen, but a generation's 
life-time will be required to accomplish it. 

The adopted rules which lay down a general phonetic principle 
only require, of course, perfection in details, so as to furnish an 
unerring guide in the treatment of names belonging to special 
languages. 

If we compare the British, French and German systems, we 
can clearly see a gravitation towards uniformity in the spelling 
of foreign geographic names that are not originally written in 
the Roman alphabet. Each of the three systems contains impor- 
tant concessions to the others ; the British, by adopting the con- 
tinental vowel system, and the French and German, by represent- 
ing certain phonetic values differently from the old way, so as 
to approach the British system. In the French system, this is 
particularly the case in regard to the letters on, e, oh, g, q, th, 
tch, w and y, and in the German system in regard to the letters 
o, j, q, ch, sh and y. 

There is very little doubt that English and French geographers 
will readily adopt the systems set up by their foremost geographic 
societies; but whether scientific Germany will be willing to follow 
in the wake of its Hydrographic Office, we will probably learn 
after the next meeting of the German Geographic Congress. 

If we compare the British, French and German systems further, 
we find also a perfect agreement in the treatment of the geo- 
graphic names of those nations that use the Roman alphabet in 
their literature, they differing only as to exceptions from the 
rules of old forms of names, which, through long usage, are held 
almost sacred. The spirit of conservatism tends to retard every 
reform, and this one makes no exception from the rule. It is^ 
however, to be regretted that neither the British, nor the French, 
nor the Germans have set any fixed limit to permissible excep- 
tions, leaving, apparently, everybody to decide for himself what 
is meant by " long usage." 

If a radical departure from past usage is perhaps too objection- 
able to many, this much could be done at present to greatly 
reduce the list of exceptions, leaving it to the future to smooth 
over the remaining cases : let all names which are now written 
but slightly different from their national form and which are easily 
recognized in the latter form, be corrected, and extirpate all gross. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 267 

corruptions. Also lessen the number of exceptions in those foreign 
names which are readily understood when written in accordance 
with the adopted phonetic rules : as Kalkutta for Calcutta, Mekka 
for Mecca, Kutch for Cutch, Selebes for Celebes, Bonni for 
Bonny, etc. 

Another notable agreement in the British, French and German 
Hydrographic Office systems is found in their declarations in 
regard to diacritical marks in the writing of foreign geographic 
names. The British say that a system which would attempt to 
represent the more delicate inflections of sound and accent would 
become so complicated as to defeat itself. They therefore recom- 
mend only the use of the acute accent to denote the syllable on 
which stress should be laid. The German Hydrographic Office 
has adopted the same view. The French Commission in its 
deliberations expressed decided opposition to the adoption of 
Lepsius' or any similar system, and finally adopted besides the 
"tilde" and " cr'ema" only the accent " circonflex" and the 
" apostrophe,'''' signs of which the two last are ordinarily em- 
ployed in the writing of the French language. " In our coun- 
try," the French commission says, " a native of the Normandy 
and one of the Provence do not employ exactly the same sounds 
in pronouncing, for instance, Marseille, Enghien, or Montrichard, 
and, in foreign lands, we find still greater diversity in this 
respect." Therefore, we should use diacritical marks with the 
greatest economy, and only when they are indispensable. 

It is of course not to be expected that a certain school of 
geographers, who are in favor of the strict application to geo- 
graphic names of a simplified form of Lepsius' standard alphabet, 
will acquiesce in this view, but it is to be hoped that all practical 
minded geographers will agree to reserve the extended use of 
diacritical alphabets for purely linguistic literature only. 

In the meanwhile, the United States has not been idle, and 
the Hydrographer, Captain Henry F. Picking, U. S. N., has 
taken the initiative by the appointment of a board to consider 
and report a system of orthography for foreign geographic names 
for guidance in the compilation of the Hydrographic Office charts, 
sailing directions and notices to mariners, which as we know 
cover all parts of the world. 

The Hydrographic Office, by its daily experience with the sub- 
ject matter, is thus peculiarly fitted to inaugurate a reform, and 
it is hoped that the board, profiting by what the British, French 



268 National Geographic Magazine. 

and Germans have already done, will report rules, that may 
become generally satisfactory to American geographers. 

In our own country the territory of Alaska needs special atten- 
tion in regard to settling the orthography of its geographic 
names of Russian origin. Russian names have always been more 
or less of a bugbear in geographic literature, since so great a 
number of them appear in different forms. The difficulties of 
transcribing Russian names so as to reproduce the correct pro- 
nunciation are well enough understood. In the first place the 
Russian alphabet contains 36 letters, of which 12 are vowels and 
diphthongs, 3 are semi-vowels, and the balance, consonants. In 
this alphabet, there are 12 elements which have no exact equiva 1 
lents in the English alphabet, and, on the other hand, there are 4 
English sounds (j, to, x and h) not represented in the Russian 
alphabet. Hence, whatever system is employed, we can only hope 
to give the pronunciation approximately. Many of the Russian 
names found to-day in English and American maps and publica- 
tions show, by the way in which they are rendered, an utter 
absence of knowledge of the grammatical construction of Russian 
on the part of those who originally transcribed them. There are 
few other languages in which case and gender play such an 
important part in the terminal inflections of proper names as in 
this great Slavonic idiom. Any one not conversant with the 
Russian declensions should not, therefore, attempt to transcribe 
Russian geographic names into English, as he will be sure to 
blunder. On Russian maps, for instance ; Behring Strait reads, 
" Beringov Proliv ;" Behring Sea, " Beringovo More ;" Kam- 
chatka Bay, "Zaliv Kamchatkii;" Herald Island, "Ostrova Ghe- 
ralda;" etc. 

By the by, I cannot exactly understand why the spelling of the 
name of Behring should, within the last few years, have been 
changed on American and English maps to Bering. The navi- 
gator of this name, Veit Behring, was a native of Germany, in 
the service of Russia, and it is safe to say that his name con- 
tained the letter h. Naturally, in transcribing his name into 
Russian, the h had to drop out, as that letter is missing in the 
Russian alphabet. 

The excellent system of transcribing Russian names into Eng- 
lish, published in a recent number of Nature* having already 
been accepted by English and American representatives of various 
scientific institutions, it is greatly to be desired that English and 
* February 27, 1890. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 269 

American geographic societies should express their views of it at 
an early day. The system is easily brought in harmony with the 
general principles adopted by the Royal Geographical Society, by 
a simple declaration in regard to the diacritical marks by which, 
mainly for the purpose of facilitating correct re-transliteration of 
Russian names, the vowels i, l, i, e and e and the silent semi- 
vowels are sought to be distinguished in the written names. For 
the benefit of those unacquainted with the system of transliterat- 
ing Russian, published in Nature, it is reprinted at the close of 
this paper. 

A few words more in regard to the treatment of the Russian 
geographic names found in Alaska. This territory will in the 
course of time contain a large English-speaking population, and 
its geographic names of Russian and Eskimo origin should, in a 
certain sense, no longer be classed by us under the category of 
foreign names. 

The future official orthography of Alaska might, therefore, be 
treated liberally, that is to say, complicated spelling following 
from a strict transliteration might be simplified to a certain ex- 
tent, as has been done with the spelling of many aboriginal 
Indian names. 

Of the geographic nomenclature of Asiatic countries none has 
become so rapidly well known as that of the Japan Archipelago, 
and we can already now class Japan among the countries having 
an official geographic nomenclature in Roman character. 

Within less than twenty years, the wonderfully progressive Jap- 
anese have established a geographic service for the survey of their 
domain, and a hydrographic service for the survey of their coasts 
and navigable waters. They have now published several hundreds 
of nautical charts, which are as good and practical as any published 
by other nations. 

On those Japanese charts, which are based exclusively on their 
own surveys, the names are printed in the signs of .the ' Nana ' 
with the transliteration of the name in Roman character added. 
It is this feature which has materially helped us to a better and 
correct knowledge of their geographic names. Within the last 
few years the Komaji-Nioai* has made immense progress, and 
I understand that the society's system forms already part of the 
instruction in a number of schools in Japan. Hence, we may 

* Society for the introduction of the Roman character for writing the 
Japanese language. 



270 National Geographic Magazine. 

look forward to the day when Japanese books printed in Roman 
characters will supersede, to a large extent, the books in the signs 
of the ' Kana? 

One of the best authorities for writing and pronouncing the 
names of the districts, cities, towns and villages of Japan is a 
very recent publication* by our honored countryman, Mr. W. -N. 
Whitney, interpreter at the U. S. Legation at Tokyo, who com- 
piled this admirable book with great care and labor from the 
official records of the Japanese empire. It not only contains the 
names in the original Japanese print, but what is of chief value 
to us, also the transcription, in accordance with the Momaji-JKwai 
system. We cannot do better, at present, than to follow this book 
in determining the orthography of geographic names in Japan. 

In not so satisfactory a state as the orthography of Japanese 
geographic names is that of the countries adjacent to Japan. 
Considering that Asiatic names have been transcribed phoneti- 
cally by explorers and surveyors of different nationalities, at dif- 
ferent periods of time, and who were often but little, or not at 
all, acquainted with the languages they had to deal with, it is not 
surprising that many of the names we find on the charts should 
have been written utterly wrong. That such was the case on 
even comparatively recent surveys is, for instance, illustrated by 
the change in the nomenclature on the French plan of Cape 
Koan Lan, in the Gulf of Tongking (Plan No. 3721). In this 
French survey of 1878 the same names on the editions of 
1879 and 1886, respectively, are rendered thus : 

1879. 1886. 

Cap Cua-Lam. Cap Koan Lang. 

He Capuitao. Cai-puii-tao. 

He Soum-La-Too. Siong-Lai-Tao. 

He Laito-San. Lai-Tao. 

He Foum-Lung. He Fong Wong. 

Such differences in spelling, and examples of pleonasm, as are 
indicated by these names, are found on the charts of all nations, 
but, under the beneficial working of the systems adopted by the 
British, French and Germans, similar errors are rapidly being cor- 
rected, and progress is being made towards international uni- 
formity in the spelling of all geographic names. 

* A concise Dictionary of the principal roads, chief-towns and villages 
of Japan, with populations, post-offices, &c. ; together with Lists of Ken, 
Kori, and Railways. By W. N. Whitney, M.D., Interpreter of the U. S. 
Legation, Tokyo. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 271 

Owing to the number of languages and alphabets in use in the 
Indian empire, the orthography of its geographic names has for a 
long time been in controversy. As we see from the " British 
System," the Royal Geographical Society has decided to spell 
Indian names in accordance with " Hunters' Imperial Gazetteer of 
India," a decision which, in view of the fact that the spelling in 
the Gazetteer is not always in harmony with the adopted rules, is 
to be regretted. But we can at the same time understand the 
difficulties of the situation, and appreciate the strong love of the 
British for old forms and long usage. The differences between 
the system and the Gazetteer are, however, not radical, since the 
continental vowel system is followed; still, it would be just as easy 
to write Kalkutta, Kutch, etc., for Calcutta, Cutch, etc., as it is 
to write Korea for Corea, and thus be consistent with the rules. 

Geographic names in Malay and its branches we know mainly 
through Dutch, British and Spanish surveyors, and their status 
may be judged from the prefatory remarks in Maxwell's grammar 
of Malay, published in 1882, wherein he says, that the spelling of 
Malay words in the native character is hardly yet fixed, though 
the Perso-Arabic alphabet has been in use since the 13th century, 
and that those follow but a vain shadow who seek to prescribe 
exact modes of spelling words, regarding which even native 
authorities are not agreed, and of which the pronunciation may 
vary according to locality. 

On the charts published by the Batavian Hydrographic Office, 
the Malay names are rendered in accordance with the Dutch pho- 
netic system of transliteration (only that the sound of g is always 
hard) and as this differs from the British phonetic system in sev- 
eral particulars, it is clear that certain corrections must be applied 
to the spelling of " Dutch " Malay names to facilitate the approxi- 
mately correct pronunciation of such names by English speaking 
peoples. But a source of trouble is the seeming uncertainty of 
the Batavian geographers themselves in regard to the orthography 
of many names, since it is a frequent occurrence to find the same 
names variously rendered on charts, or in sailing directions issued 
at short intervals of time. 

We can see, from what has been said above, that chances for 
disagreement in the rendering of geographic names, originating 
in countries that do not use the Roman alphabet for their litera- 
ture, are numei'ous, and hence, the occurrence of errors in the 
application of a new system should not be too harshly con- 



272 National Geographic Magazine. 

denined ; nor would the culprits deserve to be dealt with accord- 
ing to the law laid down by the municipal council of the good 
old Swiss town of Kiissnacht, which not very long ago issued a 
decree that the final t in the name of their town should be dropped 
in all official communications, and that any local official failing to 
obey this decree should be fined. 

Me. Baker : In the preparation of a map, the last things to go 
on are the names. If the map covers a region of country long 
known or thickly settled most of its features already have names. 
But comparison of several maps of, or writings about, a region 
almost invariably reveals confusion, contradictions and errors in 
the names. The same feature often bears different names on 
different maps. The same name has various spellings, and the 
names on the map may in their turn not agree with local usage. 
Examples of this confusion abound everywhere, and are a source 
of constant perplexity to the geographer. 

The names are often misapplied. The name of one cape or 
mountain peak through accident, carelessness, ignorance, or by 
intent is often found attached to some other cape or mountain 
peak. A small feature's name may be extended to cover much 
more than that to which it fittingly belongs ; or a name rightly 
applicable to a large tract may be wrongly restricted to a small 
one. In the hands of the map-maker geographic names may be 
regarded as labels loosely attached and easily misplaced. Handled 
by many writers, both careful and careless, these ' labels become 
misplaced or lost ; and in replacing these misplaced labels or in 
restoring lost ones much confusion and many errors arise. The 
newspaper writer writing hurriedly, the magazine writer without 
hurry, or the book writer working deliberately, each in turn finds 
that the investigation of questions relating to geographic names 
carries him away from .his subject. If a question arises respect- 
ing a non-geographic term the dictionary can be appealed to and, 
right or wrong, followed without discredit. But with many or 
most of the questions about geogiuphic names, in the United 
States at least, we have no adequate dictionary or " authority " 
to appeal to. As. a consequence in most cases the writer takes 
indifferently what is nearest to mind or hand and thus produces 
new varieties in names, variants upon old ones or quite new ones. 
Such names are called corrupt until usage and familiarity removes 
the stigma and the corrupted name having grown respectable is 
adopted. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 273 

A foreign name may be transliterated by one writer and trans- 
lated by another. This course gives rise to two or more forms. 
The absence of uniform usage in transliterating, causes diversity 
in one case, and in the other as several translations are possible, 
and mistakes probable, various forms arise. 

The progress of all science is intimately associated with ques- 
tions of nomenclature. Modern progress in biologic science dates 
from the adoption of the binomial system, and it is not too much 
to expect that progress in geographic science will similarly be 
found to be intimately associated with a study of geographic 
names and the principles which should control in their adoption 
and use. 

The object aimed at in these notes is to draw attention to the 
importance of the subject and to arouse discussion ; the purpose 
of the discussion being to ascertain if there be not certain guid- 
ing principles which may serve to aid in solving the numerous 
and perplexing questions relating to geographic nomenclature. 

What is a geographic name ? Without attempting a categori- 
cal answer to this question I would say that geographic names 
seem to me to bear a strong resemblance to the names used in biol- 
ogy. They are generic and specific. To designate any specific geo- 
graphic feature we usually use two words, one a descriptive term, 
such as river, island, lake, pond or mountain, and the other, a 
specific name indicating what particular pond, lake, or mountain 
is designated. The term Mississippi River is a compound name, 
in which river may be regarded as a part of a proper name. It 
is the name of a genus, whereas the term Mississippi is the speci- 
fic designation. Of course it will happen in geographic names, 
as in biologic, that certain features or objects become so well 
known that a single name, either the generic or the specific will 
be used by itself to designate the object. We speak of Maine 
without prefixing the generic term " State of," the specific name 
being sufficiently characteristic. On the other hand here in 
Washington references to "the Avenue " meaning Pennsylvania 
Avenue are familiar to all. In this case the generic term is used 
for particular specification. These exceptional usages, however, 
do not appear to me to invalidate the general principle that the 
designation of geographic features consists in general of a specific 
and of a generic name. 

The origin of generic terms has been much studied. The 
origin of specific names has been studied but little and the present 



274 National Geographic Magazine. 

notes relate chiefly to this class. Specific names may be said to 
have two distinct origins, first, those of formal origin where the 
name has been given pro forma and published in a book or map 
relating to the region by its discoverer, or by the earliest ex- 
plorers. This covers the case for a small body of names. Second, 
there is a very large body of names which appear to have arisen 
without such formal origin, and to have, as it were, grown up by 
common consent in the usage of the people of the region. 

That which it seems profitable to discuss here, and now, is the 
principles which should be adopted and followed in the selection 
of the names which are to go upon the map ; principles which 
will enable one to discriminate when usage is divided, between 
that which should be adopted and that which should be rejected. 
To make this clear, a few instances of the peculiar questions which 
arise may be cited, and then some of the guiding principles stated 
which it might be possible to adopt and to follow. 

The river which flows along the western edge of New York 
Citv is locally known as the North River. Shall this be called 
the North River, or Hudson River, or Hudson's River ? And if 
this geographic name is printed in the text of a book, will you 
print river with a capital letter or a small letter ? It must be 
borne in mind that this question is asked not for the purpose of 
immediate or categorical answer, but for the purpose of eliciting 
thought and discussion upon the principles which should control 
the answer. 

In 1793 Vancouver entered and mapped Port Townsend, which 
he formally named Port Townshend. At the present time the 
city situated upon that harbor, as well as the harbor itself, is uni- 
versally known as Port Townsend, the "A" in the original being 
omitted. This is a clear and specific case, where the name form- 
ally applied by the original explorer is now modified in its 
orthography by usage. What form of the name shall be adopted ? 
The former or original name or- the present modified name ? And 
if the original name is to be adopted, shall we proceed similarly 
in all cases and go back to the original form ? 

In the case of names which have undergone transformations 
through ignorance or through usage, shall an attempt be made to 
restore the original orthography ? Take the case in Missouri of 
the stream called Bois Brule, or burnt wood, and which has be- 
come in the usage of the residents in that part of the world Bob 
Ruly, and is so spelled in the local publications, and so pronounced 
in the local usage. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 275 

When Champlain sailed along the heel of Cape Cod and discov- 
ered the extensive shoals which vex the navigation in those 
waters, he put upon his chart the statement mal barre, and a 
number of later maps applied this name to the southernmost point 
of the heel of Cape Cod as Malabar, and so it stood for 100 years 
or more as Malabar and may even be found upon some current 
publications. In the Coast Survey publications it is uniformly 
called Monomoy. 

Again on the north shore of Martha's Vineyard is a place for- 
merly known by the Indian word Kiphiggon. On the modern 
maps this place is called Cape Higgon. Shall we in this case adopt 
the practice of the purists and restore the earlier form ? In this 
same locality are four small harbors, called by the sailors Holes ; 
namely Holmes' Hole, Wood's Hole, Robinson's Hole, and Quick's 
Hole. In current usage, except among seamen, Holmes' Hole has 
disappeared and been replaced by Vineyard Haven. Wood's hole 
has been converted into Wood's Holl, though still pronounced 
hole ; while Robinson and Quick still remain holes. In this case 
shall we attempt to be consistent, or in other words to be uni- 
form ? 

In the vicinity of New Haven there is a hill occupied many 
years ago by Coast Survey parties, and called in their records 
Rabbit Rock. Surveying parties last year in searching for this 
station inquired diligently in the vicinity and failed to find any 
information respecting it for some time. The place, however, is 
well known to all the people for many miles around as Peter's 
Rock, and this name appears on the county atlas of New Haven, 
published in 1856. I suppose the name Rabbit Rock has found 
earlier publication on Coast Survey charts or in its reports, 
though I have not verified this supposition. But assuming that 
it has been so published, shall we now call that hill Rabbit Rock 
or Peter's Rock ? 

Allegany County, New York, is spelled Allegany. A post of- 
fice in Sierra County, California, is spelled Alleghany ; the city 
of Allegheny near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, is spelled Allegheny. 
Shall these names be allowed to stand unchanged, or should an 
attempt be made to reduce them all to one form ? 

In the last century, the place we now know as Sitka was known 
to the English as Norfolk Sound, to the French as Tchinkitane 
Bay, and to the Russians as New Archangel. The earliest of 
these names being Norfolk Sound. Is there any doubt in this 
case as to the advisability of retaining the name Sitka ? 



276 National Geographic Magazine. 

The great sea between Northeastern Asia and Northwestern 
America, at one time known as the Sea of Kamchatka, and now 
known as Bering Sea, has been variously written Bhering Sea, 
Behring Sea, Beering Sea, Bering Sea, as well as all these forms 
with the addition of the apostrophe " s." I will not ask what is 
the correct name, as the question in this form seems to imply that 
there is a correct form, and all other forms are erroneous. The 
question should rather be, what form is it advisable to adopt with 
the view, let us hope, of securing its general adoption ? 

And this leads up to the question of possessives generally in 
specific geographic names. Many specific geographic names have 
the possessive form, while many others do not. Is it advisable to 
attempt to secure uniformity of usage in this regard ? I will 
frankly avow my own conviction which has resulted from more 
or less consideration and study of the matter to be, that the use of 
the possessive form should be discouraged and abandoned as far as 
practicable. While it seems to me unwise to lay down a hard and 
fast rule, yet there are a very large number of cases in which the 
possessive form may be dropped to advantage and without, I 
think, arousing any general opposition to the practice. When 
the theory held that the King owned all, and geographic features 
were named for the royal family or for the nobility, the possessive 
form was very frequently used indicating possession or ownership, 
and this in cases where such possessive form has now disappeared 
from the maps. Why should not the possessive form be used to 
denote possession only ? A pond, a hill, a swamp, lying on 
Smith's land may be properly designated as it often is, as Smith's 
pond, Smith's hill, etc. But nobody would think of saying Mad- 
ison's Place, or Washington's Monument. There appears to be a. 
certain principle involved. Those particular features which are 
of a public character, such as states, counties, towns, streets, 
parks, etc., which are named for individuals are almost universally 
named without the possessive form. And this commends itself 
as a reasonable practice. Without, therefore, cutting off posses- 
sives from all names where usage has now fixed them with consid- 
erable firmness, there yet remains a considerable body of geo- 
graphic names in which the possessive form remains, but which 
are, not strongly intrenched in public usage. In such cases it 
seems to me we may advantageously drop the possessive form. 
Let us say Donner Lake, not Donner's Lake, Hudson Bay, not 
Hudson's Bay, James Bay, not James' Bay, Baffin Bay, not 
Baffin's Bay, etc., etc 



Geographic Nomenclature. 277 

Me. Thompson : I hardly know how I came to be brought 
into this discussion. The Secretary caught me in his net unawares 
and unprepared. I do not propose to trespass long on your time, 
nor do I suppose I shall add anything to a philosophical discus- 
sion of geographic nomenclature. I only wish to call your at- 
tention to a few principles that obviously should be followed in 
the selection of new geographic names and to show some absur- 
dities and difficulties which are liable to occur if the sentiment in 
favor of Indian nomenclature is allowed full liberty. A geo- 
graphic name should be short, euphonic, pronounced as spelled, 
and have a meaning or express some sentiment to help fix it in 
the memory. Especially should these principles govern when 
we consider that in childhood, in our school-days, we obtain by 
far the greater portion of our geographic knowledge. 

The old Spanish explorers followed these rules largely in their 
geographic nomenclature, and although " Saint " and " Sien-a " 
occur with alarming frequency, there is always some reason for 
the appellation ; either they saw a line of peaks cut the horizon 
or the christening occurred on the natal day of the holy martyr. 
"Rio Dolores" and "Las Animas" are certainly better than 
" Sorrow Creek " or " Soul Wash," and even " Purgatoire " — 
though the Colorado cow-boy corrupts it into " Picket Wire " — 
is better than " Cottonwood Creek." 

Some Indian names are very expressive, characterizing topo- 
graphic features. In northern Arizona is a steep volcanic neck 
or needle, its sharp sides rising in one step twelve hundred feet 
above the surrounding country. From the base of this pinnacle, 
two long lava dykes stretch on either hand in a gentle curve 
•across the mesa. The resemblance to the spreading wings of a 
bird is striking, and the Navajo Indian calls the rock "A-ga- 
thla " — the " Flying Bird." A name well worthy, it seems to me, 
of being placed on the maps of that region, as it is on the one I 
hold in my hand. But on the same map, close along side, is " Te- 
ze-ba-a-kit Lake," a barbarous appellation — unspellable, unpro- 
nounceable and unlovely. Nor can I say less in denunciation of 
" Zilh-le-ji-ni Mesa " — a name that needs intimate acquaintance 
with wigwam smoke and Navajo gutturals to handle lingually. 
But what shall we say of " Boo-koo-dot-klish Canon ;" the Navajo 
name for what the white man calls with better propriety, it seems 
to me, for our maps, " Bluestone Wash." " To-go-hol-tas-e 
Spring " could hardly be worse in English. And here is " Sa- 
vol. n. 19 



278 National Geographic Magazine. 

hot-soid-be-azh-e Caiion" (pronounce it as you please or can) 
sandwiched between " Gothic Wash " and " Gypsum Valley " — 
one hardly knows which to prefer, Indian or English. 

Canon del Muerto " — the Canon of the Dead — so named from 
the discovery of mummified or rather dessicated Indian bodies in 
its cliffs — seems very appropriate, but its brother canon — " Canon 
de Chelly," pronounced Canon de Shay, will be neither spoken nor 
written correctly. 

On this same map are shown two small mesas, crowned with 
forests and standing beautiful and symmetric in the landscape. 
They attract attention at once and the Indian, with a fine sense of 
appropriateness, names them " Son-sa-la " — the " Twin Stars " ; 
another name well worthy of being retained. Some patriotic 
American has named the deep gorge separating the " Stars " 
" Washington Pass," a good example of the right name in a 
wrong place. 

The sense of broad humor that often characterizes the Indian 
leads him to sometimes give the inquirer a name expressive of 
contenrpt or bearing a meaning hardly translatable to ears polite 
— " Nic-doit-so-e Peak " is an example — and I confess, with con- 
siderable humiliation, that I was the victim in this case. 

I present these instances, Mr. Chairman, to emphasize the 
necessity of adopting some guiding- principles to aid us in the 
selection of geographic names. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 279 



APPENDIX 



Rules foe the Orthography of Geographic Names. 

contributed by mr. herrle. 

British System — French System — German System — Alphabets, 
Russian- English y English- Russian. 

British System. 

Rules adopted in 1885, by the Royal Geographical Society at London, 
for the Orthography of Native Names of Places. 

Taking into consideration the present want of a system of 
geographical orthography, and the consequent confusion and 
variety that exist in the mode of spelling in English maps, the 
Council of the Royal Geographical Society have adopted the 
following rules for such geographical names as are not, in the 
countries to which they belong, written in the Roman character. 
These rules are identical with those adopted for the Admiralty 
charts, and will henceforth be used in all publications of the 
Society. 

1. No change will be made in the orthography of foreign names 
in countries which use Roman letters : thus Spanish, Portuguese, 
Dutch, etc., names will be spelt as by the respective nations. 

2. Neither will any change be made in the spelling of such 
names in languages which are not written in Roman character as 
have become by long usage familiar to English readers : thus 
Calcutta, Cutch, Celebes, Mecca, etc., will be retained in their 
present form. 

3. The true sound of the word as locally pronounced will be 
taken as the basis of the spelling. 

4. An approximation, however, to the sound is alone aimed at. 
A system which would attempt to represent the more delicate 
inflections of sound and accent would be so complicated as only 
to defeat itself. Those who desire a more accurate pronunciation 
of the written name must learn it on the spot by a study of local 
accent and peculiarities. 

5. The broad features of the system are that vowels are pro- 
nounced as in Italian and consonants as in English. 

6. One accent only is used, the acute, to denote the syllable on 
which stress is laid. This is very important, as the sounds of 



280 



National Geographic Magazine. 



many names are entirely altered by the misplacement of this 
"stress." 

7. Every letter is pronounced. When two vowels come to- 
gether, each one is sounded, though the result, when spoken 
quickly, is sometimes scarcely to be distinguished from a single 
sound, as in ai, au, ei. 

8. Indian names are accepted as spelt in Hunter's Gazetteer. 
The amplification of the rules is given below : — 



ai 
au 

ao 
ei 



ch 
d 
f 



kh 
gh 

1 
m 

n 
rig 



Pronunciation and Remarks. 



Examples. 



ah, a as in father - Java, Banana, Somali, Bari. 

eh, e as in benefit Tel-el-Kebir, Oleleh, Yezo, 

Medina, Leviika, Peru. 
English e ; i as in ravine ; the sound! 

of ee in beet.. Thus, not Feejee, but Fiji, Hindi. 

o as in mote --- --. Tokio. 

long u as m flute ; the sound of oo m 

boot - . Thus, not Zooloo, but Zulu, Sumatra. 

All vowels are shortened in sound by Yarra, Tanna, Mecca, Jidda, 

doubling the following consonant. Bonny. 
Doubling of a vowel is only necessary Nuuliia, Oosirna. 

where there is a distinct repetition 

of the single sound. 

English i as in ice . . Shanghai. 

oivsiS in how .Thus, not Foochow, but Fuchau. 

is slightly different from above _ Macao. 

is the sound of the two Italian vowels, Beirut, Beilul. 

but is frequently slurred over, when I 

it is scarcely to be distinguished' 

from ey in the English they. 
English 6. 
is always soft, but is so nearly thel' 

sound of s that it should be seldom 

used. 
If Celebes were not already recognized) 

it would be written Selebes. 

is always soft as in church Chingchin. 

English d. 

English /. ph should not be used for 

the sount of /.Thus, not Haiphong, 

but Haifong, Nafa. 

is always bard. (Soft g is given by j). Galapagos. 
is always pronounced when inserted. 
English j. Dj should never be put Japan, Jinchuen. 

for this sound. 
English k. It should always be put 

for the hard c. Thus, not Corea, but Korea. 

The Oriental guttural ... Khan. 

is another guttural, as in the Turkish Dagh, Ghazi. 

As in English. 



Celebes. 



has two separate sounds, the one hard 
as in the English word finger, the 
other as in singer. As these two 
sounds are rarely employed in the 
same locality, no attempt is made 
to distinguish between them. 



Geographic Nomenclature. 



281 



Pronunciation and Remarks. 



As in English, 
should never be 
given as Jew 



employed ; qu is 



► As in English. 



Sawakin. 

is always a consonant, as in yard, Kikuyu. 
and therefore should never be used 
as a terminal,, i or e being substi- 
tuted. 

Thus, not Mikinddny, but Mikindani. 
not Kwaly, but K wale. 

English z ... Zulu. 

Accents should not generally be used, Tongatabu, Galapagos, Pal- 



Examples. 



Kwangtung. 



but where there is a very decided 
emphatic syllable or stress, which 
affects the sound of the word, it 
should be marked by an acute 
accent. 



a wan, Sarawak, 



FRENCH SYSTEM. 

Rules Adopted in April, 1886, by the Societe de G-eographie at 
Paris, for the Orthography of Native Names of Places. 

The geographic names in countries in which the- Roman char- 
acter is employed in writing (which includes the neo-Latin, 
Germanic, and Scandinavian languages) shall be written in the 
orthography of the country to which they belong. 

The following rules apply solely to geographic names in coun- 
tries without a written language, and to geographic names in 
countries where another than the Roman character is employed 
in writing. 

Names of places for which the orthography, through long 
usage, has become consecrated shall, however, be excepted from 
the rules. Examples : La Mecque, Naples, Calcutta. 

The rules in detail are : 

1. The vowels a, e, i, and o are pronounced as in French, 
Spanish, Italian, and German. The letter e shall never be mute. • 

2. The French sound of u shall be represented by u with a 
trema like the German il. 

3. The French sound on shall be represented by u, as in Ital- 
ian, Spanish, and German. 



282 National Geographic Magazine. 

4. The French sound eu shall be represented by the character 
oe and be jnxmounced as in ceil. 

5. The lengthening of a vowel sound shall be indicated by the 
' accent circonflexe ' ("), and the shortening by an ' apostrophe ' ('). 

6. The consonants b, d, f, j, k, I, m, n, p, q, r, t, v, and z are 
pronounced as in French. 

7. g and s have always the hard French sound, as in gamelle, 
strop. 

8. The sound represented in France by ch shall be written sh. 
Examples : Kashgar, Sherif. 

9. Kh represents the strong and gh the soft Arabic guttural. 

10. Th shall represent the articulation in the English word 
path (Greek 8), and dh the sound of th in the English word 
those (Greek 6). 

11. Unless the letter h is employed to modify the sound of the 
letter preceding it, it shall always be aspirated ; it should, there- 
fore, never have an apostrophe in names beginning with it. 

12. The i semi-vowel shall be represented by an y, pronounced 
as in yole. 

13. The semi-vowel w is to be pronounced as in the English 
word Williams. 

14. The double sounds dj, tch, ts shall 'be written with the 
letters which represent the sounds of which they are composed. 
Example : Matshim. 

15. The n, n with a tilde, is to be pronounced like gn in 
seigneur. 

16. The letters x, c, and q are not to be employed as dupli- 
cates, but the letter q may serve to represent the Arabian qaf, 
and the din could be represented by a double dot. 

The idea is to indicate, by means of the characters above given 
as near as possible the local pronunciation without attempting a 
complete reproduction of all sounds heard. 



GERMAN SYSTEM. 

Rules Adopted in 1888 by the Imperial German Hydrographic 

Office, for the Orthography and Pronunciation of 

Foreign Geographic Names. 

The names from nations who use the Roman or German alpha- 
bet are to be rendered in the native form, excepting such for 



Geographic Nomenclature. 283 

which a German orthography has been generally adopted, as 
Kopenhagen, Neapel, Genua, etc. Other foreign names which 
are generally known and whose orthography has been generally 
adopted, as Zanzibar, not Sansibar • Zulu, not Sulu, will not be 
changed. 

The letters are pronounced as follows : 
a, as a in Voter. 

a, between a and o (Aland's Inseln). 

e, as in Eden. 
i, as in Ida. 
o, as in JBrot. 
u, as in nur. 

a, (se, Ae) \ 

6, (oe, Oe) V retain their German sounds. 

ti, (ue, Ue) ) 

ai, as in Kaiser. 

au, as in auch. 

ao, not quite as one sound. 

ei, as in JEi. 

b, d, g, h, j, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, w, x and z retain their German 

sounds. 

f, retains its German sound ; also {or ph, but the latter will not 

be used. 

c, always soft (as z). For the sound of Jc, c is not to be used, 
j, for the English j (dj). 

q, will not be used ; it is replaced by Jc ; respectively by Jen. 

ch, as tsch. 

sh, as sch. 

y, is only used for the consonantal sound, not for i. 

gh, oriental guttural sound (DagJi, Ghazi). 

kh, oriental guttural sound (Khan). 

v, is always soft ; not to be used to give the sound of f. 

When a vowel is to be pronounced clear and open the follow- 
ing consonant will be doubled : (Tanna, MeJcJca, Bonny). To 
lengthen a vowel sound, it will not be doubled, but if the vowel 
is repeated each will be pronounced separately (Nuuluha, 
Oosima). 

But one accent (') will be used to indicate if particularly neces- 
sary, that is, in exceptional cases, the syllable on which stress is 
to be laid (Matupi). 



284 



National Geographic Magazine. 



RUSSIAN-ENGXJSH. 



.Russian 


Written 


A 


Russian. 


Written. S ] 


o u> 


O to 


w '3 


% i 




"5> J? 

i3 "3 


A a 
B 6 


t4 as 


a 

h 


*1> «J. 

X x 


Js X 


/ 


B it 

r r 


36 


T 

ffb 


IS ii 
q H 




tz 
ch 


4 .i 


$}$a 


d 


III m 


Mat, 


sk 


E e 


& £s 


e 


111 nl 


%™& 


sftck 


*K «i; 


ffioff 


ah 






c 


3 3 


3 3 3 
7/y Us 


s 


b b 


*6 % 


\ Nit tn- 

■\ dtcated, 
i at end 


II li 


I 




ui 60- 


\- of word. 


1 i 


J i, 


i 


hi b\ 


id 


K K 


^ <As 


1< 
I 


b b 


6 6> 


\ Not in- 
•i Heated 
j at end. 


M M 


JCsK 


m 




sfrS 


V. of tcord. 


11 ii 


36k 


n 


T» t, 


S 3 

0<? 

CO 46. 


ya 


o 


o> 





y j 


e 


II n 


Jotv 


V 


!0.io 


#« 


P ,) 
C c 




r 


si ii 

o 


ya 
Ik 


T T 


3rum/ 


t 


V v 


■se 


y y 

• 


y y 


V 


li ii 


i 



Geographic Nomenclature. 



285 



ENGLISH-RUSSIAN. 



a 


A 


I 


II 


l\ 


il 


vi- 


bl 


b 


E 


I 


ii 


r 


V 


V 


B 


ch 


q 


h 


K 


8 





J a 


fl 


d 


4 


H 


X 


ah 


III 


ye 


]i 


& 


E 


I 


A 


■thck 


III 


yn 


10 


e 


3 


m 


M 


t 


T 


z 


3 


f 




n 


il 


a 





zh 


JK 


gh 


r 


o 





tz 


H 


< 


T> 


i 


1 


ce 


V 


u 


y 


' 


b 






^^ 






Vol. II. 



No. 5. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 



MAGAZINE. 




PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Price, 25 cents. 






CONTENTS 



Page. 

Announcement, ........ 287 

Proceedings of the National Geographic Society, . . . 290 

National Geographic Society : 

Report of the Secretaries, ...... 296 

Report of the Treasurer, ..... 299 

Report of the Auditing Committee, .... 301 

Summary of Reports on the Mt. St. Elias Expedition, . 302 

By-Laws, ........ 305 

Standing Rules of the Board of Managers, . . . 308 

Rules relating to Publication, . . . . . 311 

Officers of the Society, ..... 315 

Members of the Society, ...... 316 

Index to Volumes I and II, . . . . . . 335 

Title-page for Volume I, ...... i 

Title-page for Volume II, ..... i 

List of Contents of Volumes I and II, . • . . . iii 

List of Illustrations in Volumes I and II, . . . . vii 

April, 1891. 



THE 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 



Vol. II. 1890. No. 5. 



ANNOUNCEMEMT. 

The National Geographic Society was organized in January, 
1888, "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge." It is in- 
corporated under the laws of the District of Columbia, and has 
at present an active membership of about four hundred. 

The publication of a magazine was early determined upon as 
one of the means of increasing and diffusing geographic knowl- 
edge ; and two volumes of The National Geographic Magazine 
have been published in the form of a quarterly journal. 

During the past two years it has been found that the form of 
publication adopted at the outset meets but imperfectly the needs 
of the Society : in the first place, since the season of active work 
in the Society includes the winter months only, there was an 
excess of material for the two earlier numbers and a dearth of 
material for the two later numbers of the volume ; and in the 
second place, the necessity for holding articles until sufficient 
material for a number was received sometimes led to delay in 
publishing interesting and important matter. Accordingly it has 
been decided to discontinue the quarterly form and to publish the 
Magazine in the form of a series of brochures, each issued 
promptly as possible after reception of the material. The details 
of this modified form of publication are set forth elsewhere in 
this number of the Magazine. 

VOL. II. 20 



288 National Geographic Magazine. 

While the National Geographic Magazine is edited by and 
constitutes the organ of the National Geographic Society, it 
is not limited to this function ; and, as was announced in the first 
number of the journal, " its pages will be open to all persons 
interested in geography in the hope that it may become a channel 
of intercommunication, stimulate geographic investigation, and 
prove an acceptable medium for the publication of results." 

With the adoption of the modified form of the journal the 
publication year was changed from one determined by the work- 
ing season of the Society to the calendar year ; and it is to cover 
a hiatus in the Society's records growing out of this change that 
this fifth number of Volume II is issued. 



The National Capital seems to be a natural and appropriate 
place for an association of national character, and the aim of the 
founders has been therefore to form a continental rather than a 
local Society. That this aim has measurably succeeded is indi- 
cated by the fact that although the National Geographic 
Society is only three years old there are 57 non-resident members, 
distributed over 27 states and territories. 

One of the means adopted by the National Geographic 
Society for increasing geographic knowledge has been that of 
exploration. In the spring of 1890 an expedition was sent out 
by the Society to explore and survey the Mt. St. Elias alps of 
Alaska. The results of the expedition include (1) new deter- 
minations of altitude and geographic position for Mt. St. Elias 
and neighboring peaks ; (2) a topographic map of a considerable 
part of the Mt..St. Elias range with its southwestern foothills 
and the slopes thence to the shores of the Pacific ; (3) an inves- 
tigation of the glaciers of this alpine region ; (4) researches into 
the geology of the region ; and (5) a study of the range and its 
climatal and other conditions so complete as to prepare the way 
for detailed surveys of the entire region. 

A report on the Mt. St. Elias expedition, comprising about 150 
pages of letter-press with 20 plates and a number of other illus- 
trations, has just been sent to press as a part of Volume III of 
the National Geographic Magazine. 

As another means of carrying out the purposes of the Society, 
regular fortnightly meetings are held for presenting scientific and 



Announcement. 289 

popular communications on geographic subjects, some of which 
are published in the National Geographic Magazine. The 
Society also provides for the delivery of public lectures in Wash- 
ington upon explorations in little-known countries and upon other 
geographic subjects. Within a few months lectures have been 
delivered under the auspices of the Society by eminent explorers 
or students on the following subjects : 

The Explorer in Egypt ; 

Buried Cities of Ancient Egypt ; 

Life among the Australian Cannibals ; 

A Journey through China, Mongolia and Thibet ; 

Korea and the Koreans ; 

Results of the Mt. St. Elias Exploring Expedition. 

The Society has in preparation a physical atlas of the United 
States. 

There is no geographic or number limitation to membership in 
the Society. The National Geographic Magazine is sent free 
to members. 



Correspondence with the Society should be addressed to 
Mr. Marcus Baker, Secretary, No. 1330 F Street, Washington, 
D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



ABSTRACT OF MINUTES. 



March 21, 1890. 37th meeting. 

Meeting held in Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. President 
Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 50. 

Article V, paragraph one, of the By-laws was amended so as 
to read " The annual dues of active members shall be five dollars 
and of corresponding members two dollars, payable during the 
month of January, or, in the case of new members, within thirty 
days after election." 

A discussion was then had on the subject of Geographic 
Nomenclature, participated in by Messrs. H. G. Ogden, Gustave 
Herrle, Marcus Baker and A. H. Thompson. Published in 
The National Geographic Magazine. 8°. Washington, I). C. 
August, 1890. Vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 261-278. 

Mr. L. P. Klemm made some remarks on " A new method of 
developing geographic facts in teaching." 

April If, 1890. 38th meeting. 

Meeting held in Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. Vice- 
President Hayden in the chair. Attendance, 25. 

Mr. Robert Stein read a paper on " Turkish rule in Armenia," 
which was discussed by Mr. H. Garabed of Sis, Cilicia, Asia 
Minor, and by Mr. Kenaston. JVot published. 

April 11, 1890. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Lecture Hall of the National Museum. 
Vice-President Hayden in the chair. Attendance, 850. 



Abstract of Minutes. 291 

Ensign J. B. Bernadou, IT. S. N., addressed the Society on 
" Korea and the Koreans." His lecture was illustrated by lantern 
slides. Revised and published in The National Geographic 
Magazine. 8°. Washington I). C. August, 1890. Vol. 2, no. 
4, pp. 231-242. 

April 18, 1890. 39th meeting. " 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. Vice- 
President Hayden in the chair. Attendance, 90. 

Ensign Hugh Rodman, IT. S. N., read a paper on "Icebergs 
and field ice in the North Atlantic." The communication was 
illustrated by lantern slides. Published by the U. S. Hydro- 
graphic Office with this title — Wo. 93. Report of ice and ice 
movements in the North Atlantic Ocean, by Ensign Hugh Rod- 
man, U. S. N, under the direction of (J apt. Henry F. Picking, 
XT. S. N, Hydrographer. 8°. Washington, government print- 
ing office. 1890. 26 pp. 1 folder, 4 maps. 

The paper was briefly discussed by Mr. Hayden. 

May 2, 1890. 4.0th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Lecture Hall of the National Museum. 
Vice-President Ogden in the chair. Attendance, 450. 

Mr. W. W. Rockhill read a paper giving an account of "A 
journey through Mongolia, China and Thibet," made by him in 
1888-1889. The communication was illustrated by lantern slides. 
The material embodied in this paper with much more on the 
same subject has been pmblished in . The Century. 8°. Netc 
York, 1890, Nov. Vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1-17 ; Dec. no. 2, pp. 
250-263 ; Jan. 1891, no. 3, pp. 350-361 ; Feb. no. 4, pp. 599- 
606 ; Mar. no. 5, pp. 720-730. 

May 7, 1890. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 50. 

This was a special meeting called to consider the following 
propositions. 

First : Methods of increasing membership. 

Second: The employment of a salaried assistant secretary. 

Third : The establishment of a monthly periodical. 

Fourth: The formation of sections, or auxiliary societies, 
throughout the country. 



292 National Geographic Magazine. 

Messrs. Baker, Blodgett, Gilbert, Goodfellow, Hayden, Horn- 
aday, J. B. Johnson, W. D. Johnson, Kenaston, McGee, Ogden, 
Gilbert Thompson, Weed and Welling took part in the discussion 
of these propositions. There was unanimity of sentiment as to 
the desirability of increasing the membership and employing a 
salaried assistant secretary and editor. 

With regard to the third and fourth propositions sentiment 
was divided. 

Action was taken by the adoption of the following : — 

Resolved: That the members of the Society pledge themselves 
severally to use their best endeavors to obtain two new members 
each for the Society, within the next ten days and report their 
names to the Secretary of the Society. 

Resolved: That a committee of five, of which the President 
shall be chairman, be appointed by the President for the purpose 
of devising plans and raising means for carrying out the purposes 
for which the Society is organized. 

The President named as such committee, 

Messrs. Gardiner G. Hubbard, Chairman, 
Marcus Baker, 
Henry Gannett, 
A. W. Greely, 
Everett Hayden. 

May 16, 1890. Jflst meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. Vice- 
President Hayden in the chair. Attendance, 50. 

Mr. Josiah Pierce, Jr., read a paper on "The Ordnance Survey 
of Great Britain — its history and object," which was illustrated 
by numerous maps and drawings. The paper was discussed by 
Messrs. Baker, Bartle, Gannett, Gilbert, W. D. Johnson, Little- 
hales, Gilbert Thompson and the author. Published in The 
National Geographic Magazine. 8°. Washington, D. C. 
August, 1890. Vol. 2, no. £, pp. 2^3-260. 

Summer Vacation. 



November 26, 1890. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in Lincoln Music Hall. Hon. W. T. Harris pre- 
sided. Attendance, 800. 



Abstract of Minutes. 293 

Mr. I. C. Russell delivered an address on the results of the 
exploration made by hini under the auspices of the National 
Geographic Society, last summer, in the vicinity of Mt. St. Elias, 
Alaska. The address was illustrated by wall maps and lantern 
slides. A full report of this exploration will be published in The 
National Geographic Magazine. An article on the subject is also 
expected to appear in The Century, April, 1890. 

November 28, 1890. Ifid meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 90. 

The chair announced the election to membership since the 
meeting of May 23, 1890, of 148 new members. 

Mr. Mark B. Kerr read a paper on the results of his surveys 
last summer in company with Mr. I. C. Russell in the vicinity of 
Mt. St. Elias, Alaska. The paper was discussed by Messrs. Abbe, 
Baker, Dall, Gannett, Gilbert, Ogden and Woodward. Revised 
and published in Scribner's Magazine. 8°. New York, 1891, 
March, Vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 361-372. 

Mr. I. C. Russell exhibited a painting of Taku Glacier, Alaska, 
made by Mr. Keith, of San Francisco, and made a few explanatory 
remarks thereon. 

December 12, 1890. l/.3d meeting. 

Meeting held in the Lecture Hall of the Columbian University. 
Vice-President Hayden in the chair. Attendance, 200. 

Ensign J. M. Ellicott, IT. S. N., delivered an address, illustrated 
by lantern slides, on " Surveys executed by the U. S. S. Ranger 
in Lower California." Not yet published. 

December 19, 1890. Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Lecture Hall of the Columbian University. 
Vice-President Ogden in the chair. Attendance, 100. 

The President, Gardiner G. Hubbard, delivered his annual 
address, on the subject "South America." Published in The 
National Geographic Magazine. 8°. Washington, D. C. 
March, 1891. Vol. 3, pp. 1-30. 

December 26, 1890, lf.li.th {3d annual) meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assemblv Hall of the Cosmos Club. 



294 National Geographic Magazine. 

The annual report of the Secretaries was presented. Printed 
on pages 296-298. 

The annual report of the Treasurer was presented and referred 
to an auditing committee consisting of Messrs. P. H. Christie, 
R. D. Cummin and S.' A. Aplin, Jr. Printed on pages 299, 300. 

The annual election of officers, for 1891, was then held with 
the following result : 

President — Gardiner G. Hubbard. 
Vice-Presidents — H. G. Ogden [land] ; 
Everett Hayden [sea] ; 
A. W. Greely [air] ; 
C. Hart Merriam [life] ; 
Henry Gannett [art]. 
Treasurer — Charles J. Bell. 
Recording Secretary — Marcus Baker. 
Corresponding Secretary — C. A. Kenaston. 
Managers — Rogers Birnie, Jr., 
G. K. Gilbert, 
G. Brown Goode, 
W. D. Johnson, 
W J McGee, 
T. C. Mendenhall, 
W. B. Powell, 
B. H. Warder. 

January 9, 1891. 45th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 30. 

Report of the auditing committee appointed at the last meet- 
ing was presented and adopted. Printed on page 301. 

Article IV of the By-laws was amended by striking out the 
following clause : "The Vice-Presidents, together with -the two 
Secretaries, shall constitute a committee of the Board of Managers 
on Communications and Publications." 

Vice-President Hayden, Department of the Sea, and Vice- 
President Merriam, Department of Life, presented their annual 
reports. Not yet published. 

January 23, 1891. Jf.6th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 35. 



Abstract of Minutes. 295 

Vice-President Greely, Department of the Air, and Vice-Presi- 
dent Ogden, Department of the Land, presented their annual 
reports. JVot yet published. 

February 6, 1891. 4.7th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. 
President Hubbard in the chair. Attendance, 50. 

The meeting was devoted to an account of the U. S. S. Pensa- 
cola expedition to the west coast of Africa. 

Mr. Cleveland Abbe described the cruise in general temns and 
gave some account of the geodetic surveys executed in and the 
climate of South Africa. 

Mr. Heli Chattelaine, of Switzerland, read a paper on the 
Dialects and Folk-Lore of the Portugese portion of West Africa. 

Mr. Frank H. Bigelow read a paper on the island of Ascension. 

February 13, 1891. Siiecial meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. Vice- 
President Greely in the chair. Attendance, 225. 

Hon. Geo. B. Loring, Ex-U. S. Minister to Portugal, delivered 
an address upon the "Kingdom of Portugal." Not published. 

February 20, 1891. 48th meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. Vice- 
President Hayclen in the chair. Attendance, 40. 

Mr. F. H. Newell read a paper on " Natural Gas and Oil in the 
Eastern United States." This paper was discussed by Mr. W J 
McGee. 

Mr. C. D. Walcott read a paper on " The North American 
Continent during the Cambrian." This paper was discussed by 
Messrs. Gilbert and McGee. It is planned to publish the paper 
in The Nationcd Geographic Magazine, Vol. 3. 

February 27, 1891. . Special meeting. 

Meeting held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club. Vice- 
President Greely in the chair. Attendance, 225. 

Major C. E. Dutton, U. S. A. delivered an address upon " The 
Hawaiian Islands : their scenery, volcanoes, people, and politics, 
with a few words about the reciprocity treaty with the United 
States." 

Foregoing abstract prepared by the secretaries March 2, 1891. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARIES. 

Presented to the Society, December 26, 1890. 



Membership. — The Society was organized in January, 1888, 
with a total membership of 165. 

At the close of its first year, in December, 1888, the member- 
ship was 209. At the close of the second year, in December, 
1889, the membership was 228 ; and the present membership is 
392.* 

Since the last annual meeting the membership has been in- 
creased by the election of 190 new members. It has been 
decreased by the resignation of 1 members, by the death of 1 
member (Capt. C. O. Boutelle) and by the dropping of 15 mem- 
bers for non-payment of dues. The net increase has thus been 
164, and the present total membership is 392 as above stated. 

This membership is classified as follows : 

Active members 331 

Corresponding members 5.7 

Life members . 4 

Total number of members 392 

At the beginning of the year, corresponding members paid no 
dues. On March 20 of this year, however, the By-Laws were so 
amended as to require these members to pay annual dues of $2.00, 
such payment entitling them to the publications of the Society. 

Meetings. — The Society has held 22 meetings during the year, 
of which, 13 were regular meetings for the reading and discus- 
sion of papers, 4 were public lectures at which an admission fee 

* The membership has since increased to 399, as shown by the sum- 
mary on p. 334. 



Report of the Secretaries. 297 

was charged, 1 was a field meeting at the Great Falls of the 
Potomac on May 21, 1 was a special meeting for considering ways 
and means for increasing the Society's usefulness, 1 was the meet- 
ing for presentation of the annual address of the President foi- 
ls 89 (delayed by reason of absence of the President from the 
city), 1 was the meeting for the presentation of the President's 
address for 1890, and 1 the annual meeting for the election of 
officers and transaction of business. 

At the regular meetings for the reading and discussion of 
papers, the average attendance was 1*70, the highest being 850 
and the lowest 25. 

The Board of Managers have held 23 meetings for transacting 
the business of the Society, of which 13 were regular and 10 
were special meetings. The highest attendance of the 17 mem- 
bers composing the Board was 13, and on several occasions there 
has been no quorum. 

Changes in the Board. — On November 5, the Recording Secre- 
tary, Mr. Henry Gannett, resigned, and the Board of Managers 
filled the vacancy by electing Mr. Marcus Baker in his place. 
The Board then elected Mr. Gannett as one of the Managers. 
On December 9, Mr. 0. H. Tittmann resigned the office of Cor- 
responding Secretary, and Dr. J. C. Welling resigned from the 
Board of Managers. The vacancies thus created have not been 
filled. 

Explorations. — In the month of May the Board of Managers 
decided to send a party to the vicinity of Mt. St. Elias, Alaska, 
for the purpose of making geographic and geologic exploration 
and survey. Funds for the purpose were obtained in part from 
the treasury of the Society, in part from private subscription and 
in part from the cooperation of the U. S. Geological Survey. Mr. 
I. C. Russell, Geologist of the U. S. Geological Survey, was 
placed in charge of the party and of geologic work, and Mr. 
Mark B. Kerr, Topographer, also of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
was sent in charge of the topographic work. 

Through the kindly cooperation of the U. S. Navy Depart- 
ment and of the U. S. Revenue Marine, both of which furnished 
transportation, the party reached the field of work and was 
brought away at the close of their labors without mishap or loss 
of time. The party, consisting all told of nine persons, were 
enabled to spend about three months in exploration and survey of 
a most interesting and unknown region filled with gigantic moun- 



298 National Geographic, Magazine. 

tains smothered in glaciers. An area of several hundred square 
miles was mapped, mountain peaks climbed, heights measured, 
photographs made and numerous and interesting notes obtained. 
A final report of this, the Society's first venture in exploration, is 
now in preparation and its publication by the Society is expected 
in a short time. 

Publications. — During the year the Society has published 
volume II of the National Geographic Magazine. This volume 
contains 285 pages, together with maps and illustrations, and was 
issued in four numbers, in April, May, July and August. 

Marcus Baker, 
C. A. Kenaston, 

Secretaries. 



Report of the Treasurer. 299 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 

Presented to the Society, December 26, 1890. 



To the President and Members of the National Geographic 

Society : 

I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report showing 
receipts and disbursements for the fiscal year ending December 
26, 1890. 

As will be seen by the report, the receipts from dues for 1890 
amount to $1289-24 against $865-2-2- f r 1889, showing an increase 
of I424-2JL. 

The assets of the Society consist of — 

Note of M. N. Thompson, secured by deed of trust, $750 00 

Cash with Bell & Co. .... 41 62 

Dues for 1890, unpaid 260 00 



$1051 62 
Respectfully submitted, 

C. J. Bell, Treasurer. 



300 National Geographic Magazine. 

The Treasurer in account with the National Geographic Society. 



1890. 



Dec. 26. 



To balance on hand, December 26, 1889 

cash rec'd for dues of 1889 $95 00 

" 1890. 1289 00 

" 1891 62 00 

" 1892 5 00 

' ' Life Membership 50 00 



from Lectures 

' ' Interest on Loan 
" Sales of Magazines . 



1890. 

Dec. 26. By cash paid for Magazine, No. 1, Vol. 2 . _ . $148 10 

" 2 " ... 215 80 

" 3 " ... 188 53 

" 4 " ... 140 83 

Expenses of Lectures . 

Subscription to Alaska Explor. 

Fund ... . 

Printing, Stationery, Postage, 

etc. _ . 

Clerk hire 

Cosmos Club Rent 

Sundries 

" balance on hand (on deposit with Bell & 
Co.) ". 

Washington, D. C, 26th December, 1890. 



$63 82 



1501 00 

834 38 
45 00 

38 75 

$2482 95 



$693 26 
815 30 

517 66 



308 66 


65 00 


33 00 


8 45 


41 62 



$2482 95 



Report of the Auditing Comrnittee. 301 



REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE. 

Presented to the Society Jaxuaet 9, 1891. 



To the President and Members of the National Geographic 
Society : — 

We, a committee appointed at the annual meeting of the Society 
to audit the accounts of the Treasurer for the rear ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1890, beg to submit the following report : 

The statement of the receipts, consisting of dues from members, 
receipts from lectures, interest on loan and sale of magazines, has 
been examined and found correct. 

The vouchers for expenditures and checks in payment therefor 
have been examined, compared and found correct. 

We have examined the bank book, showing the account with 
Me>srs. Bell & Co., and found the balance to be 841.62 as stated. 

The Treasurer also showed us a note for §750 which is men- 
tioned as part of the assets of the Society. 

P. H. CHRISTIE, 

ROBT. d. cummin, 

S. A. APLIX. Jr., 

Committee. 



302 National Geographic Magazine. 



SUMMARY OF REPORTS ON THE MT. ST. ELIAS 
EXPEDITION. 



During the year 1890, the National Geographic Society made 
its first venture in exploration. This venture consisted in raising 
funds, organizing and sending to the vicinity of Mt. St. Elias, 
Alaska, a small party in charge of Mr. I. C. Russell to make 
geographic and geologic studies. The following is a condensed 
account of the enterprise, taken largely from reports of commit- 
tees and other records not otherwise published. 

During the spring months of 1890, the Board of Managers of 
the National Geographic Society considered from time to time 
ways and means for carrying out the declared purpose of the 
Society "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge." The 
advisability of undertaking some exploratory work was discussed. 
That geographic knowledge could be diffused by lectures and by 
publications was obvious. But to increase geographic knowledge 
other means were clearly necessary. Exploration seemed the 
most obvious mode for accomplishing this increase. What par- 
ticular exploration should be undertaken was then considered. 
A proposition to aid in continuing the researches of Mr. W. W. 
Rockhill, m Thibet, Avas made but was given up on account of the 
expense, which seemed beyond the means of the Society. Later 
a proposition by Mr. AY. D. Johnson that the Society should 
send a party to the vicinity of Mt. St. Elias, Alaska, was sub- 
mitted and adopted provisionally, the proviso relating to success 
in securing the necessary funds. This proposition was submitted 
to the Board of Managers May 20, and adopted May 23, 1890. 

Four days later, viz., on May 27, 1890, a largely attended spe- 
cial meeting of the Board went over the whole matter. It was 
submitted that the probable cost of the expedition Avould be 
about $3500 ; that of this sum about $2500 had already been 
paid or pledged and that 13 persons had signed a joint note for 
$1000 by which to secure the needful balance and insure the 
departure of the expedition. Furthermore it was submitted that 
the Secretary of the Navy had directed the U. S. S. Pinta to 
transport the party from Sitka to Yakutat Bay and return, and 
the Director of the XL S. Geological Survey had authorized the 



Exploration of Alaska in 1890. 303 

detail of Mr. I. C. Russell, geologist, and Mr. Mark B. Kerr, 
topographer, for the scientific work of the expedition. 

A long and earnest discussion was had on .the advisability of 
starting the expedition out on this basis. The lateness of the 
season and the low condition of the funds were urged as reasons 
for delaying till next year. It was finally decided, howeA-er, by 
a vote of 7 to 5 to adopt the proposition now and start the expedi- 
tion forthwith. 

Thus, by the aid and cooperation of the TJ. S. Geological Sur- 
vey and of the Secretary of the Navy, the expedition was organ- 
ized. Mr. I. C. Russell, geologist, was placed in charge, and Mr. 
Mark B. Kerr was assigned as topographer of the party. The plan 
of work was to proceed to Yakutat Bay and to study and map as 
large an area in the vicinity of Mt. St. Elias as practicable. It 
was also planned to redetermine the height of the mountain, and, 
if practicable, to ascend it. 

The party consisted all told of ten persons ; Messrs. Russell and 
Kerr before mentioned, Mr. E. S. Hosmer, a volunteer assistant 
from Washington, and seven camp hands, hired in Seattle, of 
whom James H. Christie was foreman. On June 17, they sailed 
on the steamer Queen for Sitka, where, on arriving, they found 
the TJ. S. S. Pinta in readiness to take them to Yakutat, in 
accordance with instructions previously received from the Secre- 
tary of the Navy. They were at once transferred with all their 
outfit from the Queen to the Pinta, and sailed for Yakutat Bay, 
arriving June 25, in fog and rain. 

Three days later the party, with all stores and equipment, had 
been landed ; and bidding good-bye to the courteous officers of the 
Pinta, they entered upon the serious work of the season. 

The area to be examined was found to consist of a majestic 
mountain range, trending southeast and northwest, in front of 
which was a broad, ice-covered plateau. The range is snow-clad 
down to a level of 1500 feet above the sea, and is filled with 
glaciers of vast magnitude. Excursions into this area and a 
study of its glacial and geological phenomena were at once begun. 
At the same time Mr. Kerr measured a base line and began the 
work of mapping the region. A system of triangulation stalling 
from this measured base was carried on, the prominent peaks were 
located by intersection, and heights were determined by vertical 
angles. Sketches and photographs were taken from many points, 

VOL. II. 21 



304 National Geographic Magazine. 

and before the season closed, sufficient material was gathered to< 
make a fairly good map of an area of about 1000 square miles. 

The topogi'aphic work having been well started and a base 
camp established, the party took up the line of march toward Mt. 
St. Elias. On the first of August they found themselves midway 
between Yakutat Bay and St. Elias, but still at the base of the 
mountains. Most of the way to this point the journey had been 
made over crevassed ice. The party continued to push on, and 
after twenty days of very severe labor above the snow line 
reached and camped at the base of St. Elias. From this camp, 
at an elevation of about 9,000 feet, the party started at 3 o'clock 
in the morning for the final climb to the summit of the moun- 
tain, but were beaten back by a prolonged and severe storm with 
heavy fall of snow. Two days later a second attempt was made, 
but another snow storm broke over the mountains as suddenly as 
the first. The deep snow accumulated by these two storms 
prevented all further progress, and the party reluctantly turned 
back. They continued to travel about in the region, while 
wending their way slowly back to Yakutat, gathering inter- 
esting and valuable geographic and geologic data. On the 20th 
of September they arrived at Yakutat Bay, having had almost 
continuous stormy weather since the attempted climb of the 
mountain. Two days after their arrival at Yakutat the U. S. 
Revenue Cutter Corwin, Capt. C. L. Hooper commanding, was 
seen steaming up the bay. Acting on his own judgment, and 
knowing that the explorers would fare badly if left at Yakutat 
until winter set in, Capt. Hooper had come from Sitka especially 
for the party, which was taken on board Sept. 24, and conveyed 
directly to Port Townsend, Washington, where it arrived Octo- 
ber 2 and disbanded, Messrs. Russell and Kerr returning to 
Washington. 

Various newspaper accounts of this expedition have been pub- 
lished, as well as articles in several magazines, notably in Scrib- 
ner's, and the Century. The full official report with map and 
illustrations will be published hereafter in the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine. 



By-Lcws. 305 

BY-LAWS. 

As ADOPTED WITH AMENDMENTS UP TO JANUARY 9, 1891. 

Article I. Name. 

The name of this Society is the "National Geographic 
Society." 

Article II. Object. 

The object of this Society is the increase and diffusion of geo- 
graphic knowledge. 

Article III. Membership. 

The members of this Society shall be persons who are interested 
in geographic science. There may be three classes of members, 
active, corresponding, and honorary. 

Active membei's only shall be members of the corporation ;, 
shall be entitled to vote and may hold office. 

Persons residing at a distance from the District of Columbia 
may become corresponding members of the Society. They may 
attend its meetings, take part in its proceedings, and contribute 
to its publications. 

Persons who have attained eminence by the promotion of geo- 
graphic science may become honorary members. 

Corresponding members may be transferred to active member- 
ship, and, conversely, active members may be transferred to cor- 
responding membership by the Board of Managers. 

The election of members shall be entrusted to the Board of 
Managers. Nominations for membership shall be signed by three 
active members of the Society ; shall state the qualifications of 
the candidate ; and shall be presented to the Recording Secretary. 
No nomination shall receive action by the Board of Managers 
until it has been before it at least two weeks, and no candidate 
shall be elected unless he receive at least nine .affirmative votes. 

Article IV. Officers. 

The Officers of the Society shall be a President, five Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, a Recording Secretary, and a Correspond- 
ing Secretary. 



306 National Geographic Magazine. 

The above mentioned officers, together with eight other mem- 
bers of the Society, known as Managers, shall constitute a Board 
of Managers. Officers and Managers shall be elected annually, 
by ballot, a majority of the votes cast being necessary to an elec- 
tion ; they shall hold office until their successors are elected ; and 
shall have power to fill vacancies occurring during the year. 

The President, or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presidents, 
shall preside at the meetings of the Society and of the Board of 
Managers ; he shall, together with the Recording Secretary, sign 
all written contracts and obligations of the Society, and attest its 
corporate seal ; he shall deliver an annual address to the Society. 

Each Vice-President shall represent in the Society and in the 
Board of Managers a department of geographic science, as follows : 

Geography of the Land. 
Geography of the Sea. 
Geography of the Air. 
Geography of Life. 
Geographic Art. 

The Vice-Presidents shall foster their respective departments 
within the Society ; they shall present annually to the Society 
summaries of the work done throughout the world in their several 
departments. 

They shall be elected to their respective departments by the 
Society. 

The Treasurer shall have charge of the funds of the Society, 
shall collect the dues, and shall disburse under the direction of 
the Board of Managers ; he shall make an annual report ; and his 
accounts shall be audited annually by a committee of the Society 
and at- such other times as the Board of Managers may direct. 

The Secretaries shall record the proceedings of the Society 
and of the Board of Managers ; shall conduct the correspondence 
of the Society ; and shall make an annual report. 

The Board of Managers shall transact all the business of the 
Society, except such as may be presented at the annual meeting. 
It shall formulate rules for the conduct of its business. Nine 
members of the Board of Managers shall constitute a quorum. 



By-Laws. 307 

Article V. Dues. 

The annual dues of active members shall be five dollars, and of 
corresponding members two dollars, payable during the month of 
January, or, in the case of new members, within thirty days after 
election. 

The dues of members elected in November and December shall 
be credited to the succeeding year. 

Annual dues may be commuted and life membership acquired 
by the payment of fifty dollars. 

No member in arrears shall vote at the annual meeting, and the 
names of members two years in arrears shall be dropped from the 
roll of membership. 

' Article VI. Meetings. 

Regular meetings of the Society shall be held on alternate 
Fridays, from November until May, and excepting the annual 
meeting they shall be devoted to communications. The Board 
of Managers shall, however, have power to postpone or omit 
meetings, when deemed desirable. Special meetings may be 
called by the President. 

The annual meeting for the election of officers shall be the last 
regular meeting in December. 

The meeting preceding the annual meeting shall be devoted to 
the President's annual address. 

The reports of the retiring Vice-Presidents shall be presented 
in January. 

A quorum for the transaction of business shall consist of 
twenty-five active members. 

Article VII. Amendments. 

+ 

These by-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the 
members present at a regular meeting, provided that notice of 
the proposed amendment has been given in writing at a regular 
meeting at least four weeks previously. 



308 National Geographic Magazine. 

STANDING RULES OF THE BOARD OF MANAGERS. 

Adopted January 16, 1891. 



1. — The President, Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the 
Society shall hold like offices in the Board of Managers. 

2. — The President shall have power to call special meetings of 
the Board of Managers and to appoint special committees. He 
shall, also, at the beginning of each year appoint a Standing 
Committee, of three persons, on Communications ; a Standing 
Committee, of three persons, on Publications ; and three dele- 
gates, of which he shall be chairman, to serve on the Joint Com- 
mission. 

3. — The Treasurer shall receive all dues and other income of 
the Society ; shall keep its accounts ; and shall disburse its funds 
under the direction of the Board of Managers. 

4. — One of the Secretaries shall act as the Secretary of the 
Board and the other as Secretary of the Society ; and both 
Secretaries shall be excused from serving on committees. 

5. — The Committee on Communications shall receive and con- 
sider all communications, and propositions relating to communi- 
cations, designed for delivery before the Society, and shall pre- 
pare programmes for all meetings. 

6. — The Committee on Publications shall have charge of the 
publications of the Society. 

7. — At the beginning of each year the Secretary shall submit 
an estimate of the revenues of the Society for the current year, 
whereupon, the Board shall make itemized appropriations for the 
different classes of regular expenditures. All expenditures not 
included in these regular allotments must be specially authorized 
by the Board. Charges against the regular allotments will be 
paid by the Treasurer upon the certification of the officer or 
chairman of the committee incurring the expenditures. 

8. — The names of proposed members, recommended in con- 
formity with Article III of the By-Laws, may be presented at 
any meeting of the Board of Managers and shall lie over at 
least two weeks before final action. 



Standing Rules of the Board of Managers. 309 

9. — The order of business at the regular meetings of the Board 
of Managers shall be as follows : 

a. Reading of minutes. 

b. Communications from the President, Secretaries or 

Treasurer and action thereon. 

c. Reports of committees and action thereon. 

d. Election of members. 

e. Nominations for membership. 

f. Miscellaneous business. 

10. — The order of business for each regular meeting of the 
Society shall be as follows : 

a. Reading of the minutes of the last meeting. 

b. Notice of the election of new members and other 

notices and correspondence of the Society. 

c. The presentation of papers and their discussion. 

11. — The order of business for the annual meeting shall be as 
follows : 

a. The reading of the minutes of the last annual meeting. 

b. The presentation of the annual reports of the Secre- 

taries. 
6. The presentation of the annual report of the Treasurer. 

d. The selection of a committee to audit the accounts of 

the Treasurer. 

e. The announcement of a posted list of the names of 

members who are entitled to vote for the election 
of officers. 

f. The election of a President. 

g. The election of five Vice-Presidents, in the order 

named in the By-Laws. 
h. The election of a Treasurer. 
i. The election of a Recording Secretary. 
j. The election of a Corresponding Secretary. 
k. The election of eight Managers. 
I. Unfinished business. 
m. The reading of the rough minutes of the meeting. 
The election of officers shall be as follows : 

In each case nominations shall be made by an informal ballot : 
the result of each informal ballot having been announced, the 
first formal ballot shall be taken. An informal ballot may be 
made formal by a majority vote. Each of the Vice-Presidents 
shall be elected to his position separately. 



310 National Geographic Magazine. 

In the ballot for Managers, as many names may be written on 
the ballot as there are Managers to be elected, and those persons 
receiving a majority on each formal ballot shall be declared 
elected. If more than the number to be elected receive a 
majority, those receiving the greatest number of votes shall be 
declared chosen. 

12. — It is not permitted to report the proceedings of the 
Society for publication, except by authority of the Board of 
Managers. 

13. — These rules may be amended by a majority vote, notice 
having been given two weeks in advance. 



Rules Relating to Publication. 311 

RULES RELATING TO PUBLICATION. 

Adopted by the Board of Managers February 6, 1891. 



Form of Publication. 

Section 1. The National Geographic Society will continue to 
publish a serial entitled The National Geographic Magazine. 

Sec. 2. This serial shall he published in covered parts or bro- 
chures, consecutively paged for each volume. The brochures 
shall be designated by volume numbers and limiting pages ; and 
each shall bear a special title setting forth the contents and 
authorship, as well as the title of the serial and the seal and im- 
print of the Society, and, in addition, the precise date of publica- 
tion. 

Sec. 3. A brochure may consist of a single memoir or article, 
in which case twenty-five copies will be furnished to the author 
without charge, and the author may order or authorize the order 
of any additional number of copies ; and the shorter papers, 
abstracts, reviews, notes and miscellaneous matter may be col- 
lected and issued as brochures uniform with those containing the 
memoirs. 

Sec. 4. The brochures of the serial shall be arranged for 
gathering into volumes, each comprising the issue of a calendar 
year ; and about the close of each year there shall be published 
in a brochure arranged to complete the volume a title-page, a list 
of contents, and an index for the corresponding volume, together 
with an abstract of the proceedings of the Society and lists of 
officers and members for the year, and a copy of the by-laws and 
rules governing the Society. 

Matter of Publication. 

Sec 5. The matter published in the National Geographic 
Magazine, may comprise : (1) original communications prepared 
by members or guests of the National Geogi-aphic Society pre- 
sented at meetings by title' or otherwise ; (2) original communica- 
tions or memoirs prepared for the Magazine either by members 
or non-members, whether presented before the Society or not ; 
(3) translations or abstracts of important foreign publications 



312 National Geographic Magazine. 

relating to geography, reviews of geographic works, items of 
geographic intelligence, etc.; (4) abstracts of papers read and 
discussions made before the Society, prepared or revised by 
authors ; (5) administrative records of the Society, including con- 
densed minutes of meetings prepared by the secretaries ; (6) lists 
of members, by-laws and rules, resolutions of permanent charac- 
ter, etc.; and (7) title pages, lists of contents and indexes for 
each volume. 

Sec. 6. Matter designed for publication in the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine may be transmitted to the Committee on Pub- 
lications either direct or through the secretaries or other officers 
of the Society : soon as may be thereafter the Committee shall 
decide on the desirability and expediency of publication, or refer 
the matter to the Board of Managers for decision ; if the matter 
is accepted it shall be published soon as practicable ; if rejected it 
shall be returned to the author. Communications from non- 
members and translated memoirs shall be published only upon 
unanimous vote of the Committee on Publications or by specific 
authority from the Board of Managers. The Committee on Pub- 
lications or the Board of Managers may refer any communication 
to special committees for examination. 

Sec. 1. Matter offered for publication in the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine becomes thereby the" property of the National 
Geographic Society and shall not be published elsewhere prior to 
publication in the Magazine except by consent of the Society. 

Sec. 8. Matter accepted for publication in the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine shall be either printed and issued soon as pos- 
sible as a memoir-brochure or reserved for the next brochure of 
miscellaneous contents (or magazine-brochure) at the option of 
the Committee on Publications. Proofs of letter-press and illus- 
trations shall be submitted to authors or persons designated by 
authors whenever practicable ; but printing shall not be delayed 
more that one week by reason of absence or incapacity of authors. 

Manner of Publication. 

Sec. 9. The text of each brochure of the National Geographic 
Magazine shall begin under its proper title on an odd-numbered 
page bearing at its head the title of the serial, the volume, the 
limiting pages, and the date of publication ; each such brochure 
shall be accompanied by the illustrations pertaining to it, the 



Rules Relating to Publication. 313 

plates consecutively numbered for the volume ; and each brochure 
may contain a synoptic list of contents prepared by the author 
and, at the option of the Committee on Publications, an alpha- 
betic index, provided the same be prepared by the author. Each 
brochure shall be enclosed in a cover conforming nearly as may 
be to the present covers of the serial, bearing at the head of its 
title-page the title of the serial, the volume, the limiting pages, 
the date of publication, and, below, the seal and imprint of the 
Society ; other cover pages may bear a list of the publications of 
the Society; but nothing else of bibliographic or other permanent 
value shall be printed on the covers unless the same be printed 
also in the body of the volume to which the brochure belongs. 

Sec. 10. The author of each memoir shall receive twenty-five 
copies without charge and shall be authorized to order, through 
the committee on Publications, any edition of exactly similar 
brochures in exactly similar covers to be printed as author's 
separates at cost of paper and press work ; but no author's sepa- 
rates of the memoir-brochures shall be issued except in this 
regular form. 

Sec. 11. At least two magazine-brochures maybe published 
during each year, the first about the close of the meeting season 
of the Society, and the second about the close of the calendar 
year. 

Sec. 12. Authors of papers in the magazine-brochures shall 
have the privilege of ordering, through the Committee on 
Publications, at their own cost, any number of separate copies, 
provided these separates bear the original pagination and a 
printed reference to the serial and volume from which they are 
extracted. 

Sec. 13. About the end of each year a volume-title-page, gen- 
eral lists of contents and illustrations of the volume, lists of 
officers and members of the Society, the by-laws and rules, an 
abstract of the proceedings for the year, and a general index to 
the volume shall be printed and issued as a separate brochure. 
All of this matter except the index shall be arranged for binding 
at the beginning of the volume under a distinct Roman pagina- 
tion ; but the index shall take the regular Arabic pagination at 
the end of the volume. The title-page shall bear the name of the 
Committee on Publications ; and the obverse shall bear the im- 
primatur of the Board of Managers and the printer's card. 

Sec 14. The bottom of each signature and of each initial 



314 National Geographic Magazine. 

page shall bear a signature mark giving an abbreviated title of 
the serial, the volume and the year ; and every page shall be 
numbered, the initial and sub-title pages at the bottom. 

Sec. 15. The page-head titles shall be : on even-numbered 
pages, name of author and catch title of paper ; on odd-numbered 
pages, catch title of contents of page. 

Sec. 16. All brochures shall be trimmed at top, side and 
bottom. 

Sec. 17. The typography, paper and general make up shall 
conform, except as herein otherwise specified, nearly as may be to 
the National Geographic Magazine as heretofore published. 

Sec. 18. The date of publication of each brochure shall be 
that upon which the edition is delivered to the Committee on 
Publications. 

Sec. 19. The brochures shall be distributed immediately by 
the Committee on Publications to members of the Society, sub- 
scribers, and exchanges from a list furnished by the Secretaries ; 
and the undistributed copies of each edition shall be turned over 
to the Secretaries. 

Sec. 20. The regular edition shall be seven hundred and fifty 
copies for the Society, and twenty-five copies for authors. 

Sec. 21. The Committee on Publications shall keep a record 
of all matter published wholly or in part under the auspices of the 
Society whether the same be author's editions of the memoir- 
brochures, author's extracts from the magazine-brochures, or any 
other matter printed from type originally composed for the 
Magazine. 

Sec. 22. The Magazine shall be mailed free to members of the 
Society not in arrears for dues more than six months, and also to 
exchanges, and for an annual price of three dollars to regular 
subscribers. The separate brochures may be sold, to the number 
of not more than ten to each individual, at an advance on cost of 
25 per cent, to members and 75 per cent, to non-members of the 
Society ; and either separate brochures or complete volumes may 
be sold to dealers at the usual discount for matter of the same 
class. 

Sec. 23. The Committee on Publications may introduce at 
discretion advertisements of proper character, on pages provided 
for the purpose not taking the regular pagination of the Maga- 
zine, at the usual rates for such service. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 



1891. 



President. 
GARDINER G. HUBBARD. 

Vice-Presidents. 

HERBERT G. OGDEN. 
EVERETT HAYDEN. 
A. W. GREELY. 
C. HART MERRIAM. 
HENRY GANNETT. 

Treasurer. 
CHARLES J. BELL. 



Secretaries. 



MARCUS BAKER. 



C. A. KENASTON. 



Managers. 



ROGERS BIRNIE, JR. 
G. K. GILBERT. 
G. BROWN GOODE. 
WILLARD D. JOHNSON. 



W J McGEE. 
T. C. MENDENHALL. 
W. B. POWELL. 
B. H. WARDER. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
March 25, 1891. 



a, original members, 
c, corresponding- members. 
7, life members. 
* Deceased. 

In cases where no city is given in the address, Washing-ton, D. C, is to be under- 
stood. 



Abbe, Prof. Cleveland, a, I, 
Abeet, S. Thayer (Silvamis Thayer), 



Army Signal Office. 
1108 G Street. 



Ackerman, Ens. A. A. (Albert Ammerman), U. S. N., c, 

Navy Department. 

Ackley, Lieut. Comdr. S. M. (Setli Mitchell), U. S. K, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Addison, A. D. (Arthur D ) 

Metropolitan Club. 

Ahern, Lieut. George P. (George Patrick), IT. S. A., c, 

Fort Shaw, Mont. 

Ahern, Jeremiah, 

Geological Survey. 

Ainsworth, J. T. (Jndah Throop), 

Geological Survey. 

Allen, Dr. J. A. (Joel Asaph), 

American Museum Natural History, New York, N. Y. 

Alton, Edmund, 



Aplin, S. A., Jr. (Stephen Arnold), 
Aspinwall, Rev. J. A. (John Abel), 
Atkinson, W. P. (William Rnssura), a, 
Ayres, Miss S. C. (Susan Caroline), a, 



Wormley's Hotel. 
Geological Survey. 

17 Dupont Circle. 

Geological Survey. 

502 A Street SE.. 



Members of the Society. 317 

Babb, Cyrus C. (Cyrus Cates), 

Geological Surrey. 

Bailey, "William E. (William E ), c, 

Seattle, Wash. 
Baker, Dr. Frank, a, 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Baker, Marcus, a, 

Geological Survey. 
Baldwin, H. L., Jr. (Harry Lewis), a, 

Geological Survey. 
Barclay, A. C. (Alexander Campbell), 

Geological Survey. 

Barker, Comdr. A. S. (Albert Smith), U. S. 1ST., 

Navy Department. 

Barnard, E. C. (Edward Chester), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Barnes, Charles A. (Charles Adams), c, 

P. O. Box 1198, Seattle, Wash. 

Barroll, Lieut. Henry H. (Henry Harris), IT. S. !N., c, 

Navy Department. 
Bartle, R. F. (Rudolph Francis), 

947 Virginia Avenue SW. 

Bartlett, Comdr. J. R. (John Russell), IT. S. ~N., a, 

Providence, R. I. 
Bartlett, P. Y. S. (Pliny Van Syckle), 

Geological Survey. 
Bass, D. W. (Daniel Waldo), c, 

15-17 Starr-Boyd Building, Seattle, Wash. 

Bassett, C. C. (Charles Chester), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Batchelder, C. F. (Charles Foster), c, 

7 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Mass. 
Bauer, Louis A. (Louis Agricola), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Bausch, Paul, 

War Department. 

Baxter, David N. (David N ), c, 

Seattle, Wash. 
Bell, A. Graham (Alexander Graham), a, 

1336 Nineteenth Street. 
Bell, A. Melville, (Alexander Melville), 

1525 Thirty-fifth Street. 
Bell, C. J. (Charles James), a, 

1437 Pennsylvania Avenue. 



318 National Geographic Magazine. 

Bennett, Asst. Eng. F. M. (Frank Marion), U. S. N., 

Navy Department. 

Bernadou, Ens. J. B. (Jean Baptiste), TJ. S. N., c, 

Navy Department. 
Bien, Julius, a, 

P. O. Box 3557, New York, N. Y. 

Bien, Morris, a, 

Geological Survey. 

Bigelow, Prof. Frank H. (Frank Hagar), 

Nautical AJjmanac Office. 
Birch, Charles E. (Charles Edwards), 

Hydrographic Office. 

Birnie, Capt. R., Jr. (Rogers), U. S. A., a, 

Ordnance Office. 

Blair, H. B. (Herbert Buxton), a, 



Geological Survey. 

Census Office. 

58 B Street NE. 

Douglas City, Alaska. 



Blodgett, James H. (James Harvey), a, 
Bodfish, Sumner H. (Sumner Homer), a, 
Boursin, Henry, 
*Boutelle, Capt. C. O. (Charles Otis), a. 

Bowers, Dr. Stephen, <?, 

"Ventura, Cal. 

Breckinridge, Gen. J. C. (Joseph Cabell), U. S. A., 

War Department. 

Brewer, H. Gr. (Harrison Gaston), a, 

Hydrographic Office. 

Britton, A. T. (Alexander Thompson), 

1419 G Street. 

Buckley, Miss M. L. (Margaret Lamiea), 

Bureau of Pensions. 

Burnett, Charles A. (Charles Albert), c, 

620 Burke Building, Seattle, Wash. 

Burton, Prof. A. E. (Alfred Edgar), a, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Campbell, M. R. (Marius Robison), 

Geological Survey. 

Cantwell, Lieut. J. C. (John Cassin), U. S. R. M., e, 

1818 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Carpenter, H. W. (Henry Wilson), 

Geological Survey. 



Members of the Society. 319 

"^Caepentee, Z. T. (Zachary Taylor), a, 

Chambeblin, Peof. T. C. (Thomas Chrowder), c, 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Chapin, De. J. H. (James Henry), 

Meriden, Conn. 
Chapman, R. H. (Robert Hollister), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Chataed, De. Thomas M. (Thomas Marean), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Cheneby, Lieut. Comde. Leonaed, U. S. 1ST., c, 

University Club, New York, N. Y. 

Chestee, Comde. C. M. (Colby Mitchel), U. S. K, c, 

Navy Department. 

Cheistie, James H. (James H ), c, 

Olga, Wash. 
Cheistie, P. H. (Peter Harrison), 

Geological Survey. 
Claek, A. Howaed (Alonzo Howard), 

National Museum. 
Claek, E. B. (Elias Buckner), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Claek, De. William B. (William Bullock), c, ■ 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Md. 

Clovee, Lieut. Richaedson, U. S. N., 

Hydrographic Office. 
Colonna, B. A. (Benjamin Azariah), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
CoLVIN, YeBPLANCK, CC, 

Albany, N. Y. 

Conant, A. W. (Arnold William), c, 

Seattle, Wash. 
Cook, Feed. W. (Frederick William), c, 

P. O. Box 140, Sault de Ste. Marie, Mich; 

Coese, William B. (William Beverly), 

Geological Survey. 

Cottman, Lieut. Y. L. (Yincendon Lazarus), U. S. N., c, 

Navy Department. 
Couet, E. E. (Emil Edward), 

Hydrographic Office. 

Ceaven, Lieut. John E. (John Eccleston), U. S. N., 

Hydrographic Office. 
vol. II. 22 



320 National Geographic Magazine. 

Ckoffut, W. A. (William Augustus), 

Geological Survey. 
Cummin, Robt. D. (Robert Dodge), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Cummings, Pjrof. G. J. (George Jotham), 

Howard University. 

Cunningham, John M. (John M ), e, 

Cosmos Club, San Francisco, Cal. 

Curtis, William E. (William Eleroy), a, 

2 Lafayette Square. 

Dall, Wm. EL (William Healey), 

National Museum. 

Daly, Hon. Charles P. (Charles Patrick), 

84 Clinton Place, New York, N. Y. 

Darton, 1SL EL (Nelson Horatio), 

Geological Survey. 

Davidge, Walter Dorset, Jr., 

1 Corcoran Building. 

Davidson, Prof. George, a, c, 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, San Francisco, Cal. 

Davis, A. P. (Arthur Powell), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Davis, Prof. W. M. (William Morris), a, 

2 Bond Street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Dawson, Miss A. B. (Annie Beatrice), 

Geological Survey. 

Day, Dr. David T. (David Talbot), , 

Geological Survey. 

Denny, A. A. (Arthur Armstrong), c, 

1328 Front Street, Seattle, Wash. 

DlEBITSCH, EMIL, 

District Engineer Department. 

Duller, J. S. (Joseph Silas), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Dobbins, J. W. (John William), 

U. S. Geological Survey, Lamar, Colo. 

Douglas, E. M. (Edward Morehouse), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Dow, Capt. John M. (John Melmoth), 

83 W. Seventy-first Street, New York, N. Y. 

Dunnington, A. F (Abner F), a, 

Geological Survey. 
Durand, John, 

164 Bd. Montparnasse, Paris, France. 



Members of the Society. 321 

Dutton, Maj. C. E. (Clarence Edward), U. S. A., a, 

Ordnance Office. 
Dyer, Lieut. G. L. (George Leland), U. S. N., 

Navy Department. 
Edmands, Prof. J. Rayner (John Rayner), 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Edson, John Joy, 

1003 F Street. 

Edson, Joseph R. (Joseph Romanzo), a, 

1003 F Street. 

Eells, Charles P. (Charles P ), c, 

Pacific-Union Club, San Francisco, Cal. 
Eimbeck, William, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Eldridge, G. H. (George Homans), 

Geological Survey. 
Eliot, Charles, 

50 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

Ellicott, Ens. John M. (John Morris), IT. S. 1ST., 

Office of Naval Intelligence. 

Emmons, Lieut. Geo. T. (George Thornton), U. S. N., 

Navy Department. 
Evans, H. C. (Henry Cotheal), 

804 Eleventh Street. 

Fairchild, Prof. H. L. (Herman LeRoy), c, 

University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 
Fairfield, George A. (George Albert), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Fairfield, W. B. (Walter Browne), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Farenholt, Lt. Comdr. O. W. (Oscar W ), U. S. N., 

Navy Department. 

Farmer, R. A. (Robert Andrews), 

Geological Survey. 

Fernow, B. E. (Bernhard Eduarcl), a, 

Department of Agriculture. 

Feusier, H. E. Clermont (Henry Edward Clermont), 

Geological Survey. 

Fischer, Ernst G. (Ernst George), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Fischer, L. A. (Louis Albert), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Fitch, C. H. (Charles Hall), a, 

Geological Survey. 



322 National Geographic Magazine. 

Fletcher, Lieut. F. F. (Frank Friday), U. S. N., 

Navy Department. 

Fletcher, L. C. (Louis Cass), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Fletcher, Dr. Robert, a, 

Army Medical Museum. 

Flint, Col. Weston, 

1101 K Street. 

Floyd, Fred. W. (Frederick William), 

539 W. Twentieth Street, New York, N. Y. 

Foot, Sam'l A. (Samuel Alfred), 

, Geological Survey. 

Foster, Prof. Richard, 

Howard University. 

Fraser, Daniel, 

458 Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Gage, N. P. (Nathaniel Parker), a, 

Seaton School 

Gannett, Henry, a, 

Geological Survey.. 

Gannett, Mrs. Henry (Mary Chase), 

1881 Harewood Avenue. 

Gannett, S. S. (Samuel Stinson), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Gilbert, G. K. (Grove Karl), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Gill, DeLancey W. (DeLancey Walker), 

Geological Survey. 

Gill, Wilson L. (Wilson Lindsley), c, 

Room 57, 115 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Gilman, Dr. Daniel C. (Daniel Coit), a, 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Gilman, D. H. (Daniel H ), c, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Goldie, R. H. (Robert Henry), c, 

P. O. Box 1110, Seattle, Wash. 

Goode, Dr. G. Brown (George Brown), a, 

National Museum. 

Goode, R. U. (Richard Urquhart), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Goodfellow, Edward, a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Goodison, Prof. John, 

State Normal School, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Gorham, Geo. C. (George Congdon), 

929 New York Avenue. 



Members of the Society. 323 

Graham, Andrew B. (Andrew Butler), 

1230 Pennsylvania Avenue. 
Granger, F. D. (Frank DeWolf), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Greely, Gen. A. W. (Adolphus Washington), U. S. A., «, 

Army Signal Office. 
Griswold, W. T. (William Tudor), «, 

Geological Survey. 
Groeger, G. G. (Gustaf George), c, 

310 Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago, 111. 

Gulliver, F. P. (Frederic Putnam), 

Geological Survey. 

Hackett, M. (Merrill), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Hale, L. P. (Ledyard Park), e, 

Canton, N. Y. 

Harris, Dr. T. W. (Thaddeus William), 

< Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Harrison, D. C. (Dabney Carr), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Harrison, Prof. T. F. (Thomas F ), c, 

806 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Harrod, Maj. B. M. (Benjamin Morgan), 

City Engineer's Office, New Orleans, La. 

Hart, Prof. Albert Bushnell, 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Hasbrotjck, E. M. (Edwin Marble), 

Census Office. 

Haskell, E. E. (Eugene Elwin), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Hawkins, Geo. T. (George Thomson), 

Geological Survey. 

Hayden, Everett, U. S. 1ST., a, 

Hydrographic Office. 

Hayes, Dr. C. Willard (Charles Willard), 

Geological Survey. 

Hays, J. W. (John Willis), 

Geological Survey. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

1618 Seventeenth Street. 

Army Signal Office. 



Hazard, D. L. (Daniel Lyman), 
Heaton, A. G. (Augustus GeOrge), 
Henry, A. J. (Alfred Judson), a, 



324 National Geographic Magazine. 

Henshaw, H. W. (Henry Wetherbee), a, 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

Heeele, G. (Gustave), a, 

Hydrographic Office. 

Hebbon, Wm. H. (William Harrison), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Hill, Peoe. R. T. (Robert Thomas), 

P. O. Box 567, Austin, Texas. 

Hinman, Russell, 

806 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Hitchcock, Pbof. C. H. (Charles Henry), c, 

Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 

Hodgkins, Peof. H. L. (Howard Lincoln), a, 

Columbian University. 

Hodgkins, W. C. (William Candler), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

i 

Holden, Peof. E. S. (Edward Singleton), c, 

Lick Observatory, Mount Hamilton, »Cal. 

Holden, Mes. L. E. (Delia E ), c, 

The Hollenden, Cleveland, O. 

Holleeith, Herman, 

501 F Street. 

Hornaday, W. T. (William Temple), a, 

44 Niagara Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Hoskins, Prof. L. M. (Leander Miller), c, 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Hosmee, Edwaed Stueges, 

1330 L Street. 

Hotchkiss, Maj. Jed. (Jedediah), 

346 E. Beverly Street, Staunton, Va. 

Howaed, Ens. W. L. (William Lanrestien), U. S. 1ST., c, 

Navy Department. 

Howell, E. E. (Edwin Eugene), a, c, 

48 Oxford Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

Howell, D. J. (David Janney), a, 

J} 918 F Street. 

Hubbaed, Gardinee G. (Gardiner Greene), a, 

1328 Connecticut Avenue. 

Hyde, G. E. (George Edwin), 

Geological Survey. 

Hyde, John, 

Census Office. 

Iaedella, C. T. (Charles Thaddens), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



Members of the Society. 325 

Ingbaham, E. S. (Edward S ), c, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Jenney, Peof. W. P. (Walter Proctor), 

Geological Survey. 
Jennings, J. H. (James Henry), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Jewett, W. P. (William Parker), c, 

180 E. Third Street, St. Paul, Minn. 
Johnson, Miss Alice Bubges, 



Johnson, A. B. (Arnold Burges), a, 
Johnson, E. Kuetz (Erastns Kurtz), 
Johnson, H. W. (Harry Woodruff), 
Johnson, J. B. (James Bowen), 



501 Maple Avenue. 

Light House Board. 

1600 Massachusetts Avenue. 

805 H Street. 

Howard University. 
Johnson, Rev. J. G. (James Gibson), 

881 Dearborn Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Johnson, Jeeome F. (Jerome Fletcher), 

1326 F Street. 
Johnson, Dr. Joseph Taber, 

1728 K Street. 
Johnson, S. P. (Stuart Phelps), 

Geological Survey. 

Johnson, Willard D. (Willard Drake), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Judd, John Gr. (John Gongh), 

420 Eleventh Street. 

Judson, Egbert, c, 

402 Front Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Junken, Charles, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Junken, Chas. A. (Charles Alexander), 

Army Ordnance Office. 

Jussen, Edmund, 

Geological Survey. 

Kael, Anton, a, 

Geological Survey. 

Kauffmann, S. H. (Samuel Hay), a, 

1421 Massachusetts Avenue. 

Kavanaugh, Miss K. (Katherine), 

Sixth Auditor's Office. 

Kenaston, Peof. C. A. (Carlos Albert), a, 

Howard University. 



326 National Geographic Magazine-. 

Kennan, George, a, 

1318 Massachusetts Avenue. 

Kennedy, Dr. Geo. G. (George Golding), I, 

284 Warren Street, Roxbury, Mass. 
Kennon, Lieut. L. W. V. (Lyman Walter Vere), U. S. A., 

War Department. 

Kerr, H. S. (Halbert Stevens), c, 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Kerr, Mark B. (Mark Brickell), a, 

402 Front Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

« 
Kimball, E. F. (Edward Fenno), 

Post Office Department. 

Kimball, Dr. E. S. (Edward Sullivan), 

713 Twelfth Street. 
Kimball, S. I. (Sumner Increase), a, 

Life Saving Service. 

King, Prof. F. H. (Franklin Hiram), 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

King, Prof. Harry, a } 

Geological Survey. 

King, Wm. B. (William Bruce), 

P. O. Box 593. 

King, William R. (William Robinson), 

• Department of Agriculture. 

Klakring, Alfred, 

Hydrographic Office. 

Sitka, Alaska. 
Geological Survey. 
Bozeman, Mont. 
Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey. 



Knapp, Hon. Lyman E. (Lyman Enos), 

Knight, Fred. J. (Frederick Jay), a, 

Koch, Peter, a, 

Kramer, William, 

Kubel, S. J. (Stephen Joseph), 

Lackland, W. E. (William Eason), a, 



Ladd, G. E. (George Edgar), 

State Geological Survey, Jefferson City, Mo. 

Lambert, M. B. (Marcus Bachman), 

Geological Survey. 

Lamborn, Dr. Robert H. (Robert Henry), 

32 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y. 



Members of the Society. 327 

Leach, Boynton, 

Hydrographic Office. 

Lindenkohl, A. (Adolphus), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Lindenkohl, H. (Henry), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Lippincott, J. Barlow (Joseph Barlow), 

Geological Survey. 

Littlehales, Gr. W. (George Washington), 

Hydrographic Office. 

Longstr'eet, R. Lee (Robert Lee), a, 

Geological Survey. 

918 F Street. 

Seattle. Wash. 

Geological Survey. 

1003 F. Street. 



Looker, Henry B. (Henry Brigham), 
Loomis, Henry B. (Henry Bradford), c, 
Lovell, W. H. (William Henry), 
Lyons, Joseph, 



McCarteney, Lieut. Chas. M. (Charles Macklin), U. S. N. 

Hydrographic Office. 

McCormick, James, 

Geological Survey. 

McDonald, Col. Marshall, 

Fish Commission. 

McDowell, W. O. (William Osborne), c, 

20 Spruce Street, Newark, N. J. 

McG-ee, W J, a, 



McGill, Miss Mary C. (Mary Cecelia), 
McKee, Redick H. (Redick Henry), «, 
McKinney, R. C. (Robert Christian), a, 
McLaughlin, Dr. T. K (Thomas Notley), 
MacKaye, J. M. (James Medbery), 



Geological Survey. 

336 C Street. 

Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey. 

825 Fourteenth Street. 

Census Office. 



Maher, James A. (James Arran), a, 

P. O. Box 35, Johnson City. Tenn. 

Manning, Van. H. Jr. (Vannoy Hartrog), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Marindin, Henry L. (Henry Louis), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



328 National Geographic Magazine. 

Marshall, R. B. (Robert Bradford), 

Geological Survey. 

Mason, Peof. O. T. (Otis Tufton), 

National Museum. 

Matthews, Dr. W. (Washington), U. S. A., a, 

Fort Wingate, N. M. 

Meany, Edward S. (Edward S ), e, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Melville, Eng. in Chief Geo. W. (George Wallace), 

U. S. 1ST., a, I, 

Navy Department. 

Mendenhall, Peof. T. C. (Thomas Corwin), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Menocal, Civ. Eng. A. G. (Aniceto Garcia), IT. S. ]ST., a, , 

Navy Department. 
Meeeiam, De. C. Hart (Clinton Hart), a, 

Department of Agricvdture. 
Meeeill, Peof. J. A. (James Andrew), c, 

State Normal School, Warrensburg, Mo. 

Metzgee, F. P. (Frederick Philip), 

Geological Survey. 

MlNDELEFF, COSMOS, 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

MlNDELEFF, YlCTOE, 

Eoom 55, 918 F Street. 

Mitchell, Peof. Heney, a, 

18 Hawthorne Street, Roxbury, Mass. 

Mitchell, J. W. (John William), 

3234 N Street. 

Mosman, A. T. (Alonzo Tyler), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Muie, Peof. John, 

% Martinez, Cal. 

Mitnson, T. Y. (Thomas Volney), e, 

P. O. Drawer M, Denison, Tex. 

Mtjelin, A. E. (Arlington Elliott), 

Geological Survey. 

Nattee, E. W. F. (Ernst Wilhelm Franz), a, 

Eeadville, Mass. 

Nell, Louis (Louis Maximilian), a, 

Geological Survey. 

JSTewell, F. H. (Frederick Haynes), 

Geological Survey. 

Niles, Prof. Wm. H. (William Harmon), 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 



Members of the Society. 329 

Noetzel, G. (Gregor), 

•Hydrographic Office. 

JSordhoff, Charles, a, 

Ensenada, Lower California, via San Diego, Cal. 

Norman-Neruda, L. (Louis), g, 

Devonshire Club, St. James Street, London, England. 

Ogdejst, Herbert G. (Herbert Gouvernenr), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

O'Haloran, T. M. (Thomas Michael), 

Hydrographic Office. 

O'Hare, Daniel P. (Daniel Patrick), 

Geological Survey. 

Otis, William H. (William Hartshorn), 

U. S. Geological Survey, Lamar, Colo. 

Osborn, Lieut. A. P. (Arthur Patterson), U. S. N., c, 

Navy Department. 

Palmer, T. S. (Theodore Sherman), 

Department of Agriculture. 

Parker, E. W. (Edward Wheeler), 

Geological Survey. 

Parson, Rev. W. E. (William Edwin), 

309 New Jersey Avenue SE. 

Parsons, Francis H. (Francis Henry), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Peale, Dr. A. C. (Albert Charles), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Peary, Civ. Eng. R. E. (Robert Edwin), IT. S. N". 

League Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pellew, Henry E. (Henry Edward), 

1637 Massachusetts Avenue. 

Penrose, R. A. F., Jr. (Richard Alexander Fuller), 

State Geological Survey, Little Rock, Ark. 

Perkins, E. T., Jr. (Edmund Taylor), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Peters, Lieut. G. H. (George Henry), IT. S. JST., a, 

Navy Department. 

Peters, WilliAm J. (William John), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Phelan, W. W. (Warren Waverley), c, 

108 S. Fifth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Phillips, R. Henry (Robert Henry), 

Room 110, 1419 New York Avenue, 



330 National Geographic Magazine. 

Pickering, Prof. E. C. (Edward Charles), 

Harvard Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. 

Picking, Capt. Henry F. (Henry Forry), IT. S. 1ST., 

Tompkinsville, N. Y. 
Pierce, Josiah, Jr., 

Cosmos Club. 

Piper, Charles Y. (Charles Y ), c, 

Seattle, "Wash. 

Powell, Maj. J. W. (John Wesley), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Powell, Prof. W. B. (William Bramwell), a, 

Franklin School. 

Prentiss, Dr. D. Webster, (Daniel Webster), a, 

1101 Fourteenth Street. 

Prince, Hon. L. Bradford (L Bradford), c, 

Santa Fe, N. M. 

Procter, Prof. John R. (John Robert), c, 

State Geological Survey, Frankfort, Ky. 

Pumpelly, Prof. Raphael, 

U. S. Geological Survey, Newport, R. I. 

Rankin, Dr. J. E. (Jeremiah Eames) 

Howard University. 

Reid, Prof. Harry Fielding, g, 

Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, O. 

Renshawe, Jno. H. (John Henry), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Rice, Prof. William North, g, 

Wesleyan University, Middle town, Conn. 

Richmond, Chas. W. (Charles Wallace), 

Department of Agriculture. 

Richter, Miss C. M. (Clara Marie), 

Dead Letter Office 

Ricksecker, Eugene, a, c, 

P. O. Box 289, Seattle, Wash. 

Ritter, H. P. (Homer Peter), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Robbins, Prof. A. Gr. (Arthur Graham), c, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Roberts, A. C. (Arthur Carr), a, 

Hydrographic Office. 

Rochester, Gen. Wm. B. (William Beatty), IT. S. A., 

1320 Eighteenth Street. 

Rock, Miles, 

1430 Chapin Street. 

Rodman, Ens. Hugh, IT. S. ]ST., 

Naval Observatory. 



Members of the Society. 331 

Rogers, Jno. B. (John Baxter), c, 

79 Flood Building, San Francisco, Cal. 

Rosse, Dr. Irving C. (Irving Collins), 

1701 H Street. 
Rotch, A. Lawrence (Abbott Lawrence), 

3 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

Russell, Israel C. (Israel Cook), a, 

Geological Survey. 
Sargent, Prof. C. S. (Charles Sprague), a, 

Arnold Arboretum, Brookline, Mass. $ 

Schaap, C. H. (Christian Henry), c, 

P. O. Box 32, Sitka, Alaska. 

Schley, Capt. W. S. (Winfielcl Scott), TJ. S. K, a, 

Navy Department. 
Schmidt, Fred. A. (Frederick Andrew), 

504 Ninth Street. 
Scidmore, Miss Eliza Ruhamah, 

1502 Twenty-first Street. 

Scudder, Prof. S. H. (Samnel Hubbard), a, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Shaler, Prof. ]Sf. S. (Nathaniel Southgate), a, 

25 Quincy Street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Shepard, J. L. K (J L— — — IS" ), c, 

402 Front Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Sinclair, C. H. (Cephas Hempstone), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Sinclair, J. C. (John Collins), 

718 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Sloan, Robert S. (Robert Sage), c, 

Oswego, N. Y. 
Smith, Edwin, a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Smith, Rev. Ernest C. (Ernest C ), c, 

Lake View and Baxter Streets, Seattle, Wash. 
Smith, Everett, c, 

526 Burke Building. Seattle, Wash. 
Smith, Middleton, a. 

P. O. Box 572. 

Snell, Merwin-Marie (Merwin-Marie Fitzporter), 

Catholic Univers^y of America. , 

Sommer, E. J. (Ernest Julius), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Spencer, Jas. W. (James William), 

Geological Survey. 



332 National Geographic Magazine. 

Stanley-Brown, Joseph, 

Geological Survey. 

Stedman, J. M. (John Moore), 

Department of Agriculture. 

Stein, Robert, 

Geological Survey. 

Stockton, Lt. Oomdr. C. H. (Charles Herbert), TL S. N., a, 

Navy Department. 
Stone, James S. (James Savage), c, 

131 Vernon Street, Newton, Mass. 

Struve, Henry G. (Henry G ), c, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Sutton, Frank, 

Geological Survey. 

Tarbell, L. L. (Luther Lewis), c, 

Custom House, Boston, Mass. 

Taylor, Jas. L. (James Lochermann), 

1300 Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Thomas, Miss Mary von E. (Mary von Erden), a, 

69 Clinton Street, Cincinnati, O. 

Thompson, Prof. A. H. (Almon Harris), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Thompson, Gilbert, a, 

Geological Survey. 

Thompson, Laurence, a, 

Care H. S. Huson, N. P. R. R., Tacoma, Wash. 

Thompson, Capt. R. E. (Richard Edward), U. S. A., a, 

Army Signal Office. 

Tittmann, O. H. (Otto Hilgard), a,' 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Towson, R. M. (Richard Mathew), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Tuttle, Prof. A. H. (Alfred H ), c, 

Charlottesville, Va. 

Tweedy, Frank, a, 

Geological Survey. 

Urquhart, Chas. F. (Charles Fox), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Yan Hise, Prof. C. R. (Charles Richard), I, 

U. S. Geological Survey, Madison, Wis. 

Yasey, Dr. George, a, 

Department of Agriculture. 

Yinal, W. Irving (Washington Irving), a, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



Members of the Society. 333 

Yon Haake, A. (Adolpli), 

Post Office Department. 
Waddey, John A. (John Alby), 

Hydrographic Office. 

Walcott, Chas. D. (Charles Doolittle), a. 

National Museum. 
Wallace, Hamilton S. (Hamilton Stone), a, 

Geological Survey. 
Wanamaker, Hon. John, 

Post Office Department. 

Ward, Dillis B. (Dillis B ), c, 

Seattle, Wash. 
Ward, Prof. Henry A. (Henry Augustus), c, 

16 College Avenue. Rochester, N. Y. 

Ward, Lester F. (Lester Frank), «, 



Warder, B. H. (Benjamin Head), 
Weed, Walter Harvey, a, 
Weir, John B. (John Bradford), a, 
Welling, Dr. James C. (James Clarke), a, 



National Museum. 

1515 K Street. 

Geological Survey. 

The Clarendon. 

Columbian University. 

West, Preston C. F. (Preston Carpenter Firth), c, 

Calumet, Mich. 

White, Dr. C. H. (Charles Henry), IT. S. N., 

Care A. B. Gilman, Bradford, Mass. 

Whiting, Henry L. (Henry Laurens), 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, West Tisbury, Mass. 

Wilder, Gen. J. T. (John Thomas), a, I, 

Johnson City, Tenn. 
Wilder, Miss Mary, 

Johnson City, Tenn. 
WlLLENBUCHER, ElJGENE, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Willenbuoher, W. C. (William Christian), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Williams, C. A. (Charles Augustus), 

1301 Eighteenth Street. 

Williams, William, g, 
Willis, Bailey, a, 



University Club, New York, N. Y. 
Geological Survey. 



334 National Geographic Magazine. 

Willis, Mrs. Bailey (Altona H. Grinnell), 

1006 Twenty-second Street- 
Willits, Hon. Edwin, 

Department of Agriculture. 

Wilson, H. M. (Herbert Michael), a y 

Geological Survey. 

Wimpffen, L. F. v. (Lebreclit Felix von), 

Hydrographic Office. 
Winchell, Peof. N. H. (Newton Horace), c, 

120 State Street, Minneapolis, Minn. 
*Windom, Hon. William. 

Winslow, Peof. Abthub, 

State Geological Survey, Jefferson City, Mo. 

Winston, Isaac, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Woodwaed, P. S. (Robert Simpson), a-, 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Weight, Ens. Benjamin, IT. S. N., 

Hydrographic Office. 

Yeates, Chas. M. (Charles Marion), a, 

Geological Survey. 

Young, F. A. (Frederic Albert), 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



Summary. 

Active members, ...... 324 

Corresponding members, .... 70 

Life members, . . . . ... .5 

Total, 399 



INDEX TO VOLUMES I AND II. 



(An * signifies that articles are referred to by title only.) 

Abbe, Cleveland. *Climate of Samoa _ I 272 

♦Expedition to the West Coast of Africa II 29o 

Across Nicaragua with transit and machete {Peary) I 272, 315 

Africa. Exhibition of West Coast of , II 295 

its past and future (H ubbard) _ . _ I 99 

slave trade in I 112 

Alaska, Arctic cruise of the Thetis in 1889 II 171 

A trip up the Yukon river (Russell) __ II 67 

America. International literary contest to be held on the 4th cen- 
tennial anniversary, etc I 273 

Announcement I i. II 287 

d'Anville's references to Bering's voyage of 1725-30 II 125 

Appalachian mountain drainage I 183 

Arctic cruise of the Thetis in 1889... .__. II 68, 171 

* Armenia, Turkish Rule in _ II 290 

Asheville, (N. C), round about (Willis) I 271,291 

*Asia, its past and present (H ubbard) II 68 

Atlantic coast storm of March 11-14, 1888 (Greely) I 37 

(Hayden) I 40 

♦Atlantic, Icebergs and Field ice in II 291 

Law of storms considered with special reference to the 

north Atlantic (Ha yden) II 199 

Baker, Marcus. *Surveys, their kinds and purposes I 269 

Alleged observation of a lunar eclipse by Bering in 

1728-29 _ II 167 

Geographic nomenclature II 272,290 

Bartlett,J. R. *Physical geography of the sea __ I 87 

Bell, A. G. ♦The Krakatoa eruption I 272,290 

Bering, Vitus. His first expedition, 1725-3(1, with translation of his 

original report (Dall).. _ II 111 

Determination of longitude by the moon and by eclipses II 113 
Instruments and methods during his first expedition of 

1725-30. ._ II 113 

Lunar eclipse said to ba\~e been observed by him in 

1728-29 II 114,167 

Sources of information relating- to his voyage of 1725-30 II 118 
Instructions from Peter the Great, relating to his expe- 
dition of 1725-30 _ II 135 

Original report on his expedition to the eastern coast of 

Siberia II 135 

Geographical positions recorded by Bering, 1725-30 II 144, 160 

Itinerary of his expedition of 1725-30 II 145 

Synopsis of his first voyage II 146 

Resume of the results of his first voyage II 162 

Bernadou, J. B. Korea and the Koreans, with map II 231,291 

Bigeloio, F. H. ♦Expedition to the West Coast of Africa II 295 

Biology in its relations to the work of the National Geographic Society 

(Merriam) I 160 

Brazilian coast, telegraphic longitude determinations II 17 

Bureau of Navigation. Telegraphic determinations of longitude II 1 

Cadastre defined II 246 

Calif ornia, irrigation in I 270,277 

*north winds of (Gilbert) I 88 

Cambrian. *The Continent during the. II 295 

♦Canada, the great plains of (Kenaston) I 270 

♦Canton, a glimpse of Chinese life in II 68 

Central American interoceanic canal routes I 301 

telegraphic longitude determinations II' 22 

Charts illustrating the storm of March 11-14, 1888, on the Atlantic 

coast I 58 

Chattelaine, Heli. ♦Expedition to the West Coast of Africa II 295 

China, Japan and East Indies, telegraphic longitude determinations in. II 21 



336 National Geographic Magazine. 

*China, and Thibet, Journey in II 291 

*Chinese life in Canton (Hitchcock) . . .. II 68 

Classification of geographic forms - I 30,36 

by genesis - I 37,88 

of rivers (Davis) — .. II 81 

*of topographic forms [Gilbert) I 88 

Coast survey of the United States I 59 

Contour and hachure drawing, examples of I 268 

Curtis, W. E. *Patagonia . I 87 

*Recent events in the United States of Colombia I 272 

Ball, W. H. Critical review of Bering's first expedition 1725-30 II 68, 111 

Darien, a trip to Panama and .. I 301 

Davis, W. M. Geographic methods in geologic investigation.... I 11,88 

Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania _ I 183, 271 

Rivers of northern New Jersey with notes on the general 

classification of rivers II 68,81 

Topographic models -- I 271 

Drainage of Pennsylvania (Davis) I 183 

of northern New Jersey II 81 

systems classified I 35 

Depths of oceans 1 149 

DuH aide's inferences to Bering's voyage of 1725-30 II 118 

DuttonC.E. *The Hawaiian Islands II 295 

Dyer, G. L. Geography of the sea— a report of progress . . . . I 136 

East Indies, China and Japan, telegraphic longitude determinations II 21 

Eclipse of the moon said to have been observed by Bering in his expedi- 
tion of 1725-30 - II 114,167 

Ellicntt J. M. *Surveys Executed by the U. S. S. Ranger in Lower Cali- 
fornia __ _ II 293 

English-Russian transliteration II 285 

Eskimos of Point Hope, Alaska, traditions of II 195 

Exploration of Mt. St. Elias II 288 

Finley,J.P. *Something about tornadoes .. I 269 

French Broad valley (N. C.) r . - I 291 

Gannett, Henry. *Physical statistics relating to Massachusetts I 269 

The survey and map of Massachusetts I 78,88 

Garabecl H. Discussion on Turkish Rule in Armenia II 290 

*Gas and Oil in the United States .- II 295 

Genesis of geographic forms as a means of classification I 27 

Geodetic survey of the United States I 69 

Geographic forms classified by genesis I 27, 30 

knowledge, historical sketch by G. G. Hubbard I 3 

methods in geologic investigation (Davis) I 11,88 

names, rules for orthography of. II 279 

nomenclature II 261,290 

*triangulation (Johnson) ^ I 88 

Geographical positions determined by Bering during his voyage, 1725-30 II 144, 160 

Geography of the air— a report of progress (Greelu) I 151; II 49,68 

of the land— a report of progress (Ogden) I 125; II 31 

of life— a report of progress (Merriam) I 160 

of the sea— a report of progress (Dyer) I 136 

systematic . I 11, 27 

Geologic investigation by geographic methods (Davis) - I 11 

processes classified. , I 30 

Geological history of Pennsylvania I 183 

Geomorphology I 27 

Gilbert, G.K. Classification of topographic forms I 88 

*North winds of California I 88 

Goode, R. U. A trip to Panama and Darien I 271,301 

Great Britain, Ordnance Survey, its history and object II 243, 292 

Greely,A.W. Geography of the air— a report of progress I 151; II 49,68,295 

The great storm of March 11-14, 1888 I 37,88 

Green river in the Uinta mountains, its development (Powell) II 100 

Hachure and contour drawing, examples of I 268 

Hall,W.H. Irrigation in California J 270,277 

Harris' references to Bering's voyage of 1725-30 II 121 

*Hawaiian Islands - II 295 

Hayden, E. Law of storms considered with special reference to the 

north Atlantic _ II 67,199 

The great storm off the Atlantic coast March 11-14, 1888.... I 40, 88 

*Report on the Department of the Sea II 294 

*Samoa; general geography, hydrography I 327 

Herald Island, Arctic ocean, with plate .. - II 193 



Index. 337 

Herrle, Gustave. Geographic nomenclature - II 265,290 

Rules for the orthography of geographic names II 279 

Herschel island, Mackenzie bay II 188 

Hitchcock, Romyn. *A glimpse of Chinese life in Canton II 68 

*Houselifein Mexico (Johnson) - - I 272 

Hubbard, G. G. *Asia, its past and present II 68 

Africa, its past and future - - I 99 

Progress in geographic study. Introductory address I 3 

*South America -._ - II 293 

Hurricanes off the Atlantic coast ( Hayden) . - II 199 

of West India .... _ II 203 

of Nov. 25, 1888, with map - II 204 

St. Thomas hurricane of Sept. 3-12, 1889 II 205 

*Icebergs and Field Ice in the North Atlantic II 291 

Imperial German Hydrographic office, rules for orthography of geo- 
graphic names - II 282 

International literary contest to- be held at Madrid... -- I 273 

simultaneous meteorological reports I 155 

Interoceanic canal routes of Central America. I 301 

of Nicaragua - I 315 

Introductory address by G. G. Hubbard - II 3 

Irrigation in Califoi-nia (Hall) I 270,277 

problem in Montana (Wilson) II 67, 2] 2 

Japan. China and East Indies. Telegraphic longitude determinations.. II 21 

Johnson, A. B. *House life in Mexico I 272 

Johnson, W. D. *Geographic triangulation I 88 

Kamchatka, Bering's voyage to II 114 

Eclipse of the moon said to have been observed there by 

Bering 1728-29 II 114,167 

Geographical positions determined by Bering, 1725-30 II 144,160 

Kenaston. C. A. *The great plains of Canada I 270 

Kerr, Mark B. *Survey of Mason and Dixon's line I 271 

*Surveys about Mt. St. Elias... II 293 

Klcmm, L. R. *A New Method of Developing Geographic Facts and 

Teaching.... II 290 

Korea and the Koreans, with map (Bernadou) II 231, 291 

*Krakatoa eruption (Bell) I 272 

Law of storms (Hayden) H 199 

Lectures under the Auspices of the National Geographic Society II 289 

Leon cathedral Nicaragua, colored plate I 318 

Literary contest, international, to be held at Madrid, Spain I 273 

Longitude determinations by telegraph in China, Japan and East Indies II 21 

in the West Indies. II 5 

on the east coast of South America II 17 

by Bureau of Navigation II 1 

determined by the moon by Bering II 113 

Lorlng,G.B. *The Kingdom of Portugal II 295 

*Lower California, Surveys in II 293 

Lunar eclipse said to have been observed by Bering in 1728-29 (Baker) .. II 114, 167 

McGee, WJ Classification of geographic forms by genesis I 27,88 

Machete, across Nicaragua with transit and ._ I 315 

Managers, Standing Rules of the Board of II 308 

* Mason and Dixon's line, survey of (Kerr) I 271 

*Massachusetts, physical statistics relating to (Gannett) - I 269 

survey and map of I 78 

Map making, scales for II 251, 252 

among the Koreans II 231 

and survey of Massachusetts I 78 

of the United States in relief (Plate) I 268 

showing topography about Asheville, N. C I 300 

showing profile of Panama canal I 314 

showing sketch of Panama canal and railroad I 314 

Meade, R. W. Narrative of a cruise among the islands of Samoa I 272 

Merriam, C. H. Geography of life— a report of progress I 160; II 294 

Meteorological reports, international, simultaneous I 155 

Meteorology— See : Geography of the air, hurricanes and storm. 

*Mexico, house life in (Johnson) I 272 

Mindeleff, Cosmos. Topographic models I 254,269 

Mississippi river improvements..- II 42 

valley rainfall and river outflow II 56 

Montana, irrigation problem (Wilson) II 212 

resources, topography, climate, etc II 212 

Models, topographic I 254 



338 National Geographic Magazine. 

*Mongolia, China and Thibet, A Journey Through II 291 

Muller 's references to Bering's voyage of 1725-30 II 127 

Mt. St. Elias, Expedition to ; II 288, 293 

Mt. St. Elias, Exploration of II 297,302 

National Geographic Society :— 

Organization and purpose . I 1, 3 

Certificate of incorporation . I 89,167 

By-Laws _ I 90,169,271,11 305 

By-Laws, Amendment to __ II 290,294 

National Geographic Magazine, its purpose, etc _ I 1 

National Geographic Magazine, Change of Form of II 287 

Preparation of a physical atlas of the United States. _ I 1 

Abstract of proceedings I 87,269; II 67,290 

Report of Recording Secretary I 164; II 66,296 

Report of the Treasurer I 163; II 64,299 

Rules Relating to Publication II 311 

Rules, Standing, of the Board of Managers II 308 

Listof officers I 93,163,270; II 68,69,315 

List of members - I 94,172; II 70,316 

National surveys _ II 243 

Newell, F. H. *Natural Gas and Oil in the Eastern United States II 295 

New Jersey. Drainage of northern New Jersey II 81 

Peneplains and pastplains II 85 

*The rivers of northern New Jersey (Davis). II 68,81 

topography of _ _ II 85 

Nicaragua canal routes I 315, 336 

Norris, J. A. Telegraphic determinations of longitude by the Bureau 

of Navigation II 1, 67 

North Carolina. Topography about Asheville I 291 

*North winds of California (Gilbert) _ I 88 

Ocean depths I 149 

Oceanic circulation, present state of our knowledge I 140 

Officers, Election of II 294 

Ogden, H. G. Geography of the land— a report of progress I 125; II 68,295 

Geographic nomenclature II 261, 290 

*The survey of tbe United States coast I 59,88 

*Oil in the United States _ II 295 

Oil used to prevent heavy broken seas during storm of March 11-14, 1888 I 55 

Ordnance survey of Great Britain, its history and object (Pierce) II 243, 292 

Organization and purpose of the National Geographic Society I i, 3 

Orthography of geographic names, rules for II 279 

Panama and Darien, atrip to (Gonde) I 271, 301 

Canal Company, grant of land to I 301 

canal and railroad I 309 

Profile of canal I . 314 

Pastplains and peneplains of New Jersey II 85 

**Patagonia. (Curtis).. I 87 

Peary, R. E. Across Nicaragua with transit and machete I 272,315 

Pelly mountains, Alaska, non-existence of II 184 

Penck, Albrecht. On the development of rivers II 108 

Peneplains and pastplains of New Jersey II 85 

Pennsylvania rivers and valleys (Davis) I 183,271 

Physical atlas of the United States, preparation of I 1, 87 

*Physical geography of the sea (Bartlett) I 87 

Physiography of the United States (Powell) I 87 

Pierce, Josiah. The Ordnance Survey of Great Britian, its history and 

object __ II 243,292 

Plains, peneplains and pastplains of New Jersey II 85,89 

*Portugal.-_ _ II 295 

Powell, J. W. Physiography of the United States - I 87 

Development of the Green river in the Uinta mountains II 100 

Publication, Rules Relating to.. II 311 

Rainfall and river outflow II 54 

River outflow and rainfall IT 54 

Riversand valleys of Pennsylvania (Davis) - I 183,271 

of northern New Jersey (Davis) II 68,81 

their development (Davis) I 203; II 109 

their general classification (Davis) II 68,81 

Rockhill, W. W. *A Journey Through Mongolia, China and Thibet II 291 

Rodman, Hugh. *Icebergs and Field Ice in the North Atlantic. II 291 

Royal Geographical Society of London, Rules for orthography of geo- 
graphic names II 279 

Rules for the orthography of geographic names II 279 

Russell, I. C. *A trip up the Yukon river, Alaska - II 67 

*Exploration of Mt. St. Elias II 293 

Russian-English transliteration _ II 284 



Index. 339 

Safford, W. E. *Home life of the Samoans and the botany of the islands I 272 

St! Thomas hurricane of Sept. 3-12, 1889, with plates II 205 

*Samoa, its climate (Abbe) - I 272 

♦narrative of a cruise among' the islands of (Meade) I 272 

♦General geography and hydrography of the islands and adja- 
cent seas (Hayden) .. - - I 272 

*Samoans and the botany of the islands (Safford) , I 272 

San Juan river, colored plate showing entrance to the highlands I 315 

Scales formap making . - II 251, 252 

Siberian towns, etc., located by Bering, 1725-30 - II 144,160 

Slave trade of Africa I 112 

Societe de Geographie of Paris, Rules for orthography of geographic 

names - - - - II 281 

South America, telegraphic longitude determinations along the east 

coast of II 17 

along the west coast of II 22 

♦Presidential Address - - II 293 

Stein, Robert. *Turkish Rule in Armenia II 290 

Stockton, C. H. The Arctic cruise of the Thetis, 1889, (with map) II 68, 171 

Storm of March 11-14, 1888 (Greely)-. I 37,88 

(Hayden) , I 40,88 

Stormpaths, geographical distribution - - I 156 

Storms, law of (Hayden) - - II 67,199 

Survey of the (IT. S.) coasts (Ogden) - I 59,88 

and map of Massachusetts (Gannett) - I 88 

(Ordnance) of Great Britain, its history and object (Pierce) II 243 

Surveys, national - - - II 243 

♦their kinds and purposes (Baker) I 269 

Systematic geography - - I 11, 27 

Taku Glacier, Exhibition of Painting of II 293 

Telegraphic determinations of longitude I 65; II 67 

by the Bureau of Navigation — II 1 

in the West Indies - II 5 

along the east coast of South America II 17 

in China, Japan and the East Indies - II 21 

Thetis, Arctic cruise of the Thetis, 1889 II 68, 171 

♦Thibet, Journey in - II 291 

Thompson, A. H. Geographic nomenclature II 277,290 

Topographic models (Mindeleff) I 254,269,271 

Topography of Pennsylvania I 183 

of Asheville, (N. C), and vicinity .... I 291 

of northern New Jersey II 85 

♦Tornadoes (Fvnley).... I 269 

Transliteration. Russian-English and English-Russian II 284, 285 

Transit. Across Nicaragua with transit and machete I 315 

♦Turkish Rule in Armenia II 290 

IT. S. Survey of the coasts I 59 

*U. S. of Colombia, recent events in (Curbiss) I 272 

Valleys and rivers of Pennsylvania (Davis). I 183 

Walcott, C. D., ♦The North American Continent During the Cambrian II 295 

West Indian hurricanes (Hayden) -- II 203 

West Indies, telegraphic determinations of longitude - II 5 

Wilson, H. M. Irrigation problem in Montana II 6/,u2 

Willis, Bailey. Round about Asheville, N. C I 271,291 

♦Yukon river, Alaska (Rnssell) II 87 






/